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Listing 76 - 20 of 1931 results.

Physicochemical and Rheological Characterization of Goat Whey

Research Article
Author(s): Freire, L.A.C, Pereira, C.G
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
The whey is a product with high nutritional value, but it is too wasted. In this sense, this study aims to evaluate the physicochemical and rheological properties of goat whey. Content of total protein, lactose, fat, ash, total solids, humidity, pH and density of goat whey were determined. The whey rheological behavior was evaluated in different conditions of temperature and share rate. Two rheological models were used to fit the behavior of the goat whey and the activation energy was determined by Arrhenius equation. The characterization of goat whey showed satisfactory results. The increase in temperature resulted in a decrease of shear stress and apparent viscosity of goat whey, while the reverse was observed for strain rate increased. Ostwald-de-Waelle model presented a satisfactory arrangement with R² above 0.99 for all temperatures studied. The goat whey presented behavior index larger than 1, indicating that this is a dilatant fluid.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature about physicochemical properties of dairy products, focusing in the physicochemical and rheological properties of goat whey. Up to now, nothing was discussed about that. The study also documents that the goat whey is a dilatant fluid with small effect of temperature on viscosity.
Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 1

EFL Teachers Response to the Ecological Expectations of the Teaching Context at a Saudi University

Research Article
Author(s): Ragia Magdeldin Youssef, Nadia Shukri
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
This paper presents the analysis of a case study on EFL experienced teachers in the English Language Institute of King Abdul Aziz University in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The aim of the study is to investigate if the expectations of the environment affects the intentional activity and the agency of the teachers in their classrooms. The focal area of the study is to identify ways intentional classroom activity of the teachers have changed according to the expectations of the different agents within the mentioned EFL ecological context despite the contradiction of this change with the teachers’ cognition coming from their earlier education and practical experience. As for the research method, it is a case study where two semi-structured interviews were conducted with two experienced teachers. The results of these interviews demonstrate a positive correlation between the contextual expectations of the educational institution environment with all its constituents and the agency/the intentional activity of the teachers even if this intentional activity contradicts with the teachers’ former knowledge and practice. Further studies using varied research tools is required to investigate into how teachers’ practice is influenced by the expectations of the educational ecological setting.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the relationship between the contextual expectations of the educational institution environment in Saudi Arabia with all its constituents and the agency/the intentional activity of the teachers even if this intentional activity contradicts with the teachers’ former cognition and practice.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

Teacher Perceptions of the Impact of Peer Learning in their Classrooms: Using Social Interdependence Theory as a Model for Data Analysis and Presentation

Research Article
Author(s): Maria Cockerill, Nicole Craig, Allen Thurston
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Peer tutoring is a structured process of co-operative learning, supported by social interdependence theory shown to have cognitive and affective level benefits. During a RCT, this study explores teacher perceptions (n=62) of effects of co-operative learning, including implementation issues, using a mixed methods approach during a 16-week peer tutoring intervention in 58 classes (10 secondary/high schools) in England. Data suggested strengthened peer relationships enhanced student learning. Teacher perceptions remained consistent and are congruent with social interdependence theory and research validating the theory. Implications for research, theory, practice and policy are discussed. Research was supported by Educational Endowment Foundation grant: Spring2012-105.
Contribution/ Originality


Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

Performance of Growing Grasscutters Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Soybean Meal Replaced by Brewers Dried Grain

Research Article
Author(s): G. S. I. Wogar, M. I. Anya, P. Benson
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
The objective of this study is to contribute to knowledge on the intensive rearing of the grasscutter (Thryonomis swinderianus), which is cherished for its meat and as a source of protein. The study, which involves five treatments and four replicates in a Completely Randomized Design, aims at determining the optimum performance of growing grasscutters fed diets in which soybean meal is replaced by brewers dried grain. Twenty female grasscutters, four weeks old, and weighing between 1312g and 1315 g, were randomly allotted in groups of four to five treatment diets, in which soybean meal was replaced at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% levels by brewers dried grain. The grasscutters were supplied water and elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) ad libitum. All data was subjected to the analysis of variance, and significantly different means were separated using Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Results indicate significantly (P=.05) superior performance in respect of average daily forage intake (278.70g), average daily total feed intake (75.54g), final body weight (2145.30g), average daily weight gain (9.79g), feed conversion ratio (7.73) and cost to gain ratio (0.34) for grasscutters in the 50% diet group. It was concluded that the best growth performance was obtained when grasscutters were fed a diet in which 50% of soybean meal was replaced by 50% of brewers dried grain.
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 12-2017 Issue: 4

