Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

Morphometrical Traits and Structural Indices of Malle Cattle Reared in the South Omo Zone of Southwest Ethiopia

Demerew Getaneh


Sandip Banerjee


Mestawet Taye

Demerew Getaneh 1

Sandip Banerjee 2
Mestawet Taye 3

  1. Department of Animal and Range Sciences, Facility of Agriculture, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia. 1

  2. Jinka Agricultural Research Center, Jinka, Ethiopia. 2

  3. Southern Agricultural Research Institute, Hawassa, Ethiopia. 3

Pages: 32-47

DOI: 10.18488/journal.110.2019.52.32.47

Share :

Article History:

Received: 05 August, 2019
Revised: 09 September, 2019
Accepted: 11 October, 2019
Published: 20 November, 2019


The aim of this study was to morphometrically and morphologically characterized Malle cattle using some predefined qualitative and quantitative parameters. Data were collected through field observations and linear measurements. Sample data were collected from 360 cattle of different ages and sexes for morphometrical measurements. Qualitative traits were evaluated using non parametric tests. Quantitative traits were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The observed coat color patterns of cattle were predominantly plain. Red and white colored animals predominated across both the sexes. The morphometrical measurements of Bulls with young age group (4 year age) exert strong significant effect (p<0.01) on heart girth (HG), height at rump (HR), height at withers(HW), neck circumference (NC), muzzle circumference (MC) and chest depth(CD) while in cows with age group 4 significant effect (p<0.01) on heart girth (HG) and muzzle circumference (MC) whereas (p<0.05) height at withers (HW) were observed. Similarly, in age group 5 significance effect (p<0.01) on heart girth (HG), neck circumference (NC) and chest width (CW) whereas (p<0.05) height at rump (HR) and height at wither (HW) were also observed. The weight of the bulls and cows were best assessed using skeletal measurements viz. body length, height at withers and rump, besides chest depth and width. The structural indices indicated that the cattle were well balanced and body length and height were more or less proportional. It was conclude that, along with other managerial improvement, the productive aptitude of the cattle through morphometry can provides relevant information to guide and enhance their productive performance.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes base line information for further scientific study in the study region. Some particular breeds have particular morphological and morphometrical traits. The assessment of such skeletal traits helps in understanding the adaptability of the animals to their agro climate.


Ethiopia, Malle cattle, Morphometrical traits, South Omo, Structural indices.



[1]          CSA, "Federal democratic republic of Ethiopia: Agricultural sample survey 2017: Report on livestock and livestock characteristics," Statistical Bulletin-585, April 2017, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, vol. 2, p. 194, 2017.

[2]          FAO, Africa sustainable livestock Livestock production systems spotlight cattle sectors in Ethiopia. Ethiopia: FAO, 2018.

[3]          H. Berhane, "Ethiopian cattle genetic resource and unique characteristics under a rapidly changing production environment. A review," International Journal of Science and Research, vol. 6, pp. 1959-1968, 2017.

[4]          R. Mantovani, M. Cassandro, B. Contiero, A. Albera, and G. Bittante, "Genetic evaluation of type traits in hypertrophic Piemontese cows," Journal of Animal Science, vol. 88, pp. 3504-3512, 2010.Available at:

[5]          P. Archana, J. Aleena, P. Pragna, M. Vidya, P. A. Niyas, M. Bagath, G. Krishnan, A. Manimaran, V. Beena, E. Kurien, V. Sejian, and R. Bhatta, "Role of heat shock proteins in livestock adaptation to heat stress," Journal of Dairy, Veterinary & Animal Research, vol. 5, pp. 13-19, 2017.Available at:

[6]          J. Cerqueira, J. Araújo, P. Vaz, J. Cantalapiedra, I. Blanco-Penedo, J. Niza-Ribeiro, and J. Araujo, "Relationship between zoometric measurements in Hosltein-Fresian cow and cubicle size in dairy farms," International Journal of Morphology, vol. 31, pp. 55-63, 2013.Available at:

[7]          M. Lukuyu, J. Gibson, D. Savage, A. Duncan, F. Mujibi, and A. Okeyo, "Use of body linear measurements to estimate liveweight of crossbred dairy cattle in smallholder farms in Kenya," SpringerPlus, vol. 5, pp. 1-14, 2016.Available at:

[8]          J. Maciejowski and J. Zieba, Genetics and animal breeding, part A: Biological and genetic foundations of animal breeding vol. 2. Amsterdam- Oxford- New York: Elsevier Scientific Pub. Co.: PWN- Polish Scientific Publishers, 1982.

