Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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No. 1

Bacteriological Quality and Cyanide Contents of Different Cassava Products Processed in Benue State for Use as Food for Man or Feedstock for Animals

Pages: 47-55
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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.81.47.55

Alphonso. O. Nwankiti , Innocent. O. Ogbonna , Christopher O. Eche

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Alphonso. O. Nwankiti , Innocent. O. Ogbonna , Christopher O. Eche (2021). Bacteriological Quality and Cyanide Contents of Different Cassava Products Processed in Benue State for Use as Food for Man or Feedstock for Animals. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 8(1): 47-55. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.81.47.55
The bacteriological profiles of the different cassava products were investigated. Ground cassava samples, serially diluted with sterile normal saline were cultured in different sterile bacteriological media. Hydrogen cyanide content was determined by spectrometric method. Colonies isolated from the different locations were statistically the same for total viable bacterial counts (TVBC). Cassava peels had the highest values of TVBC (4.456 log10CFU/g) TCC (3.025 log10CFU/g) EC (1.663) and SA counts. Gari had the lowest values of TVBC (3.193) TCC (2.580) EC (not isolated) and SA counts. The traditionally processed cassava products showed no statistically significant differences (p<0.05) with the mechanically processed products except in fufu. The total viable bacterial count was highest in cassava products dried along the roadside (6.980 log10CFU/g) and lowest oven-dried cassava products (2.763 log10CFU/g). No Salmonella and Shigella spp. were isolated in most of the assayed cassava products. The identified storage places of the cassava products did not significantly impact any difference on the bacterial load. There was a progressive decrease in the cyanide contents from cassava peels to cassava chips to fufu and least in gari. The highest hydrogen cyanide concentration of 14.50 mg/kg was recorded in cassava peels and was higher than 10 mg of HCN/kg body weight recommended by WHO. Gari had the least content of 2.25 mg/kg. The study provides information on potential infections and toxicities due to the microorganisms and cyanide level.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated bacteriological quality of different cassava products processed in Benue State for use as food for man or feedstock for animals.

Heat Tolerance Stability of Bread Wheat Genotypes under Early and Late Planting Environments through Stress Selection Indices

Pages: 37-46
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Heat Tolerance Stability of Bread Wheat Genotypes under Early and Late Planting Environments through Stress Selection Indices

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.81.37.46

Zeeshan Ahmad , Muhammad Ishaq , Iqra Tahir , Adeel Khan , Kainat Jehan

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Zeeshan Ahmad , Muhammad Ishaq , Iqra Tahir , Adeel Khan , Kainat Jehan (2021). Heat Tolerance Stability of Bread Wheat Genotypes under Early and Late Planting Environments through Stress Selection Indices. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 8(1): 37-46. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.81.37.46
A field study was conducted with an objective to assess thirty six wheat cultivars for tolerance, stability and enhancing productivity under optimum and stressed planting environments at Cereal crops Research Institute (CCRI), Nowshera, Pakistan during 2017-18. Experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design using three replications. Pool analysis of variance exhibited highly significant (p?0.01) variations among wheat genotypes, environments and G × E interactions for the under studied traits. In general, reduction in mean wheat genotypes for days to heading (19%) and grain yield (65%) was observed under stressed condition as compared to optimum planting environment. Across planting environments, highest grain yield was produced by wheat genotypes Pakistan-13 (3746 kg ha-1) closely followed by two other genotypes Zincol-2016 (3712 kg ha-1) and PR-122 (3671 kg ha-1). Various stress selection indices viz tolerance (TOL), mean productivity (MP), harmonic mean (HM), geometric mean productivity (GMP), stress tolerance index (STI), yield index (YI), stress susceptibility index (SSI) and yield stability index (YSI) were employed for each genotype under both environments. Correlation coefficient analysis unveiled that days to heading and grain yield had positive significant association with GM, HM MP, YI and STI. Aforementioned stress selection indices were found effective tools for identification of stress tolerant genotypes under delayed planting. On the basis of these selection indices, wheat genotypes i-e Zincol-16, Pirsabak-13, PR-122 and Pakistan-13 were found high yielding stress tolerant which could be sown under non-stressed and stressed conditions and could be used in future wheat breeding schemes.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding more stable, heat tolerant and high yielding bread wheat genotypes across normal and late planting environments. This study documents is vital to wheat breeders to suggest these genotypes for stress environments directly or to use for the development of new genotypes for the changing climatic conditions.

Azotobacter and Total Bacterial Population in Enriched Compost: Preliminary Study

Pages: 31-36
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Azotobacter and Total Bacterial Population in Enriched Compost: Preliminary Study

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.81.31.36

Reginawanti Hindersah , Agustinus Marthin Kalay

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Reginawanti Hindersah , Agustinus Marthin Kalay (2021). Azotobacter and Total Bacterial Population in Enriched Compost: Preliminary Study. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 8(1): 31-36. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.81.31.36
Compost enrichment with nitrogen fixing Azotobacter is a method to enhance the used of biofertilizer in sustainable agriculture. The objective of a laboratory experiment was to verify the change in Azotobacter and total bacteria population in two kind of compost after inoculation with nitrogen fixing A. chroococcum. The experiment was setup in completely randomized design with four combination treatments of sterilized and unsterilized composted manure as well as vermicompost. The control treatments are the sterilized one. The results verified that irrespective of treatments, Azotobacter enrichment increased Azotobacter but reduced total bacteria population after 18-day incubation compared to the composts before treatment. At the end of experiment, the population of Azotobacter in both sterilized and unsterilized vermicompost were slightly lower than in manure; but the count total heterotroph bacteria in both organic matter was similar. The acidity of both enriched compost was neutral while their humidity was declined to 18-19% at the end of experiment. This experiment showed that inoculating the compost with Azotobater maintain the Azotobacter count but decline the total bacteria. This suggested that negative interaction between Azotobacter and other heterotroph bacteria in compost might be occured.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies about the viability of total bacteria and Azotobacter in Azotobacter-enriched compost. Compost enrichment with Azotobacter enhanced Azotobacter population but decreased total bacteria decreased in the compost. This enriched compost can serve as organic matter and Azotobacter inoculant once introducing to the soil.

