Journal of Food Technology Research

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No. 1

Effect of Blanching Time and Drying Method on Quality of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum)

Pages: 18-25
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Effect of Blanching Time and Drying Method on Quality of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum)

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2021.81.18.25

Suchana Paul , Rumman Ara , Munshi Rashid Ahmad , Pradip Hajong , Gourango Paul , Md. Shahriar Kobir , Md Hafizur Rahman

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Suchana Paul , Rumman Ara , Munshi Rashid Ahmad , Pradip Hajong , Gourango Paul , Md. Shahriar Kobir , Md Hafizur Rahman (2021). Effect of Blanching Time and Drying Method on Quality of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum). Journal of Food Technology Research, 8(1): 18-25. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2021.81.18.25
Quality of black pepper highly depends on pre-drying treatment and drying method. A pre-drying treatment, blanching (dipping in boiled water), is practiced in different countries. However, Bangladesh is yet to follow this technique to produce black pepper. So, this study investigated the effect of blanching, blanching time, and drying method on¬¬¬ black pepper quality. Pepper berries were treated in boiled water (blanched) for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 minutes and kept fresh (untreated). Both treated and untreated pepper berries were dried under the open sun and in a mechanical dryer. Results showed that blanching time negatively correlated with drying duration for both mechanical and sun-drying method. Blanching limited the moisture content of dried pepper 5.33-11.52%, where the moisture content of untreated sun-dried black pepper was more than 12%. Mechanical dryer needed the lowest time over open sun-drying and decreased the moisture % to a safer level (<10%). The moderately blanched (1-3 min) black pepper was attracted by the consumers due to its uniform shiny black color. In contrast, untreated pepper could not meet the consumers' desire. Again, blanching for longer time deteriorated black peppers’ color and consequently decreased consumers' preference level to buy.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies investigating the effect of blanching, blanching time, and drying method on the quality of black pepper.

Reduction of Aflatoxins and Microorganisms in the Koura-Koura Produced in Burkina Faso with Spices and Aromatic Leaves

Pages: 9-17
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Reduction of Aflatoxins and Microorganisms in the Koura-Koura Produced in Burkina Faso with Spices and Aromatic Leaves

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2021.81.9.17

Yamkaye Aicha Sawadogo , Hama Cisse , Zongo Oumarou , Filbert Nikiema , Yves Traore , Aly Savadogo

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Yamkaye Aicha Sawadogo , Hama Cisse , Zongo Oumarou , Filbert Nikiema , Yves Traore , Aly Savadogo (2021). Reduction of Aflatoxins and Microorganisms in the Koura-Koura Produced in Burkina Faso with Spices and Aromatic Leaves. Journal of Food Technology Research, 8(1): 9-17. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2021.81.9.17
Koura-koura is a product resulting from the processing of peanut. This study consisted of producing koura-koura with garlic, pepper, ginger and mint to reduce aflatoxins and microorganisms. The objective of this work is the decontamination of koura-koura with spices and aromatic leaves. Aflatoxin determination was performed by HPLC and microbiological analyses were carried out according to standard methods. A total of 18 samples were analyzed, including 3 peanut samples, 2 peanut paste samples, 1 koura-koura control sample, and 12 samples of koura-koura spices and aromatic leaves. Total aflatoxin B1, B2, and aflatoxin levels in the samples ranged from 0.58±0.49 ?g/kg to 3.66±0.10 ?g/kg; 2.23±0.41 ?g/kg to 14.02±0.88 ?g/kg; 2.87±0.20 ?g/kg to 17.75±0.58 ?g/kg, respectively. Aflatoxins G1 and G2 were not detected in all samples. The total mesophilic aerobic flora (TMAF) ranged from 1.60±1.57 x101 CFU/g to 4.50±1.28 x105 CFU/g and the yeast and mould flora ranged from 1.80 ± 1.68 x101 CFU/g to 2.80±0.74 x101 CFU/g. No samples were contaminated with thermo-tolerant coliforms and total coliforms were present in a single sample (1.30 ± 1.64 x 101 CFU/g). The results of the study on the reduction of aflatoxins and microorganisms in koura-koura with spices and aromatic leaves contribute significantly to food safety.
Contribution/ Originality
This study on the reduction of aflatoxins and microorganisms in the koura-koura contributes to the production of healthy food. Our study uses aflatoxin control means that are effective, very easy and inexpensive.

Quality Evaluation of Instant Mosa (A Fried Maize Based Snack) Produced from Fermented Maize and Sorghum Flour

Pages: 1-8
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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2021.81.1.8

Abdus-Salaam R.B. , Arohunmolase, A.C. , Kareem, K.O.

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Abdus-Salaam R.B. , Arohunmolase, A.C. , Kareem, K.O. (2021). Quality Evaluation of Instant Mosa (A Fried Maize Based Snack) Produced from Fermented Maize and Sorghum Flour. Journal of Food Technology Research, 8(1): 1-8. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2021.81.1.8
The study evaluated the quality of mosa produced from fermented maize and sorghum flour. The grains were subjected to fermentation, drying and milling to obtain four samples coded MFDS (Milled Fermented Dried Sorghum), MFDM (Milled Fermented Dried Maize), FDMM (Fermented Dried Milled Maize) and FDMS (Fermented Dried Milled Soghum). Proximate, functional and physiochemical analysis were determined on the flour with sensory evaluation of the fried mosa using the traditional fermented wet milled maize as control. The value of protein, fat, crude fiber, ash and carbohydrate ranged from 4.25-7.06, 0.42-0.71%, 0.27-0.46%, 2.17-3.26% and 29.85-88.72% respectively. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between sample FDMS and FDMM in respect to protein, fat and crude fibre. Also, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between samples FDMS and MFDM with respect to ash and carbohydrate. The water absorption capacity, oil absorption, swelling capacity and solubility ranged were 0.65-0.74 g/ml, 26.33-88.33 g/ml, 13.00-81.00 g/ml, 3.93-9.04 g/ml and 0.20-7.00% respectively. FDMS, FDMM and MFDS did not differ significantly (p>0.05) in bulk density, swelling capacity and solubility. The value of pH and TTA ranged from 4.19-6.86 and 0.05-0.34 respectively. The colour, taste, flavor, appearance, texture and overall acceptability ranged 6.27-8.10, 4.93-7.80, 4.80-7.40, 6.57-7.50, 4.87-7.47 and 5.73-7.87 respectively. The sensory scores revealed no significant difference (p>0.05) between sample FMWM, MFDM, FDMS and FDMM with respect to taste, colour, flavor and overall acceptability. The study shows that a more nutritious mosa can be produced from fermented sorghum grains, followed by drying and milling.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that Mosa (a maize based snack) can be produced alternatively from sorghum, and more instantly and conveniently using pre fermented flours thus increasing the utilization of sorghum grains and conveniency of Mosa production. The product compared well with the control.