Competency Assessment of Veterinary Medicine Students Who are Trained in Basra Veterinary Hospital - 2017

Research Article
Author(s): Mudhar A. S. Abu Tabeekh
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
This study designated to evaluate the competency of veterinary students who are trained in Basra Veterinary Hospital-Basra governorate- Iraq. In the student life, performance evaluations should revealed areas of excellence. Very little research has considered in training evaluation in a veterinary sciences. The test was carried out by the students of the Veterinary Medicine College- Basra University from the third and fourth stages who succeeded to the fourth and fifth stages. One hundred and two students participated in the performance evaluation, 47 students from the fourth stage and 55 from the third stage. Totally, there were 100 multiple questions presented to the participants. The questions included 13 aspects of veterinary sciences disciplines. The results of this study revealed that the evaluation of the competency of veterinary students in the fourth stage was higher compared to the third stage by comparing the percentage of correct answers for both groups (65.86 and 60.95) respectively. In addition, the two groups recorded high percentage in physiology correct answers and low percentage in animal hygiene for the fourth year students and infectious diseases for the third year.
Contribution/ Originality
Very little research has considered in training evaluation in a veterinary sciences. This study contributes to the educational literature by assessing the level of the trainee students using the method of direct questioning, which represents a good method in evaluating the veterinary performance to improve skills of veterinary undergraduates.
Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 12-2017 Issue: 4

Isolation and Screening of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria from Rhizosphere of Tea (Camellia Sinensis L.) on Andisols

Research Article
Author(s): Betty Natalie Fitriatin, Amirah Widyasmara, Mahfud Arifin, Rina Devnita, Anny Yuniarti, Rachmat Haryanto
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
Andisols is a soil with high retention of phosphate and cannot be absorbed by plants. Some of soil bacteria have the ability to solubilize P and make it available to growing plants are known phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB). The research aims to get the kinds of bacteria potential of PSB in the tea plantation. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Biology, Faculty of Agriculture, Padjadjaran University from February 2016 to April 2016. Selection taken from five point blocks with a depth of 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm decision to the topography peaks and slopes. Obtained 23 isolates taken PSB and five isolates with the highest qualitative P solubility test in the soil. The experimental was conducted using Completely Randomized Design, which consists of ten treatments, sterile and non-sterile soil, and five isolates. Incubation was performed for 21 days and the total test bacteria, pH, and P-available every 7, 14, and 21 days. The results showed the best bacterial isolates that capable of solubilize phosphate was taken from A6 block located in the north area of the plantation with a depth of 0-30 cm and is at the peak topography with the ability to dissolve P in the soil is not sterile at 0.997 ppm on the 14th day.
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 12-2017 Issue: 4

Problems Confronting Shea Butter Industry in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Sanusi Mohammed Kabiru, Adeloye, Florence Fadeke, Adegebo Samson Adegbemi
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
The Shea sector of the Nigeria economy has the potential to generate wealth and employment for large number of people at the same time. However, this is yet to be seen as the industry is currently underexploited. This could be attributed to many problems affecting the entire value chain of the industry. The study reviewed the literatures as well as authors experiences on the field using participatory tools like in-depth interview, focus group discussion and observations to identify the problems confronting the entire Shea butter industry and proffer solutions to them. The problems identified by the study includes indiscriminate cutting of Shea trees, lack of storage facilities for the kernel and butter, poor quality butter produced, lack of modern processing technology, poor infrastructural facilities like road, electricity and water. Others are lack of access to market, no credit facilities and, lack of government assistance and seasonality of Shea kernel. The study recommended that relevant government agencies should providing an enabling environment such as water, electricity, modern processing technologies, storage facility, good roads and make by-laws to stop indiscriminate cutting down of Shea trees to ensure sustainability of the Shea industry. Bank of industry and commercial banks should give out loan to Stakeholders along the value chain line to stimulate Shea butter production. The stakeholders in the industry should also form functional cooperatives to collectively solve their problems.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the problems confronting the Shea butter industry by looking at the Stakeholders along the value chain of production rather than looking at only the processors in a view to proffer solutions and inform policies planning on the way forward.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 12-2017 Issue: 4