[9]          A. Salako, "Application of morphological indices in the assessment of type and function in sheep," International Journal of Morphology, vol. 24, pp. 13-18, 2006.Available at:

[10]        G. Alderson, "The development of a system of linear measurements to provide an assessment of type and function of beef cattle," Animal Genetic Resources, vol. 25, pp. 45-55, 1999.Available at:

[11]        S. Banerjee, M. Beyan, and H. Bekele, "Some traditional livestock selection criteria as practiced by several indigenous communities of Southern Ethiopia," Animal Genetic Resources, vol. 54, pp. 153-162, 2014.Available at:

[12]        E. Terefe, T. Dessie, A. Haile, W. Mulatu, and O. Mwai, "Husbandry and breeding practices of cattle in Mursi and Bodi pastoral communities in Southwest Ethiopia," African Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 7, pp. 5986-5994, 2012.Available at:

[13]        G. Mekete, "Studies on some morphological traits and structural indices of woyito-guji goats reared at Nyangatom and Malle woredas of SNNPRS, Ethiopia," MSc. Thesis, College of Agriculture, Haramya University, Haramya, 2016.

[14]        FAO, "Phenotypic characterization of animal genetic resources," FAO Animal Production and Health Guidelines No. 11. Rome, 2012.

[15]        J. E. Pace and D. L. Wakeman, Determining the age of cattle by their teeth: University of Florida: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 2003.

[16]        M. Goe, J. Alldredge, and D. Light, "Use of heart girth to predict body weight of working oxen in the Ethiopian highlands," Livestock Production Science, vol. 69, pp. 187-195, 2001.Available at:

[17]        E. Terefe, T. Dessie, A. Haile, W. Mulatu, and O. Mwai, "On-farm phenotypic characterization of Mursi cattle in its production environment in South Omo Zone, Southwest Ethiopia," Animal Genetic Resources, vol. 57, pp. 15-24, 2015.Available at:

[18]        G. Aman, "Studies on structural, functional traits and traditional breeding practices of Arsi cattle in East Showa and West Arsi Zone of Oromia Reginal State Ethiopia," MSc. Thesis, College of Agriculture, Hawassa University, Ethiopia, 2018.

[19]        G. Tewelde, Y. Sintayehu, and B. Sandip, "Some morphometrical, production and reproduction traits of Begait cattle reared in Tigray region of Ethiopia," Wayamba Journal of Animal Science, vol. 9, pp. 1571-1585, 2017.

[20]        A. Ebadu, G. Tegbaru, R. Chernet, Z. Bereket, and M. Metsafe, "Phenotypic characterization and production system of Bonga cattle in its production environment of Kaffa Zone, Southwest Ethiopia sky," Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 6, pp. 62-72, 2017.

[21]        H. Kebede, G. Addisu, A. Getiso, and Z. Bereket, "Characterization of Gofa cattle population, production system, production and reproduction performance in Southern Ethiopia," Journal of Fisheries and Livestock Production, vol. 5, pp. 1-12, 2017.

[22]        N. Minuye, G. Abebe, and T. Dessie, "On-farm description and status of Nuer (Abigar) cattle breed in Gambella Regional State, Ethiopia," International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 10, pp. 292-302, 2018.Available at:

[23]        H. Kubkomawa, "The use of artificial insemination (AI) technology in improving Milk, Beef and reproductive efficiency in tropical Africa: A review," Dairy and Veterinary Sciences Journal, vol. 5, p. 555660, 2018.

