Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research

September 2015, Volume 1, 3, pp 54-62

Effect of Using Different Pre-Storage Warming Times on Hatchability of White Hisex Breeders’ Eggs

Atif, A. H.


Sayda, A. M.


ElBeeli M. Y. M


Elfadil, A. A.


Fawgia, Sir E. S.

Atif, A. H. 1

Sayda, A. M. 2 ElBeeli M. Y. M 2 Elfadil, A. A. 4
Fawgia, Sir E. S. 2 

  1. Poultry Research Section, Animal Production Research Center, Animal Resources Research Corporation, Sudan 1

  2. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira, Sudan 2

  3. Poultry Section, College of Animal Production and Technology, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Sudan 4

Pages: 54-62

DOI: 10.18488/journal.110/2015.1.3/

Share :


It is well known that commercial hatcheries set their eggs after days of storage which increases the incubation duration, decreases hatchability, chick quality and growth performance. The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of different pre-storage warming (PRESW) times on hatchability, embryonic mortality and chick grades of White Hisex layer breeders’ eggs. A total of 1200 eggs were collected from a flock at 67 weeks of age. Eggs were divided into four groups of 300 eggs each according to their warming time (0 hour as control, 2 hours, 4 hours and 6 hours, respectively). These groups were further subdivided into four replicates. of 75 eggs each and were assigned to the completely randomized design (CRD). Eggs were incubated at 37.5°C. All eggs after warming were stored for two days in a cooler at 18°C and a relative humidity of 75%, they were then incubated in (Pas Reform) setter for 18 days and hatcher for three days. At the end of the hatching process hatched chicks were graded (1st and 2nd grade chick); pipped - hatched eggs were then removed and counted. The remaining unhatched eggs were broken to determine fertility and embryonic mortality. Results indicated that pre-storage warming of hatching eggs at 37.5oC for 4 hours significantly (P ≤ 0.01) reduced early dead embryos and total unhatched eggs. The first grade chicks were significantly (P ≤ 0.01) higher in pre-storage warming eggs. It is concluded that 4 hours PRESW improved hatchability percentage as it decreased embryonic mortality percentage, increased the number of saleable first grade chicks which by far increases profits.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effect of pre-storage of hatching eggs after laying on hatchability, embryonic mortality and chicks’ quality in the region and it is the first one in Sudan. 