Comparison of Psychiatric Comorbidity and Quality of Life (QOL) in Persons with Tuberculosis and People Living with HIV in South-South Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Nkporbu A. K., ANUSIEM O.O., AGOGBUO M. O.
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis and HIV are two chronic infective medical diseases commonly associated with psychiatric co-morbidity, which further affect the quality of life of the sufferers. AIM: The study was to determine and compare the relationship between psychiatric co-morbidity and quality of life in persons with tuberculosis and PLWHIV. METHODOLOGY: Two hundred and thirty subjects living with HIV and 140 subjects with tuberculosis were recruited. Those with clinically chronic conditions, or comorbid medical condition and treatment Resistant tuberculosis were excluded. Subjects were further administered with the study’s instruments including the socio-demographic questionnaire, GHQ-12, the brief version of the WHO Quality of Life instrument (WHOQOL-Bref) and WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO CIDI). Results were presented via descriptive and analytical methods. RESULTS: The study found a prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity of 19.8% among PLWHIV and 28.4% among subjects with tuberculosis (p = 0.004). For the PLWHIV, domain scores for quality of life were as follows; 60.71±15.57, 62.34±26.32, 61.57±25.04, 55.15±14.00 and 65.81±21.84 while tuberculosis was 50.97±13.87, 57.22±46.36, 54.51±45.04, 50.01±15.10 and 49.34±21.84 (p = 0.001) for physical, psychological, social relationship, environment domains and general health facet respectively. Furthermore, presence of psychiatric comorbidity significantly inversely correlated with quality of life among persons with both medical diseases. CONCLUSION: The study found a statistically significant higher prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity and lower quality of life among the subjects with tuberculosis compared with PLWHIV. Findings suggest strongly that in managing patients with these conditions, attention should be paid to their mental health and subjective quality of life.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature about the sufferers of chronic infectious medical diseases and their vulnerability to psychiatric co-morbidity. The study documents explanations as to why some chronic medical conditions may show slow response to instituted management. The study uses new estimation methodology of Quality of life measurement and demonstrates the direct relationship between psychiatric co-morbidity and quality of life. Finally, the study contributes to logical analysis and emphasis that evaluation of patients suffering from chronic medical diseases must be holistic enough to include their mental wellbeing.
Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

Predictive Models for Cutting Force in Turning Tools Based on Response Surface Methodology

Research Article
Author(s): Ezeanyagu, P. I., Okafor, C. E., Omenyi, S. N.
Journal: Review of Industrial Engineering Letters

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Abstract
This paper presents the development of predictive models for feed cutting force component when turning mild steel rods at 90owith cutting tools in a local lathe shop. The predictive models were formulated with cutting condition kept dry. Experimental plan was based on Rotatable Central Composite Design (RCCD) and cutting forces generated in the feed direction was measured using a dynamometer. Analysis was performed on the generated data for both tool-work piece combination and feed rate and its squared effect is found to influence the response variable greatly. However, other factors and their interactions provide secondary contributions. Next, the predicted models were compared with the measured feed cutting forces and an agreement established. The coefficient of determination R2 values of the models gave 76% and 79% respectively, which indicate that the predicted models could adequately describe the process within the conditions that were being studied.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by proffering simplistic and cost effective cutting force model based on a planned experiment and statistical methodology.
Engineering » Review of Industrial Engineering Letters » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Antibacterial Activity of Streptomyces Tunisiensis Mg520500 Isolated from Soil Samples

Research Article
Author(s): Saad AM Moghannem
Journal: The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology

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Abstract
In the present study seven agriculture soil samples were collected from Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. Twenty five actinomycete isolates were purified and selected according to their culture characteristics on starch nitrate agar medium. These purified isolates were examined for antibacterial activity against multidrug resistant bacteria (MDRB). Gram positive (E. faecalis and MRSA) and Gram negative E. coli. Among all tested actinomycete isolates only SA-13 isolate could inhibit the growth of all tested bacteria. All morphological, physiological and biochemical results of SA-13 isolate indicated that it belongs to the genus Streptomyces. The comparative analysis of 16S rDNA gene sequence and phylogenetic relationship showed that SA-13 isolate lies with strain Streptomyces tunisiensis CN-207. SA-13 submitted to the GenBank NCBI with the accession number, MG520500. Different optimization parameters were studied to enhance the antibacterial activity. The optimum conditions were temperature 30ºC, pH range7-8, inoculum size 6% v/v on modified riched medium and shaking at 200rpm. Cytotoxic activity of crude extract showed IC50 200µg/ml. Our results proves that; this isolate exhibit antibacterial activity against MDRB. Additional studies of purification and identification of bioactive compound may be useful for discovering a novel antibacterial compound.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents Streptomyces tunisiensis SA-13 is powerful soil actinomycetes having a broad spectrum activity against resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria (ESKAPE).
Biological Sciences » The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Probiotic Lactobacterin-Tk2 Therapeutic and Prophylactic Efficiency

Research Article
Author(s): Tulemisova Zh.K., Kasenova G.T., Muzapbarov B., Myktybayeva R.Zh., Boranbayeva T.K., Omarova A.B.
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
Annotation. The therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy of the “Lactobacterin-TK2” probiotic for correction of clinical and microbiological changes in diarrhea of calves under farming conditions has been studied. The therapeutic efficacy showed that the drug product results in complete recovery. Findings on the calves' productivity showed that animals in the experimental groups grew more intensively than animals in the control group during the drug product administration by calves. Use of “Lactobacterin-TK2” probiotic in the treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal infections in calves has provided 100% therapeutic and preventive efficacy. We believe that the effect has been obtained due to the sanitation of the animals intestines from pathogenic flora by suppressing of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic bacteria reproduction with lactobacilli as a result of their antagonistic activity and colonization of the intestine freed ecological niche with normal microbial flora, stimulation of humoral and cellular immunity factors, level of nonspecific resistance of the organism, activation of metabolic processes, normalization of intestinal microbiocenosis in calves. All this immediately influenced the improvement of digestion processes, which led to more intensive growth and development of animals.
Contribution/ Originality


Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

Utilization of Fish and Mango Wastes on Biological Silage Production

Research Article
Author(s): Jose Carmen Ramirez, Ranferi Gutierrez, Jose Armando Ulloa, Petra Rosas, Gerardo Torres, Pedro Ulises Bautista
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the utilization of mango and fish wastes in biological silage production. Six treatments containing different levels of fish and mango wastes, sugar cane molasses and corn stover were inoculated with 4 % of Lactobacillus sp. B2 strain and incubated 15 days at 30 °C. The pH values of silages varied from 4.39 to 4.70 and the lactic acid content between 2.96 to 4.42 %. Silages showed the best acidifying at 7 day of fermentation; also they further increased the lactic acid bacteria counts and decreased the coliforms bacteria. Crude protein, ethereal extract and minerals values were higher in treatments with the upper level of fish wastes. The silage with the higher corn stover showed the upper crude fiber value and the lower in vitro dry matter digestibility. Contrary, the high inclusion level of fish wastes resulted in the highest dry matter digestibility. In conclusion, the combination of fish and mango wastes is a good alternative to produce biological fish silage as an ingredient for ruminants feed. The process of production is simple and environmental friendly.
Contribution/ Originality
The present study contributes to knowledge in the use of mango and fish wastes to produce silage. The findings show that silage can be evaluated in ruminants feeds for increase the added value and avoid the environmental impact of waste landfill sites.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Dynamic Simulation and Modeling of a Novel Combined Hybrid Photovoltaic-Thermal Panel Hybrid System