[24]        K. Seo, T. R. Mohanty, T. Choi, and I. Hwang, "Biology of epidermal and hair pigmentation in cattle: A mini-review," Veterinary Dermatology, vol. 18, pp. 392-400, 2007.Available at:

[25]        D. Maurizio, "Nomad aesthetic: Cattle modifications among the Northern Turkana of North West Kenya," Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 8, pp. 1-10, 2018.Available at:

[26]        U. Knierim, I. B.A.N., and T. Roth, Report on the assessment of dehorning and the keeping of horned dairy and beef cattle. Germany D: University of Kassel, 2009.

[27]        T. Takele, "On-farm phenotypic characterization of Sheko breed of cattle and their Habitat in Bench Maji Zone," MSc. Thesis, College of Agriculture, Alemaya University, Ethioppoa, 2005.

[28]        L. R. Porto-Neto, D. M. Bickhart, A. J. Landaeta-Hernandez, Y. T. Utsunomiya, M. Pagan, E. Jimenez, P. J. Hansen, S. Dikmen, S. G. Schroeder, and E.-S. Kim, "Convergent evolution of slick coat in cattle through truncation mutations in the prolactin receptor," Frontiers in Genetics, vol. 9, p. 57, 2018.Available at:

[29]        F. Mulugeta, "Production system and phenotypic characterization of Begait cattle and effects of supplementation with concentrate feeds on milk yield and composition of Begait cows in Humeraranch,Western Tigray," Ph.D Thesis, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia, 2015.

[30]        B. Dereji, "On farm phenotypic characterization of indigenous cattle in and their production system in Bakotibe and Gobusayo districts of Oromia region," MSc. Thesis, College of Agriculture, Haramya University, Ethiopia, 2015.

[31]        G. Mekuriaw, W. Ayalew, and P. Hegde, "Growth and reproductive performance of Ogaden cattle at Haramaya University, Ethiopia," Ethiopian Journal of Animal Production, vol. 9, pp. 1607-3835, 2009.

[32]        M. Ftiwi and B. Tamir, "On-farm phenotypic characterization of indigenous begait cattle in Western Tigray, Northern Ethiopia," Journal of. Animal Production Advances, vol. 5, pp. 718-732, 2015.Available at:

[33]        G. Shiferaw, "In-situ phenotypic characterization of Kereyu cattle type in Fentalle district of Oromia region," MSc. Thesis, College of Agriculture, Alemaya University. Alemaya, 2006.

[34]        M. Alsiddig, S. Babiker, M. Galal, and A. Mohammed, "Phenotypic characterization of Sudan Zebu cattle (Baggara type)," Research Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, vol. 5, pp. 10-17, 2010.

[35]        G. Shiferaw, "In-situ phenotypic characterization of Kereyu cattle type in Fentalle District of Oromia Region," MSc. Thesis, College of Agriculture, Alemaya University, Ethiopia, 2006.

[36]        M. Worku, "Assessment of type function and traditional selection practices of indigenous cattle reared in Shaka Zone South West Ethiopia," MSc. Thesis, College of Agriculture, Hawassa University, Ethiopa, 2017.

[37]        C. Amy, "Identification of horned and polled bostaurus using a gene test," Dissertation, Bachelor of Agricultural Science, Lincoln University, New Zealand, 2017.

[38]        C. L. Stull, M. A. Payne, S. L. Berry, and P. J. Hullinger, "Evaluation of the scientific justification for tail docking in dairy cattle," Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 220, pp. 1298-1303, 2002.Available at:

[39]        J. M. Mwacharo, A. Okeyo, G. Kamande, and J. Rege, "The small East African shorthorn zebu cows in Kenya. I: Linear body measurements," Tropical Animal Health and Production, vol. 38, pp. 65-74, 2006.Available at:

[40]        K. Sumena, K. Lucy, J. Chungath, N. Ashok, and K. Harshan, "Regional histology of the subcutaneous tissue and the sweat glands of large white Yorkshire pigs," Tamilnadu Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, vol. 6, pp. 128-135, 2010.