  1. R. V. Devireddy, D. J. Swanlund, A. S. Alghamdi, L. A. Duoos, M. H. Troedsson, J. C. Bischof, and K. P. Roberts, "Measured effect of collection and cooling conditions on the motility and the water transport parameters at subzero temperatures of equine spermatozoa," Reproduction, vol. 124, pp. 643-648, 2002.
  2. J. F. Brouwers, P. F. Silva, and B. M. Gadella, "New assays for detection and localization of endogenous lipid peroxidation products in living boar sperm after BTS dilution or after freeze–thawing," Theriogenology, vol. 63, pp. 458-469, 2005.
  3. I. Therien, R. Moreau, and P. Manjunath, "Major proteins of bovine seminal plasma and high-density lipoprotein induce cholesterol efflux from epididymal sperm," Biol. Reprod, vol. 59, pp. 768-776, 1999.
  4. W. V. Holt, "Basic aspects of frozen storage of semen," Animal Reproduction Science, vol. 62, pp. 3-22, 2000.
  5. N. Srivastava, A. Jerome, S. K. Srivastava, S. K. Ghosh, and K. Amit, "Bovine seminal PDC-109 protein: An overview of biochemical and functional properties," Animal Reproduction Science, vol. 138, pp. 1-13, 2013a.
  6. J. P. Nolan and R. H. Hammerstedt, "Regulation of membrane stability and the acrosome reaction in mammalian sperm," FASEB J., vol. 11, pp. 670–682, 1997.
  7. H. B. Strom, B. Larsson, C. Linde-Forsberg, and H. Rodriguez-Martinez, "Evaluation of chilled and frozen-thawed canine spermatozoa using a zona pellucida binding assay," Journal of  Reproduction and Fertility, vol. 119, pp. 201-206, 2000.
  8. E. G. Blighs and W. J. Dyer, "A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification," Canadian Journal of Biochemestry and Physioliology, vol. 37, pp. 911-917, 1959.
  9. R. S. Jeyendran, H. H. Vander Ven, M. Parez-Pelaez, B. G. Crabo, and L. J. D. Zaneweld, "Development of an assay to assess the functional integrity of the human membrane and its relationship to other semen characteristics," Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, vol. 70, pp. 219-228, 1984.
  10. A. R. Fazeli, W. Steenweg, M. M. Bevers, F. A. M. DeLoos, J. Van Den Broek, and B. Colenbrander, "Development of sperm zona pellucida binding assay for bull semen," Veterinary Record, vol. 132, pp. 14-16, 1993.
  11. E. Ehrenwald, J. E. Parks, and R. H. Foote, "Cholesterol efflux from bovine sperm : I. Induction of the acrosome reaction with lysophosphatidyl choline after reducing sperm cholesterol," Gamete Research, vol. 20, pp. 145-157, 1988.
  12. R. Sullivan, "Male fertility markers, myth or reality," Animal Reproduction Science, vol. 82/83, pp. 341-347, 2004.
  13. E. A. M. Amorim, J. K. Graham, B. Spizziri, M. Meyers, and C. A. A. Torres, "Effect of cholesterol or cholesteryl conjugates on the cryosurvival of bull sperm," Cryobiology, vol. 58, pp. 210-214, 2009.
  14. N. Srivastava, S. K. Srivastava, S. K. Ghosh, K. Amit, P. Perumal, and A. Jerome, "Acrosome membrane integrity and cryocapacitation are related to cholesterol content of bull spermatozoa," Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, vol. 2, pp. 126-131, 2013b.
  15. E. Sparr, L. Halin, N. Markova, and H. Wennerstrom, "Phospholipids-cholesterol bilayers under osmotic stress," Biophysics Journal, vol. 83, pp. 2015-2025, 2002.
  16. N. Srivastava, S. K. Srivastava, S. K. Ghosh, L. P. Singh, J. K. Prasad, K. Amit, P. Perumal, A. Jerome, and A. Thamizharasan, "Sequestration of PDC-109 protein improves freezability  of crossbred bull spermatozoa," Animal Reproduction Science, vol. 131, pp. 54-62, 2012.
  17. H. D. Gutherie, J. Lui, and J. K. Crister, "Osmotic tolerance limits and effects of cryoprotectants on motility of bovine spermatozoa," Bioliology of Reproduction, vol. 67, pp. 1811-1816, 2004.
  18. N. Srivastava, S. K. Srivastava, S. K. Ghosh, A. Jerome, G. K. Das, and S. Mehrotra, "Sequestration of PDC-109 protein by specific antibodies and egg yolk cryoprotects bull spermatozoa," Reproduction in Domestic Animals, vol. 48, pp. 724-731, 2013c.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


Competing Interests:


Related Article

( 1 ) Effect of Different Sources of Fertilizers on the Yield and Yield Components of Wheat Variety Kohat-2000 Under Rainfed Conditions of Kohat During 2012
( 2 ) Effect of Different Types of Surfectants on Zinc Efficiency in Spinach Yield
( 3 ) Effect of Some Botanicals against Termites, Macroterms Spp. (Isoptera: Termitidae) Under Laboratory Conditions
( 4 ) Effect of Disc and Tilt Angles of Disc Plough on Tractor Performance under Clay Soil
( 5 ) The Effect of Steaming Process on Fat Soluble Vitamins Content and Fatty Acid Profile in Bluefish and Rainbow Trout Fillets
( 6 ) Effect of Carbon Monoxide on Active Oxygen Metabolism of Postharvest Jujube
( 7 ) Effect of Different Concentrations of Vermicompost (Biohumus) On the Root Collar Diameter and Height Growth in the Seedlings of Anatolian Black Pine
( 8 ) Effects of Cotton Gin Trash Level on the Performance of Desert Lambs in New Halfa Area, Kassala State, Sudan
( 9 ) Effects of Age at Fattening On Butana Camel Males Carcass Characteristics in the Sudan
( 10 ) Effect of Sowing Date on Maize Seed Yield and Quality: A Review
( 11 ) Effect of Fungi and Manure on Cadmium Content and Biomass of Maize Grown In Cadmium Contaminated Tailing from Bangka Indonesia
( 12 ) Germination Effects of Purposive Bruchid Screening of African Ebony (Dalbergia Melanoxylon) Seeds In the Arid and Semi-Arid Region of South Eastern Kenya
( 13 ) Studies on Seasonal Performance of Newly Developed Bivoltine Silkworm (Bombyx Mori L) Hybrids Tolerant To Bmnpv and Effect of Temperature on Disease Induction
( 14 ) Effect of Whole Inedible Date and Amino Acid Supplementation on Growth Performance of Ross 308 Broiler Chicks
( 15 ) Effect of Using Different Pre-Storage Warming Times on Hatchability of White Hisex Breeders’ Eggs
( 16 ) Effect of Ethanol and Petroleum Ether Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants on Sclerotiumrolfsii, Causal Agent of Postharvest Rot of Yam (Dioscorea Spp.)
( 17 ) Effects of Ebola (EVD) Outbreak on Bush Meat Marketing and Consumption in Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
( 18 ) Effects of Degasified Extender on Quality Parameters of Cryopreserved Bull Spermatozoa
( 19 ) Effects of Dried Rumen Contents Level in Rations on the Performance of Shugor Desert Sheep in Halfa Elgadeda, Kassala State, Sudan
( 20 ) In Vitro Differential Effect of Nerve Growth Factor on Functional Parameters of Murrah Buffalo Spermatozoa in Low and High Fertile Groups
( 21 ) Physiological Effects of Some Artificial and Natural Food Coloring on Young Male Albino Rats
( 22 ) Effect of Sodium Alginate Coating with Ascorbic Acid on Shelf Life of Raw Pork Meat
( 23 ) Effect of Intra Spacing on Yield and Yield Components of Carrot (Daucus Carrota L.Sub Sp. Sativus)
( 24 ) Protective Effects of Sweet Orange Peel (Citrus Sinensis L.) The Induction of Micronuclei Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Human Peripheral Lymphocytes
( 25 ) Effect of Domestic Cooking on Physicochemical Parameters, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Properties of Algerian Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L. Var. Marmande)
( 26 ) Effect of Contamination by Fungi and Yeast on the Physiochemical Characteristics of Gum Arabic Stored in Semi-Desert Climate of Khartoum City, Sudan
( 27 ) Analysis of Climate Change Effects among Rice Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria
( 28 ) Effect of Temperature and Time on the Physical Properties of Bread Produced from Wheat – Cocoyam Flour Using Response Surface Methodology
( 29 ) Effect of Jameed Form on the Chemical Composition, Rheological and Microbial Properties
( 30 ) Effect of a Plant Extract in Several Traits of Plymouth Rock Barred Hens and Pullets Challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium in a Rural Village in Central Mexico
( 31 ) Effect of Environmental Pollution on Production and Metabolic Profile in Buffalo Cows
( 32 ) The Effect of the Reduced Dose of GnRH on Conception, Ovulation and Ovarian Structures in Ovsynch Program of Lactating Dairy Cows
( 33 ) Comparative Effect of Organic and In-Organic Fertilizer Treatment on the Growth and Tuberyeild of Sweet Potato (Ipomea Batata L)
( 34 ) The Effects of Magnetic Field on Germination of Seeds and Growth of Seedlings of Stone Pine