Research Article
Author(s): S. Sami, C. Campoverde
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research

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Abstract
A novel combined concept and simulation model of a hybrid photovoltaic-thermal solar panel hybrid system are presented. This concept is developed to enhance the energy conversion efficiency of the PV cell and utilize excess thermal energy dissipated by the conversion process to produce domestic hot water. A heat transfer and fluid flow two dimensional dynamic model was developed to describe the behavior of a combined photovoltaic cell-thermal panel hybrid system under different solar irradiance, material properties, and boundary conditions. The model is based on dynamic mass and energy equations coupled with the heat transfer coefficients, and thermodynamic constants as well as material properties.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper presents a significant contribution into the development of a novel hybrid system of solar photovoltaic-thermal solar that can significantly enhance the energy conversion efficiency of the solar photovoltaic solar panels, produce electricity as well as hot water for domestic or industrial applications.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Construction and Application of Water Resource Accounting Information System in Taiwan

Research Article
Author(s): David Han-Min Wang, Chih-Yuan Huang
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
Since the last decade, rapid industry growth and booming world population increase the demand of water resource which brings out severe problems on water supply. In the Global Risk Report 2015 published by the World Economic Forum, water resource was ranked the greatest risk to the world. Taiwan is in 18th place in the UN global ranking among water-scarce countries. However, Taiwan has not established an integrated water resource information system to provide useful information to policy-makers and resource users. Therefore, this study adopts the international conceptual framework for water accounting to construct a water resource accounting information system tallied with Taiwan’s economic and policy conditions. The system is expected to provide useful information on water resource assets, liabilities, revenues and cost for economic sustainability. This study uses the case of Liyutan reservoir in Taiwan to illustrate the usefulness of the accounting information system which indicates new accounting research directions on water resource.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is constructing the first water resource accounting information system in Taiwan by using the theories and techniques of financial accounting, and verifies the feasibility of this study with actual cases. This system contributes a lot to sustainable use of regional water resources.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

An Analysis of Common Errors in ESL Descriptive Writing among Chinese Private School Students in Malaysia

Research Article
Author(s): Subadrah Madhawa Nair, Liang Lok Hui
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
The first objective of this study is to identify the types of errors made by students in their ESL writing. The second objective is to compare the types of errors (overall, spelling, mechanics, grammar, coherence, sentence structure and lexical) in descriptive writing, according to gender. The third objective is to explore an ESL teacher’s views on how to minimize students’ errors in their ESL descriptive writing. This descriptive study has used the QUAN-qual model whereby the quantitative data was collected using a descriptive writing test while the qualitative data was collected through a face-to-face interview with the ESL teacher. The sample of this study comprised 102 senior one students (47 males and 55 females) from a Chinese private school in Kuala Lumpur. The findings from quantitative data revealed that female students made significantly less errors than male students in their overall writing, spelling, grammar, sentence structures and lexical items. However, the difference in errors between male and female students in the area of mechanics and coherence was not significant. The findings of the qualitative data support the quantitative findings which indicate that students made most errors in the areas of grammar and sentence structures. On how to minimize students’ errors in writing, the teacher opined that giving more exercises in grammar and sentence construction can enhance students’ writing skills. This study therefore has crucial theoretical, pedagogical and practical implications for both ESL students and teachers alike.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated error analysis in ESL descriptive writing among Chinese private school students in Malaysia. The findings suggest that ESL teachers should employ appropriate pedagogy to minimize students’ errors in the area of grammar and sentence structures.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

Should We Let them Play? Three Key Benefits of Play to Improve Early Childhood Programs