[41]        E. Chacón, F. Macedo, F. Velázquez, S. R. Paiva, E. Pineda, and C. McManus, "Morphological measurements and body indices for Cuban Creole goats and their crossbreds," Brazilian Journal of Animal Science, vol. 40, pp. 1671-1679, 2011.Available at:

[42]        S. Ozkaya and Y. Bozkurt, "The relationship of parameters of body measures and body weight by using digital image analysis in pre-slaughter cattle," Archives Animal Breeding, vol. 51, pp. 120-128, 2008.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


This study was funded by Southern Agricultural Research Institute (SARI). Authors are extremely thankful the SARI and also Jinka Agricultural Research Center for providing logistical support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

Related Article

( 1 ) Morphometrical Traits and Structural Indices of Malle Cattle Reared in the South Omo Zone of Southwest Ethiopia
( 2 ) Characterization and Association among Yield and Yield Related Traits in Sunflower (Helianthus Annus L) Genotypes
( 3 ) Genotype X Environment Interaction and Stability Analysis for Yield and Yield Related Traits of Desi-Type Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.) In Ethiopia
( 4 ) Genotypic Difference in Growth and Yield Related Traits of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Varieties at Southern Tigray
( 5 ) Effect of a Plant Extract in Several Traits of Plymouth Rock Barred Hens and Pullets Challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium in a Rural Village in Central Mexico
( 7 ) Evaluation of Leaf-Water Relation Traits, as Selection Criterion for Developing Drought Resistant Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Genotypes
( 8 ) Effect of Pre-Storage Heating and Period of Storage on Hatchability Traits of Dokki-4 Eggs
( 10 ) Maximizing the Productivity of Olives by Using Some Materials and Its Impacts on the Quality Indices of Picual Olive Oil
( 12 ) Heat Tolerance Stability of Bread Wheat Genotypes under Early and Late Planting Environments through Stress Selection Indices
( 14 ) Suitability of Temperate and Tropical Crossbred Dairy Cattle under Peri-Urban Production System in Bangladesh
( 15 ) Identification of Cattle Persistently Infected With BVDV (PI) By Ear-Notch Testing In Southeast of Iran
( 16 ) Prevalence and Management of Some Surgical Affection in Cattle and Buffaloes at Qena Governorate in Field Situation
( 17 ) Assessments of Market Oriented Beef Cattle Fattening System Under Farmer Management Condition in South Omo Zone of Snnpr
( 18 ) Molecular Studies on E.Coli Isolate from Milk of Mastatic Cattle with Special Reference to Associated Biochemical Changes in Kaliobea Governorate
( 20 ) Essential and Toxic Metals Determination in Imported and Fresh Beef Cattle Meat Sold in Erbil Markets
( 22 ) Evaluation of Field Pea (Pisum Sativum L) Genotypes Performance for Yield and Yield Components at Five Growing Environments of Southern Ethiopia
( 23 ) Study on Adaptability of Released Midland Maize Varieties around South Ari Woreda, South Omo Zone, Southern Nation Nationality Peoples Region, Ethiopia
( 24 ) Physico-Chemical Properties of Honey Produced In Masha, Gesha, and Sheko Districts in Southwestern Ethiopia
( 25 ) The Extent of Finger Millet Production in South Omo Zone in the Case of South Ari Woreda
( 26 ) Production Efficiency of Sesame in Selamago District of South Omo Zone, Southern Ethiopia
( 27 ) Performance Evaluation and Adaptation of Lentil Varieties in Lemu, Gumur and Damot Gale Districts of Southern Ethiopia
( 28 ) Germination Effects of Purposive Bruchid Screening of African Ebony (Dalbergia Melanoxylon) Seeds In the Arid and Semi-Arid Region of South Eastern Kenya
( 30 ) Screening of Some Coffee Arabica Genotypes Against Coffee Wilt Diseases (Gibberella Xylarioides Heim And Saccus) At Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia
( 31 ) Characteristic of Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) Pampangan at Ogan Komering Ilir, South Sumatera, Indonesia
( 32 ) Evaluation of the Biomass of the Green Oak (Quercus Rotundifolia) of the Central Middle Atlas: Case of the South Jbel Aoua Forest (Morocco)
