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Journal of Forests

December 2021, Volume 8, 2, pp 141-152

A Survey of Wood Borer Apate terebrans Tunnels on Terminalia mantaly in Nigeria with Special Reference to the Niger Delta Region

Gabriel A. Adedeji


Adedapo A. Aiyeloja


Usman Zakka


Comfort O. Ayemere

Gabriel A. Adedeji 1 ,

Adedapo A. Aiyeloja 1 Usman Zakka 3
Comfort O. Ayemere 1 
  1. Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 1

  2. Department of Crop and Soil Science, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 3

Pages: 141-152

DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.82.141.152

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Article History:

Received: 06 May, 2021
Revised: 09 June, 2021
Accepted: 01 July, 2021
Published: 19 July, 2021


This study was conducted to count Apate terebrans opened tunnels in Terminalia mantaly at the 3 Parks of the University of Port Harcourt. All trees were assessed visually for the presence and absence of tunnels, frass, and exudates during the 6-months (January-July) field survey in 2018. The mean numbers of tunnels/tree were 16.12±2.13 from 58 trees representing 19.9% of 291 total trees. The spread of attack was fairly scattered and more closely associated with diameter at breast height (DBH) of tree (?2= 12.763, df = 4, ?0.012*). While a majority (67.0%) of the trees experienced breaking reflecting both the immediate and residual impact of opened and closed tunnels, respectively, 10.7% experienced tearing of branches, and 5.5% experienced both breaking and tearing. Strong wind was found as a contributory factor to breaking and tearing. The findings suggest T. mantaly as a poor adaptable environmental species in Nigeria ecosystems and its current utilisation as ornamental tree may be revisited.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the resurgence of wood borer, Apate terebrans and its impacts on the Terminalia mantaly used as one of the current popular urban trees in Nigeria.


Urban tree, DBH, Apate terebrans, Severity of attack, Frass, Exudates.


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This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

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( 169 ) Helminths and Protozoa of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Ruminants in Tanzania
( 170 ) Growth and Survival Parameters and Blood IgG and Total Protein Levels of Calves Born in the First Production Year of Brown Swiss and Simmental Cows
( 171 ) Runoff Response to Climate Variability: An Analysis of Thika River Basin in Kenya Using Hydrological Simulation Model (Hysim)
( 173 ) Productivity Analysis of Labor for Use on Potatoes
( 175 ) Effects of Different Storage Conditions on Rooting and Shooting Performance of Grapevine (Vitis Vinifera L.) Cuttings in Hydroponic Culture System
( 176 ) Edible Films and Coatings: A Good Idea From Past to Future Technology
( 177 ) Pulsing Preservatives to Prolong Vase Life of Cut Rose Flowers in Bahir Dar, Northwestern Ethiopia
( 178 ) Study of Factors Linked to the Variation in Rentability in the Farming of Broiler Chickens in Northeast Algeria
( 179 ) Social, Economical and Environmental Issues of Floriculture Sector Development in Ethiopia
( 180 ) Gross Morphology and Morphometric Studies of Digestive Tract of Barn Owl (Tyto alba)
( 181 ) A Pictorial Guidebook on Poultry Diseases; Diagnostic Techniques and their Effective Treatment
( 182 ) Social, Economical and Environmental Issues of Floriculture Sector Development in Ethiopia
( 184 ) Assessment of Technical Efficiency of Layer Production in Mampong Municipality: Stochastic Frontier Approach
( 186 ) Importance of Arginine as Immune Regulator in Animal Nutrition
( 187 ) Insecticide Spraying Regime to Control Insect Pest of Cowpea: Management and Monitored Application of Cypermethrin in Lomami Province, DR Congo
( 188 ) Changes in Certain Agronomic Characteristics of Table Grape Cultivar Alphonse Lavallee’ in Response to Water Deficit under the Different Rootstock Effect
( 190 ) Adoption and Perception of Farmers towards Attributes of Improved Teff (Quncho) Varieties: Evidence from Benishangul-Gumuz Region of Ethiopia
( 193 ) Probiotic Supplementation in Poultry Production as an Alternative to Antibiotic Feed Additive
( 195 ) Potential Economic Benefit and Producers’ Willingness to Adopt Bt-Brinjal in Bangladesh: An Ex-Ante Analysis
( 196 ) Comparative Larvicidal Efficacy of Carica Papaya Leaves and Seed Extract on Mosquito Larval Population in Rice Fields in Bida Metropolis, Niger State
( 197 ) Purple-Blue Pigmentation Production as a Sign of Immune Response by Bleached Corals to Avoid Stress Caused by Elevated Sea Surface Temperature
( 198 ) The Effect of Varieties and Fungicide Spray Frequencies on Septoria Leaf Blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola) Epidemics on Bread Wheat in Western Amhara, Ethiopia
( 199 ) The Fungicide and Variety Integration Effect on Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans) Disease of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Western Amhara Region, Ethiopia
( 200 ) Evaluation of Leaf-Water Relation Traits, as Selection Criterion for Developing Drought Resistant Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Genotypes
( 201 ) Comparative Evaluation of Six Different Storage Materials for Long-Term Preservation of Huckleberry (Solanum scabrum) Seeds
( 202 ) Sources of Resistance to Stem Rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in Improved Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum l.) Varieties of Ethiopia
( 204 ) Growth and Yield Response of Shallot (Allium cepa var. aggregatum) Varieties to Intra-Row Spacing in Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia
( 205 ) Vegetable Farmers Knowledge and Safety Practices towards Pesticides: Results from Field Observation in Southeastern DR Congo
( 206 ) Adoption Impact of Improved Cowpea Variety in Selected Areas of Chattogram District of Bangladesh
( 207 ) Phototactic Response of Two Spotted Cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus De Geer) to Electric Bulb Light Colours and Types
( 208 ) Principal Component Analysis for the Quantification of Soil Horizon Carbon Stocks in Relation to Soil Bulk Density