Research Article
Author(s): Ruth Guirguis
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
The topic of play and development has been of immense importance and controversy in early education and child development field throughout the twentieth century and into the present decade. The trend of current early education is to introduce academics sooner for younger students in order for programs to remain competitive and have parents choose more academically based preschools. The trickled down effect of State Standards has also pushed academics into the early childhood classroom more than a decade ago. Hence, reducing or at times leaving out time for active play in the classroom. In some classrooms, play is replaced by passive play led be technological games rather than imaginary play that involves peer interactions. Educators are faced with the challenge of reducing play and the benefits and politics involved in play. This article highlights the concept of play through the lens of Foucault and describes key benefits that can support the academic achievement of students as they continue on to later grades by changing the regimes of truth on play. This research highlights three major developmental aspects of play and their impact on early childhood development. Specifically, language development in Monolinguals and DLLs, self-regulation, and emergent literacy skills.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature regarding the importance and lack of play in the early years. This paper provides support and highlights the developmental importance of play as it relates to language/social skills in dual language learners, both cognitive and impulse control, and literacy skills.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

Laboratory Evaluation of ITS Test on Asphalt Modified with Various Ranges of Crumb Rubber

Research Article
Author(s): Asmaa Abdulmaged MAMHUSSEINI, Barham Jalal NAREEMAN
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
The rubber which is generated from scrap tyres (tires), identified by crumb or powdered rubber. Day after day, discarded or scrap tyres create huge environmental problems. As long as the scrap tyres are regarded as a non-decade material those disrupt the clean environment. Using this rubber in pavement and asphalt has become a great interest and proposal for researchers for overcome this issue in recent years. Researchers and engineers discovered another way to improve asphalt concrete, by adding crumb rubber (CR) into asphalt concrete. This is done by two methods; first method rubber placed in bitumen and completely or partially reacted with bitumen, this will become binder modifier (wet process). Second method replacing this rubber with fine aggregates which are not dissolved completely with bitumen (dry process). In this study crumb rubber is added into mixture initially by substituting rubber with amount of fine aggregate. Thereafter laboratory tests; penetration, ductility, softening point, elastic recovery and moisture susceptibility test were conducted. These tests were performed, investigated and compared to evaluate the effect of indirect tensile strength (ITS) on asphalt concrete modified with several ranges of crumb rubber. It has been shown that (0%) is control sample, while (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10) are percent of rubber by the total weight of aggregate. One of the critical issues in asphalt pavement is moisture damage. The existence of moisture play a great role in reducing the stiffness of the asphalt mix as well as makes the chance for stripping of the asphalt from the aggregate. This study evaluates the strength loss by comparing two methods of ITS test, which are conditioned (tested in saturated state) and unconditioned (tested in dry state) samples. Marshall Mix method was applied for preparation of total 24 samples for both states of ITS. The results show that for conditioned samples 6% of CR gives the highest value of tensile strength, (892) Kpa. While in unconditioned samples, 10% of CR gives even higher value of strength, compared to conditioned and control sample, (933) Kpa. According to AASHTO T 283-14, the tensile strength ratio (TSR) results of all samples are within the standards, using the minimum value of 80%. For asphalt modified with (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10) % of CR, the TSR values are (95.3, 97.7, 97.4, 93.6 and 90.9) % respectively. Moreover the results are discussed in detail in this study. As summary, the optimal dose of CR is 4% which gives better performance for penetration, softening point, elastic recovery and tensile strength ratio.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature, to investigate the binding medium between concrete asphalt with crumb rubbe. This study uses new methodology which is called Wet Process, mixing crumb rubber with asphalt prior to the aggregate. This study originates new formula to improve asphalt and asphalt concrete. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated tensile strength ratio (TSR) by using Indirect Tensile Strength Test, and elastic recovery for conventional mixture.
Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

Erosion Surfaces of the Land Between Iznik-Mekece (Turkey)

Research Article
Author(s): Oznur YAZICI
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
The study area begins from the eastern part of the Lake Iznik which is in the southeast of Marmara Region in Northwest Turkey, and extends to Mekece. The area is part of the North Anatolian Fault Line, which has been operating since Miocene. Gemlik Gulf-Iznik Depression-Karadin Trough, and Pamuk Plain are the depression series from west to the east which developed due to the fault. During the cool and rainy periods of the Pleistocene, a part of the depression filled with water and became the Lake Iznik. In this period, there have been level changes on the lake due to the climate oscillations and some lacustrine terraces formed. Main geomorphological units in the study area are; high mountain ranges, high and low plateaus, plains and flat fields. Erosion surfaces, which spread widely in the study area, have been handled and evaluated according to Prof. Dr. O?uz Erol’s method. Erosion surfaces were dated as Lower-Middle Miocene surfaces, Upper Miocene surfaces and Pliocene surfaces by applying Erol’s ‘Relation Method Between Slopes and Contour Lines’. Some of these surfaces are valuable for the settlement and agriculture because of the small amount of the slopes. It can be said that the research area has a polycyclic feature, and it is in the late youth stage of geomorphologic development.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper which is based on the author’s PhD thesis titled “The geomorphology of the land between Iznik-Mekece” describes erosion surfaces of the region according to Prof. Dr. O?uz Erol’s ‘Relation Method between Slopes and Contour Lines’.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