Development of an Effective Biocatalyzed Organic Fertilizer Derived from Gliricidia Sepium Stem Biochar

Pages: 11-30
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Development of an Effective Biocatalyzed Organic Fertilizer Derived from Gliricidia Sepium Stem Biochar

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.81.11.30

W. L. N. Wasana , R.T.K. Ariyawansha , B.F.A. Basnayake

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W. L. N. Wasana , R.T.K. Ariyawansha , B.F.A. Basnayake (2021). Development of an Effective Biocatalyzed Organic Fertilizer Derived from Gliricidia Sepium Stem Biochar. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 8(1): 11-30. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.81.11.30
Biochar biocatalyst action could improve quality and reduce costs in producing biochar fertilizer. Objective of this study was to develop a high-quality organic fertilizer using biochar biocatalyst action. To activate Gliricidia stem biochar (produced at 400-500oC and 2.5 hours residence time), aqueous biocatalysts were prepared in two separate aerobic reactors containing 4L of water, 12.5 g of rock phosphate, and Gliricidia biocatalyst (GBC) with 1 kg of Gliricidia leaves and market waste biocatalyst (MWBC) with 1 kg of market wastes. Intermittently total 377.5 g and 525 g of biochar were added respectively to the reactors until they reach neutral pH. GBC showed higher total nitrogen (243 mg/L) and available phosphorous (8,125 mg/L) contents. Four compost piles were prepared with fresh immature grass of 18 kg/pile and Gliricidia leaves of 2 kg/pile. Produced biocatalysts were added at the beginning to three piles as 6% GBC, 3% GBC, and 3% MWBC and the control with 6% biochar on dw basis. N, P, K levels of all the compost piles after 8 weeks were within the recommended levels of compost. The highest total nitrogen (20.3 g/kg) and available potassium (83.71 g/kg) remained in 6% GBC and the highest available phosphorous (3.41 g/kg) measured in 3% MWBC. pH values of all piles ranged between 8.8-9.2. The made fertilizer is very suitable and cost-effective for acidic soils to improve soil nutrient status unlike the addition of lime. Michaelis-Menten kinetics indicates that it is preferable to add market waste-like substances to GBC for optimizing the qualities.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents a novel procedure of biochar activation using an aqueous mixture of Gliricidia sepium stem biochar, Gliricidia leaves and rock phosphate under aerobic conditions and also, production of high quality organic fertilizer with the addition of activated biochar during active phase of composting.

Cultivation and Nutritional Quality of Moringa Oleifera Lam. Produced Under Different Substrates in Semi-Arid Region in Northeast Brazil

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.81.1.10

Ana Luiza de Melo Lucena , Manoel Bandeira de Albuquerque , Magnolia Martins Alves , Raul Santos Rocha de Araujo , Cassio Ricardo Goncalves da Costa

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Ana Luiza de Melo Lucena , Manoel Bandeira de Albuquerque , Magnolia Martins Alves , Raul Santos Rocha de Araujo , Cassio Ricardo Goncalves da Costa (2021). Cultivation and Nutritional Quality of Moringa Oleifera Lam. Produced Under Different Substrates in Semi-Arid Region in Northeast Brazil. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 8(1): 1-10. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.81.1.10
The Moringa oleifera Lam. it is a perennial, arboreal species, rapidly growing, resistant to drought and with leaves, flowers and edible fruits. With this research the objective to evaluate the effect of different substrates in the emergence and development of seedlings of Moringa. The experiment was carried out at the Plant Ecology Laboratory of the Department of Phytotechnics and Environmental Sciences, at the Center for Agricultural Sciences, at the Federal University of Paraíba. The experimental desing was completely randomized, with eight treatments T1= sand washed (control), T2= sand + coconut fiber, T3= sand + rice bark, T4= sand + bovine manure, T5= sand + pine powder, T6= sand + chicken manure, T7= sand + vegetable ash and T8= quail, with four repetitions of 25 seeds totaling 100 seeds for each treatment. The substrates were used in proportion 3:1, and these proportions were determined in terms of weight and all the sieved substrates, arranged in 6 cm x 29.5 cm x 45.5 cm trays, with an approximate capacity of 7 liters of substrate. The following parameters were evaluated: the emergence percentage, first count, emergence speed index, seedling height, plant height, root length, number of leaves, dry leaf biomass, stalk, root and total. The germination and initial development of M. oleífera seedlings were satisfactory in sand and favored when fibrous materials of vegetable origin (coconut fiber, rice bark or pine powder) or bovine manure were added to the substrate. The addition of manure sand from birds (chicken and quails) and vegetable ash did not favor the substrate for germination of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds.
Contribution/ Originality
In search of alternatives to reduce costs and maintain the yield and quality of the production of Moringa oleifera Lam, we tested the use of alternative natural substrates. The influence of using different substrate alternatives on the nutritional quality of this crop is an economically viable and beneficial to the environment.