( 35 ) Technical Efficiency of Swamp Rice Farmers in Ebonyi South Agricultural Zone, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
( 36 ) Status of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) in Southwestern Nigeria
( 37 ) Evaluation of Different Tillage Practices on Growth and Yield of Fluted Pumpkin Telfairia Occidentalis in Uyo, Southeastern Nigeria
( 38 ) Performance Evaluation of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Varieties at Benatsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, Ethiopia
( 39 ) Assessment of Potassium Leaching Behaviour in Selected Soils of Southeastern Nigeria
( 40 ) Roles of Extension Services in Adoption of Agroforestry Practices among Farmers in South West Nigeria
( 42 ) Vegetable Farmers Knowledge and Safety Practices towards Pesticides: Results from Field Observation in Southeastern DR Congo
( 43 ) Characterization and Classification of Cropland-Soils Affected by Erosion in Igbudu Ikwo, Southeastern Nigeria
( 44 ) Rural Population Perceptions on Anti-Silting Managements in Kebili Governorate, South Tunisia
( 45 ) Market Participation and Food Security Status of Bio-Fortified Cassava Processors in South Western Nigeria
( 46 ) Economic Benefits of Waste Management Based on Cocoa Farming System in Rural Area: Evidence from East Kolaka District of Southeast Sulawesi Province
( 47 ) The Effect of Land-Use on Herbaceous Production and Grazing Capacity in the Molopo District of the North West Province, South Africa
( 48 ) Effect of Land Use and Slope Position on Infiltration Characteristics on Sandstone-Derived Soils of Southern Nigeria
( 49 ) Households Demand for Branded Tea in Southwest, Nigeria
( 50 ) The Effect of Continuous Grazing on Herbaceous Species Composition, Basal Cover and Production on Three Soil Types in the North West Province, South Africa
( 51 ) Analysis of Smallholder Farmers Repayment of Bank of Agriculture Loan in Ezza South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria (2009-2018)
( 52 ) Tree Diversity, Conservation Status and Utilization Potentials of Shasha Rainforest Reserve, Southwestern, Nigeria
( 54 ) The Influence of Probiotics and Antibiotic Growth Promoter on Growth Performance and Hemato-Biochemical Parameters in Broilers
( 59 ) Effect of Tuber Sections, Heat Treatment and Rehydration with Process Chemicals on the Physicochemical Properties of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea Batatas L. (Lam)) Flour
( 60 ) Risk Factors for the Contamination of Wild Stomoxys niger niger Macquart 1851 (Diptera: Muscidae) with the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus
( 66 ) Village Chicken Production and Marketing in West Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia
( 69 ) Pepper Disease Assessment and Identification in Major Growing Districts of West Gojam Zone in Northwestern Ethiopia
( 70 ) Agronomic Practices of Maize and Farm Nutrient Status in Bako Tibe District, West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia: Lesson from Agronomic Panel Survey
( 71 ) Floristic Composition and Density of Main Woody Species of the Parklands in Two Phytogeographical Zones in Burkina Faso
( 72 ) Effect of Planting Date on Growth and Yield of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subtermnea (L) Verdc.) Varieties in Rainforest Zone of Delta State
( 74 ) Short-Term Benefits of Grain Legume Fallow Systems on Soil Fertility and Farmers Livelihood in the Humid Forest Zone of Cameroon
( 75 ) Evaluation of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Varieties against Faba Bean Gall Disease in North Shewa Zone, Ethiopia
( 76 ) Evaluation of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna Subterranea (L) Verdc.) Varieties for Adaptation to Rainforest Agroecological Zone of Delta State, Nigeria
( 77 ) Estimation of Water Stress in Guinea and Sudano-Sahelian Ecological Zones of Nigeria Under Climate Change and Population Growth
( 78 ) Utilization of Food Processing Technologies by Women Farmers in Umuahia Agricultural Zone, Abia State, Nigeria