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Journal of Social Economics Research

April 2014, Volume 1, 4, pp 40-71

Cross-Cultural Leadership Intelligence: Recommendations for Kenya

Robert W. Service


David L. Loudon


Kavore Kariuki

Robert W. Service 1 David L. Loudon 1 Kavore Kariuki 3

  1. Samford University, USA 1

  2. KGroup, Nairobi, Kenya 3


All leaders can improve their cultural intelligence (CQ) and every country can modify cultural norms toward advancing economically.  CQ enables more effective cross-cultural leadership in the global economy.  Based on analysis of the literature, experiences and survey results, our CQ recommendations start with self-assessment as key to successful cross-cultural interactions.  In cross-cultural situations one must start by slowing down in order to develop more keen abilities to reflect on behaviors in order to generalize from what one discovers.  Mental model development and flexibility, psychological hardness, curiosity, strategic thinking, and motivation all direct enhanced leadership across cultures.  Aspiring cross-cultural leaders need guidelines for improvement. To meet these needs this paper builds on multiple-intelligence, leadership and crossing cultures research in order to propose useful global leadership models.  The paper’s original contributions are: 1) guidelines for enhancing and selecting cross-cultural leaders; and, 2) “starting” point-example precepts for boosting economic development in Kenya.  
Contribution/ Originality