Contribution of Planting Space and Harvesting Period on the Nutrient Compositions of Some OFSP Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Southeast Nigeria Ultisol

Research Article
Author(s): Philippa. C. Ojimelukwe, Anthony. N. Ukom, Obianuju. O. Kalu
Journal: Journal of Nutrients

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Abstract
Two varieties of OFSP (Ex-Igbariam and Umuspo 3) planted at 20 cm x 1m, 30 cm x 1m and 40 cm x 1m and harvested after 12th and 16th weeks were analyzed for nutrient compositions. The statistical analysis showed wide variations in their proximate, mineral, vitamin and chemical contents. Moisture and protein contents were higher in 12th week of harvest than at 16th week irrespective of planting distance. Ash, fat, fibre and carbohydrate contents were higher at 16th week of harvest irrespective of the planting distance. Specifically, Umuspo 3 was higher in moisture and fat values while Ex-Igbariam was higher in ash, fibre, protein and carbohydrate. Calcium and vitamin C were higher at 12th week of harvest, while magnesium, potassium and vitamin B6 were higher at 16th week of harvest. Specifically, vitamin B6, phosphorus, magnesium and calcium were higher in some Ex-Igbariam lines especially in V4S3 than in Umuspo 3 lines. The chemical results showed that alpha amylase was higher in Ex-Igbariam V4S2 at 16th week of harvest while reducing sugar was higher in Umuspo 3 V1S1at 12th week of harvest. Total carbohydrate was higher in Umuspo 3 V1S1at 12th and 16th weeks of harvest. The general results indicates that the proximate, minerals, vitamin and chemical compositions of most of the variety lines were richer at 16th than at 12th week of harvest irrespective of planting distance. While 40 cm planting distance in V4S3 (Ex-Igbariam) gave higher yield of proximate, mineral, vitamin and chemical parameters, Umuspo 3 did not maintain a particular trend. Ex-Igbariam variety showed higher nutrient values than Umuspo 3 and may be recommended as a nutrient dense sweet potato staple for better nutrition.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of the effect of farming practice: planting distance and harvesting time on nutrient composition of OFSP cultivars (Umuspo 3 and Ex-Igbariam) grown in Nigeria. Results showed that Ex-Igbariam was the best OFSP cultivar with dense nutrient content. This research finding can be used to advocate for increased OFSP utilization in Nigeria.
Medical Sciences » Journal of Nutrients » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

The Cultivation of Cultural Consciousness in English Writing Teaching in China from the Perspective of Linguistics

Research Article
Author(s): Mengyue Cao
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
English teaching mainly covers five interdependent and interrelated basic language skills of listening, speaking, reading, writing and translating. English writing is considered an important part in English output stage, which is often an ultimate goal of language learning. However, the current English writing teaching in China is not so satisfactory, and a disadvantage exists in Chinese traditional approach of writing-focused instruction: Students’ writings often fail to achieve the aim of effective information expression and communication. Cultural linguists, social linguists and cognitive linguists believe that there is an inseparable relationship between language and culture, so cultural connotation of language cannot be ignored in the English writing teaching in order to realize the precise use of language. The paper is attempted to discuss the cultivation of cultural consciousness in the English writing teaching in terms of vocabulary, syntax, and text under the structure of linguistics so as to improve teaching efficiency of Chinese English writing in some sense.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the ways of cultural consciousness cultivation in English writing teaching under the guidance of linguistics.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1