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Journal of Social Economics Research

June 2021, Volume 8, 1, pp 12-23

Fertility, Education, Labor Force Outcomes, and Cultural Acculturation of Immigrants

Emiko Endo


Hikaru Onishi

Emiko Endo 1 ,

Hikaru Onishi 1 
  1. Department of Economics, Osaka University, Japan. 1

on Google Scholar
on PubMed

Pages: 12-23

DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2021.81.12.23

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Article History:

Received: 12 November, 2020
Revised: 14 December, 2020
Accepted: 04 January, 2021
Published: 10 February, 2021


Previous studies show that there are cultural factors associated with economic outcomes such as employment and labor force participation and non-economic outcomes such as education and fertility. Using immigration as a semi-natural experiment and using the Current Population Survey (1994-2020), we reexamine the link between labor force outcomes, fertility, and education of immigrants and their home country respective characteristics. We documented that an additional year of schooling in the home country is associated with a 0.45 and 0.24 years increase in education of first and second generation females, respectively. Moreover, a 1 percent higher female labor force participation in the home country is associated with a 0.26 and 0.16 percent increase in labor force participation of first and second generation females, respectively. Since the female labor force participation, education, and fertility are considered to contain cultural components, we interpret the results as intergenerational transmission of culture. However, the links are limited for second generations suggesting some cultural integration and acculturation to the new environment. We discuss the policy implications of the results.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing literature by examining the link between labor force outcomes, fertility, and education of immigrants and their home country respective characteristics.


Immigration, Second generations, Labor market, Labor force participation, Culture, Panel data, Epidemiological regressions.


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This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


Both authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

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