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( 69 ) Relevance of Stakeholders Theory, Organizational Identity Theory and Social Exchange Theory to Corporate Social Responsibility and Employees Performance in the Commercial Banks in Nigeria
( 70 ) Analyzing Factors Affecting the Success of Social Media Posts for B2b Networks: A Fractional-Factorial Design Approach
( 71 ) The Influence of Communication, Work Motivation and Career Development on Elementary School Teacher’s Job Performance in Medan, Indonesia
( 72 ) Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on Banks Financial Performance in Nigeria: A Study of United Bank of Africa
( 73 ) Construction and Application of Water Resource Accounting Information System in Taiwan
( 74 ) Is Alumni Salary an Appropriate Metric for University Marketers?
( 75 ) Participatory Processes in Planning for Self-Help Housing Provision in South Africa: Policies and Challenges
( 76 ) The Moderating Effect of Governance Mechanisms on the Relationship Between Innovation Strategy and the Performance
( 77 ) Public-Private Partnership as a Strategy for E-Governance Funding in Africa: The Gains and the Pains
( 78 ) Employee Loyalty and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour in the Port Harcourt Area Command of the Nigeria Police Force
( 79 ) Effect of Institutional Factors on Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria
( 80 ) Macroeconomic Indicators and Capital Formation Growth in Nigeria: A New Evidence
( 81 ) Foreign Capital Inflows and Unemployment in Nigeria: A New Evidence from ARDL-Bounds Testing Approach
( 82 ) Electronic Banking Innovations and Selected Banks Performance in Nigeria
( 83 ) An Empirical Investigation into the Key Drivers of Economic Performance in the CEMAC Zone: A Panel Corrected Standard Errors Approach
( 84 ) Forecasting Equity Index Volatility: Empirical Evidence from Japan, UK and USA Data
( 85 ) Disaggregated Foreign Capital Inflows and Economic Growth in a Developing Economy: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria
( 86 ) The Importance of Public Administration Towards Achieving Good Governance for Positive National Development by Using SmartPLS 3
( 87 ) Assessment of Dual Carriageway for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
( 88 ) Industrialization and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Human Capital in Structural Transformation
( 89 ) Trade Policy and Democracy for Development in Central African Countries
( 90 ) Exchange Rate and Foreign Reserves Interface: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria
( 91 ) Forecasting Prices of Three Important Agricultural Crops in Bangladesh
( 92 ) External Debt and Economic Growth: Two-Step System GMM Evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa Countries
( 93 ) The Impact of Organisational Culture on Public Sector Performance: A Case Study of Local Authorities in Zimbabwe
( 94 ) Foreign Direct Investment in Zimbabwe: The Role of Uncertainty, Exports, Cost of Capital, Corruption and Market Size
( 95 ) Gamification on Sales Force Performance in Nigeria Bottling Company
( 96 ) Foreign Direct Investment - Growth Linkage in Sub-Saharan Africa: Is Governance a Mediating Factor?
( 97 ) An Investigation of the Impact of Organisational Structure on Organisational Performance
( 98 ) Study on the Effect of Foreign Investment on Anhuis Industrial Structure Optimization
( 99 ) Exploring the Asymmetric Linkage between Commodity Prices and Fiscal Performance in Nigeria
( 100 ) Assessing the Perceived Value of Customers for being Satisfied towards the Sustainability of Hypermarket in Malaysia
( 101 ) Effects of Socio-Cultural Diversity on the Performance of Private Health Care Organizations in Kogi State
( 102 ) Organizational Memory and Employee Performance in Federal Parastatals in Enugu State of Nigeria
( 103 ) The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure on Corporate Financial Performance
( 104 ) Exchange Rate Pass-through to Prices: VAR Evidence for Albania
( 105 ) Can Small-Cap Active Funds Substantially Outperform the Market Over Time?
( 106 ) Exchange Rate Volatility, Foreign Exchange Market Intervention and Asymmetric Preferences
( 107 ) Value for Money (VFM) Audit and Public Sector Performance in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria
( 108 ) German Exports, Economic Growth and Foreign Demand: An Analysis of the Period 2000–2017
( 109 ) Multivariate Analysis in Formulation of the Benefit-Cost Index Related to the Sugarcane Production System in the Quirinopolis Municipality Productive Center, Goias, Brazil
( 110 ) Does External Borrowing Affect Economic Growth? A Revisit of the Age-Long Debate for Nigeria
( 111 ) Determinant of MSMEs Performance and its Impact on Province GRDP in Indonesia
( 112 ) Perceived Poverty and Alleviation Efforts of Kogi State Community and Social Development Agencies in Kogi State: An Empirical Investigation
( 113 ) Determinants of Financial Performance and its Impact on the Growth of Islamic Bank Assets on Indonesia
( 114 ) The Role of Social Security Program for Enhancing Seniors Longevity
( 115 ) Trade Union Performance and Industrial Relations Climate in the Nigerian Petroleum Sector
( 116 ) An Empirical Investigation of Real Exchange Rate Responses to Foreign Currency Inflows: Revisiting the Dutch Disease Phenomenon in South Asia
( 117 ) Evaluating the Model of Demand for Money in Nigeria
( 118 ) Entrepreneurship Training for Mitigating Unemployment in Nigeria: How have the Tertiary Institutions Fared?
( 119 ) Evaluating the Effectiveness of CAPM and APT for Risk Measuring and Assets Pricing
( 120 ) Do Derivative Instruments Increase Firm Risk for Indonesia Non-Financial Companies?
( 121 ) Determinant of Tax Revenue Effort in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis
( 122 ) Developing a Conceptual Model for Antecedents of Resistance to Change towards Sustainable Construction Practices
( 123 ) Export- Led Growth Hypothesis for Ghana: A TVAR & TVECM Analysis
( 124 ) A Process Model for Conformance of Health Information Systems: Towards National Interoperability
( 125 ) Likely Effect of Gender and Education on Information Adoption and Utilization among Sugarcane Farmers in the Nyanza Region, Kenya
( 126 ) Change Management and Firm Performance of Selected Deposit Money Banks in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
( 127 ) The Effect of Disruptive Factors on Inventory Control as a Mediator and Organizational Performance in Health Department of Punjab, Pakistan
( 128 ) The Contingent Fit between Management Control System and Capabilities on Sustainability Performance
( 129 ) The Impact of Merger and Acquisition on the Financial Performance of the Nasdaq Listed Small Size Technology Companies
( 130 ) Exchange Rate Fluctuations and the Performance of Nairobi Securities Exchange Market in Kenya During the Coronavirus Pandemic
( 131 ) A Qualitative Analysis of the Impediments to Business Innovation and Information Management in Nigeria: A Policy Stance
( 132 ) Analysis of Demographic Factors on Perceptions of Inventory Managers towards Healthcare Performance
( 133 ) Contribution of Domestic Direct Investment and Direct Foreign Investment to Economic Growth in Indonesia Era Joko Widodo
( 134 ) The Euribor and EONIA Reform: Achieving Regulatory Compliance while Protecting Financial Stability
( 135 ) The Financial Decentralization Policy for Local Development in Cameroon: An Econometric Analysis
( 136 ) Innovation Efforts in the Face of Institutional Obstacles in Latin America
( 137 ) Assessing Access to Comprehensive HIV Treatment Services for Men Who Have Sex with Men and Female Sex Workers in the Bamenda Health District
( 138 ) The Promise and Reality of Public Sector Reform – A Case Study of the Implementation of Trinidad and Tobagos Health Sector Reform
( 139 ) Sustainability Performance and Sustainable Development Goals
( 140 ) Impacts of Domestic Savings and Domestic Investment on Economic Growth: An Empirical Study for Pakistan
( 141 ) A Study on Financial Performance of Transport & Warehouses Firms Listed on the Hanoi Stock Exchange
( 142 ) IT Governance as Drivers of Dynamic Capabilities to Gain Corporate Performance Under the Effects of Environmental Dynamism
( 143 ) Fertility, Education, Labor Force Outcomes, and Cultural Acculturation of Immigrants
( 144 ) Child Support Enforcement and Infants Health Outcomes
( 145 ) Nexus among Foreign Exchange Reserve, Remittance and Trade Openness: An Empirical Investigation in the Case of Bangladeshi Economy
( 146 ) Is Foreign Direct Investment the Way Forward for Manufacturing Sector Renaissance in Nigeria?
( 147 ) Economic and Noneconomic Forces on Remittance Receiving: A Panel Analysis of Top Remittance Sending Countries towards Bangladesh
( 148 ) Income Smoothing, Earnings Management and the Credibility of Accounting Information
( 149 ) Does Buyer Power Contribute to Environmental Sustainability Performance in Supply Chains?
( 150 ) Relational Capabilities under Moderating and Mediating Effects to Understand their Impacts on Firm Financial Performance
( 151 ) Inflationary Rate in Nigeria: Impact of Foreign Capital Inflows
( 152 ) The Effects of Exchange Rate Liberalization in Kenya on French Beans Exports