( 35 ) Effects of Segregated Early Weaning at 7 Days on Dams Body Condition, Parturition Interval and Offspring Birth Weight and Litter Size in the Agouti (Dasyprocta Leporina) for Intensive Production
( 36 ) Effect of Integrated Application of Poultry Manure and Chemical NP Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Yield Components of Highland Maize Variety on Vertisol at Ambo University on Station, Ethiopia
( 37 ) Effect of Soaking on the Nutritional Values of Kordala (Maerua Pseudopetalosa) Seeds Grown in Kordofan Region, Sudan
( 38 ) Effect of Substrates on Nutritional Composition and Functional Properties of Pleurotus Ostreatus
( 39 ) Rural Farmers’ Coping Strategies to Effects of Climate Change on Watermelon Production in Igboora, Oyo State, Nigeria
( 40 ) Effect of Body Weight on Reproductive Fitness in Spodoptera Litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
( 41 ) Effects of Different Storage Conditions on Rooting and Shooting Performance of Grapevine (Vitis Vinifera L.) Cuttings in Hydroponic Culture System
( 42 ) The Potential Effect of Zinc Deficiency on Reproductive Profile of Male Rat and its Possible Consequences
( 43 ) A Pictorial Guidebook on Poultry Diseases; Diagnostic Techniques and their Effective Treatment
( 44 ) Effects of Community Financing Institutions on Cassava Farmers Income in Oyo State, Nigeria
( 45 ) Effect of Blended Fertilizer and Lime Application on Yield of Finger Millet, and Soil Properties of Acidic Soils in Western Ethiopia
( 46 ) Changes in Certain Agronomic Characteristics of Table Grape Cultivar Alphonse Lavallee’ in Response to Water Deficit under the Different Rootstock Effect
( 47 ) Effect of Tuber Sections, Heat Treatment and Rehydration with Process Chemicals on the Physicochemical Properties of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea Batatas L. (Lam)) Flour
( 48 ) Effect of Seed Rate and Cultivar on Productivity of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in New Halfa Locality, Sudan
( 49 ) Effect of Planting Date on Growth and Yield of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subtermnea (L) Verdc.) Varieties in Rainforest Zone of Delta State
( 50 ) The Effect of Varieties and Fungicide Spray Frequencies on Septoria Leaf Blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola) Epidemics on Bread Wheat in Western Amhara, Ethiopia
( 51 ) The Fungicide and Variety Integration Effect on Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans) Disease of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Western Amhara Region, Ethiopia
( 52 ) High-Sensitivity Testing of Effectiveness of Citrus Limon, Vitis Vinifera and Citrus Sinensis in the Postharvest Control of Callosobruchus Maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Infestation of Cowpea Seeds
( 53 ) Effects of Inclusion of Processed Grapefruit Pulp on Wheat Flour Biscuit
( 54 ) Effect of Boiling and Roasting on the Nutrients, Phytochemical and Functional Properties of Red and Green Cultivars of D. Bulbifera Flours
( 55 ) Effects of Melon Seed or Soybean Meal Supplementation on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Incompletely Peeled Cassava Garri
( 56 ) Interactive Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Rhizobium on Growth and Nutrient Content of Arachis hypogaea
( 57 ) Storage Effects on Microbiological and Some Antioxidant Potentials of Partially Substituted Bread Produced from Wheat Flour and Fresh Coconut Meat
( 58 ) Assessment of the Processing Effects of Fresh Solanum Anguivi Berries on Biochemical Contents and Functional Properties of Powder
( 59 ) Study of Heavy Metals Variability and their Effect on Plant Growth in Kanzenze River of Upper Akagera Catchment, Rwanda
( 60 ) The Effect of Land-Use on Herbaceous Production and Grazing Capacity in the Molopo District of the North West Province, South Africa
( 61 ) Preservative Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Tumeric (Curcuma longa) Extract and Citric Acid and Pasteurization on the Nutritional Quality and Shelf Life of Tiger-Nut Non-Dairy Milk
( 62 ) Interactive Effects of Zinc-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) Fungi on Cadmium Uptake, Rubisco, Osmolyte Synthesis and Yield in Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.
( 63 ) The Effect of Farmers Social Networks on Sustainable Agricultural Practices Adoption: A Scoping Review Protocol
( 64 ) Effect of Blanching Time and Drying Method on Quality of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum)
( 65 ) Effect of Photoperiod on Estrus Cycle and Reproductive Organs in Female African Giant Rat (Cricetomys Gambianus: Waterhouse)
( 66 ) Development of an Effective Biocatalyzed Organic Fertilizer Derived from Gliricidia Sepium Stem Biochar
( 67 ) Effect of Time of Feeding on Body Temperature of Wad Bucks and Pregnant Does in Tropical Environment
( 68 ) Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis and its Effects on Reproductive Performance in Dairy Cows during the Postpartum Period in Gasabo District, Rwanda
( 69 ) Alleviating Climate Change Effect using Environmentally Friendly Process to Preserve Wood against Biodeteriaorating Agent
( 70 ) Effect of Land Use and Slope Position on Infiltration Characteristics on Sandstone-Derived Soils of Southern Nigeria
( 71 ) The Effect of Continuous Grazing on Herbaceous Species Composition, Basal Cover and Production on Three Soil Types in the North West Province, South Africa
( 72 ) Effect of Desiccation and Storage Environment on Longevity of Ehretia cymosa Thonn. Seeds
( 73 ) Effect of Mid-Term Cropping System Adoption on Soil Chemical Properties at Changunarayan Municipality, Bhaktapur, Nepal
( 74 ) Effect of Beneficial Soil Microbes on Growth and Yield of Celery in Volcanic Soil of West Java
( 75 ) Storage Stability of Intermediate Moisture Cauliflower Brassica Oleracea, Var, Botrytis Cabbage Brassica Oleracea, Var, Capitata Using Radiation as Hurdle Technology
( 76 ) Maximizing the Productivity of Olives by Using Some Materials and Its Impacts on the Quality Indices of Picual Olive Oil
( 77 ) Description of Immature Stages of the Brown Dog Tick Rhipicephalus Sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) Using Scanning Electron Microscopy
( 80 ) Runoff Response to Climate Variability: An Analysis of Thika River Basin in Kenya Using Hydrological Simulation Model (Hysim)
( 81 ) Forecasting Goat Milk Production in Turkey Using Artificial Neural Networks and Box-Jenkins Models
( 82 ) Modelling and Optimization of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Paddy Pre-Treatments for Optimum Chemical Property using Response Surface Methodology
( 83 ) Understanding Mcdonalds Nutrition Facts using Discriminant Analysis and Neural Network
( 84 ) Evaluating Variation in Seed Quality Attributes in Pinus Patula Clonal Orchards using Cone Cluster Analysis
( 85 ) Color-Based Forest Cover Type Image Segmentation using K-Means Clustering Approach
( 86 ) Classification and Recognition of Urban Tree Defects in a Small Dataset using Convolutional Neural Network, Resnet-50 Architecture, and Data Augmentation
( 88 ) Management of Fusarium Wilt Disease of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Using Selected Plant Extracts
( 91 ) Association between Yield Components of Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor L. (Moench) Under Different Watering Intervals
( 92 ) Olfactory Response of an Assassin Bug, Rhynocoris Longifrons (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae) To the Hexane Extracts of Different Agricultural Insect Pests
( 95 ) Partial Budgeting Analysis of Different Strategies for Management of Insect Pests in Cashew and Mango Orchards in Tanzania
( 97 ) Microbiological Profile, Shelf Stability and Some Physicochemical Properties of Fermented Flour from Different Sweet Potato Cultivars
( 98 ) Determination of Milk Composition, Bacteriology and Selected Blood Parameters of Dairy Goats Under Different Feeding Systems
( 99 ) Evaluation of Different Tillage Practices on Growth and Yield of Fluted Pumpkin Telfairia Occidentalis in Uyo, Southeastern Nigeria
( 100 ) Feeding Potential of Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus on Different Date Palm, Phoenix Dactylifera Varieties Under Field Conditions
( 101 ) Assessment of the Physical and Chemical Properties of Three Contrasting Soils Under Different Land Use Systems
( 102 ) Palm Kernel Separation Efficiency and Kernel Quality from Different Methods Used in Some Communities in Rivers State, Nigeria