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Listing 74 - 20 of 2021 results.

Kambang Putih Revitalization: Paving the Way towards Indonesias Global Maritime Fulcrum

Research Article
Author(s): Siti Khotimah, Vowas Gamar Bawanto, Gigich Ilmy Al Bonadi, Mimi Savitri MA
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
Tuban District or formerly known as Kambang Putih is one of the districts in East Java located on the northern coast of Java. Tuban has great potential in marine field and the majority of the population work as fishermen. Historical facts have explained that Tuban once had a port that has a big role in the reverse flow of world civilization, namely the port of Kambang Putih. It should be preserved to this day, to further optimize the heterogeneous economic activity. The port is one of the economic distribution access which is suitable with coastal community or fisherman especially in trade field. Socio-cultural society that has several rides of sea tourism make Tuban has its own attraction for the people to visit it. Authors writing this scientific paper using qualitative research methods with descriptive approach. Data collected in the form of words, both in the form of oral and written in the form of pictures and documents, and the behavior of informants that can be observed. This type of research is used with the intention to provide a description of the issues raised as well as shown to simplify the phenomena found in the study. The analysis of this research uses the theory of Sulivan on revitalization, because this study discusses a concept of regional revitalization that will be done to improve the function of the remaining resources based on historical relics. This study discusses the strategic steps in the concept of development. Because, this idea is formed to enhance the values of society through the integration of natural and human resource development. Thus, the topic of discussion to restore the glory of Kambang Putih: Indonesia's strategic step towards the global maritime fulcrum is important to be done in achieving the national goals of the nation.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated ancient port in Indonesia, especially in the royal period to support Indonesia’s Global Maritime Fulcrum. The paper primary contribution was finding proper revitalization concept of the ancient Kambang Putih Port that already transformed to become slum housing area.

Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 09-2017 Issue: 3

Runoff Response to Climate Variability: An Analysis of Thika River Basin in Kenya Using Hydrological Simulation Model (Hysim)

Research Article
Author(s): Michael Maina Macharia, James M. Raude
Journal: International Journal of Hydrology Research

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Abstract
Changes in climatic conditions have greatly affected surface runoff and stream flows both at local and global scale. This has led to adverse effects on surface run off and climatic system as a whole. Research on these hydrological changes at basin scale is of great importance to the water managers for the future planning and management of water resources. In this study, a Hydrological simulation model (HYSIM) was used to simulate runoff and quantify the effects of climate variability on runoff within the area of study. The model was calibrated and validated giving a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.923, an RMSE of 0.56 and a BIAS of 1.697 respectively. The future climate of the catchment is projected to be warmer and, with less confidence, wetter as simulated using the IPCC scenarios. However, stream flow could increase by between 1.2% on the lower case to 4.5% on the higher case under these projections. There is therefore need to prepare for the increased runoff as it would affect the agricultural sector, industry, urban communities, as well as the environment.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the effects of climate variability on run off in Thika river basin and further simulates future possible occurrences using the Hydrological simulation model (HYSIM).

Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Hydrology Research » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on Banks Financial Performance in Nigeria: A Study of United Bank of Africa

Research Article
Author(s): TIJANI, Abideen Adekunle, ADEOYE, Abayomi Olarewaju, ALAKA, Nureni Sanusi
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
The study investigates the effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on Banks Financial Performance in Nigeria with special reference to United Bank of Africa (UBA) Plc. The study utilized secondary sources of data, which were sourced from UBA’s annual report. The data sourced, spanned from 1992 – 2014. Data disaggregating into health issue, transportation and education proxies as Corporate Social Responsibility and Return on Equity as financial performance. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS) Estimation technique and Granger-causality test were adopted. The findings of the study suggests that there is insignificance relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and financial performance. The paper recommends that management should see Corporate Social Responsibility as a business opportunity that is beneficial in the long run thereby, incorporating credible and well-structured social responsibility policies.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes to the existing literature by using disaggregated measure of Corporate Social Responsibility. The findings of the study are therefore relevant and useful to Corporate Managers and Policy makers as well as academics.

Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 6

Effect of Soaking on the Nutritional Values of Kordala (Maerua Pseudopetalosa) Seeds Grown in Kordofan Region, Sudan

Research Article
Author(s): Elrady E. Bukhari. Holli, Abdelazim. A.M. Nour, Adam Ismail Ahmed
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
The aim of this study is to eliminate the alkaloids from Kordala (Maerua  pseudopetalosa) by soaking  process and examine their effect on nutritional value, protein digestibility and anti- nutritional factors. The seeds were soaked in water for seven days with water changed daily. The proximate composition, protein digestibility, minerals composition, anti-nutritional factors and amino acids profile were examined. The results obtained showed that soaking decreased protein content (from 21.67 to 11.64 %), ash (from 2.9 to 0.3%), fat (from 1.78 to 1.05%), polyphenols (from 170.82 to 160 mg/100g), phytic acid (from 743.5 to 588.9 mg/100g), minerals and amino acids content also decreased. The process increased moisture content (from 8.3 to 9.62%), fiber content (from 1.36 to 4.27%), total carbohydrates (from 63.99 to 73.12%) and protein digestibility (from 58.4 to 68.1%) for raw and soaked seeds, respectively. Comparing these values with recommended dietary allowances, the results indicated that Kordala (Maerua  pseudopetalosa) seeds could be a good supplement source for some nutrients.
Contribution/ Originality
The present study is one of the first reports concerning investigations on the nutritional values of Kordala (Maerua pseudopetalosa) and studding the role of  soaking on the removal of bitter taste in Kordala, which used in Sudan as famine food.

Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 2

Exploring Learning Experience in a Total Enterprise Simulation Based on Means-End Theory

Research Article
Author(s): Fuyume SAI
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
The primary purpose of this study was to obtain empirical evidence and provide a methodological alternative for helping understand how simulation serves to learning. Well-structured system design and unstructured learning implementation bring complexity to dealing with learning in total enterprise simulation, specially, how to investigate learning emanated from the simulation game’s structure and decision-making requirements has studied very few. Due to the multiple aspects of individual learning situation and the inevitable structural design differences in simulations, student authored reports were used as data source to analyze the connections of learning-performance based on means-ends theory and the model was constructed with the components, namely Attributes, Consequences, and Values. With limitations of research, the study provides practical evidence and student insight into logic and structure of the simulated firm experienced, as well as demonstrates the use of means-ends approach for research on the issue of simulation-based learning and performance.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes the first means-ends analysis of the connections of in-class simulation-based learning-performance by using the learning setting and participant-authored reports. Contrasted with previous studies which were essentially oriented in product/service decision-making, this study was built on the efforts to enhance the understanding of how the virtual management practices contribute to generation of personal values, rather than to focus on simulation system’s external validity.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 3

Determinants of Farmers’ Engagement in Off-Farm (Non-Farm Activities) as Copping Strategies to Climate Change: The Case of Merti, Arsi Zone, Oromiya Regional State, Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Mulugeta Eshete
Journal: International Journal of Climate Research

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Abstract
Climate change is happening at a great speed becoming gradually perceived as most challenging impact of the world that life bearing organisms on earth ever sense. The study identified determinants of farmers’ engagement in non-farm activities as copping strategies to climate change in Merti, Arsi zone, Oromiya Regional state, Ethiopia. The studies also carried out to investigated gender differences in perceiving climate change, assess non-farm activities practiced by farmers in response to climate change and describe the determinant factors that influence farmers’ engagement in off-farm income source in the study area. The study followed a multi-stage sampling procedure. Both purposive and random sampling procedures were used to select sample Kebeles and households, respectively. Data collected from 191 sample households was used in this study. Descriptive statistics were performed to assess farmers perceptions and the types of coping strategies used were small-scale trade activities, handicrafts/craftsmanship and engagement in labor intensive salaried work, while the multinomial logit model (MNL) was used to identify factors influencing farmers coping strategies to climate change whereas age, sex, family size, agro-ecological locations (highland and midland), perception of climate change were the determinant factors favoring or inhibiting the decisions of farming households engagement in non-farm activities as climate change coping strategies.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated determinants of farmers’ engagement in off-farm (non-farm activities) in Merti in undertaking possible climate change response mechanisms at the smallholder farming household level. The research will give baseline information for other researchers, practitioners, development actors, policy makers and research organizations by assessing and assembling existing information about the factors affecting farmers engagement in off-farm based activities as coping strategies in case of unexpected failure in agriculture produces.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Climate Research » Month: 12-2017 Issue: 2

Analysis of the Factors Affecting Changes in Land Cover Patterns in Rural Districts in East of Guilan Province (Iran) for Foresight

Research Article
Author(s): Mostafa Taleshi, Hassan Afrakhteh, Mohammad Ali Rahimipour Sheikhani Nejad
Journal: Review of Environment and Earth Sciences

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Abstract
Foresight is among the key topics in natural resource protection for sustainability of rural settlement system. In foresight of land cover evolutions, identification of factors affecting the evolutions is of paramount importance. In the present research, in order to undertake foresight and sustainable land planning in rural districts in East of Guilan as a special ecologic zone encompassing 744 villages, principle variables were collected via a questionnaire using Delphi method with the help pf experts, followed by calculation of significance factors. A total of 93 variables were found to affect the changes in land cover within the study area at local, regional and national scales. Among these, key variables were identified utilizing MIC-MAC Software. In order to develop scenarios by a 20-member expert panel, 19 key drivers of the changes in land cover were homogenized and 9 primary descriptor were defined. For each descriptor, three variant qualitative component were prepared, which described all possible cases from the most critical case to the most desired one. In the next stage, with the help of cross-impact balance matrix and Monte Carlo simulations in Scenario Wizard Software, a total of three scenarios with 15-year horizons were obtained based on maximum consistency. Finally, based on the maximal effectiveness on protection of natural land cover and continuation of sustainability, the obtained scenarios were designated as balanced ecologic changes, relatively balanced ecologic changes, and imbalanced ecologic changes.
Contribution/ Originality


Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Environment and Earth Sciences » Month: 12-2017 Issue: 2

Comprehensive Analysis & Performance Comparison of Clustering Algorithms for Big Data

Research Article
Author(s): Anand Nayyar, Vikram Puri
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
21st Century has marked high velocity of data generation not only in terms of size but also in variety. Analyzing large data sets with different forms is also a challenging task. Data Mining is regarded as efficient method to extract meaningful information as per user requirements. But considering the size of modern data, traditional data mining techniques are failing. Clustering can be regarded as one of the most important technique to mine the data by splitting large data sets into clusters. The paper’s primary contribution is to provide comprehensive analysis of Big Data Clustering algorithms on basis of: Partitioning, Hierarchical, Density, Grid and Model. In addition to this, performance comparison of algorithms is performed on basis of volume, variety and velocity.
Contribution/ Originality


Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 2

Culture as a Parameter in Assessing Students Performance

Research Article
Author(s): Filomachi Spathopoulou, Stavros Papakonstantinidis
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
Culture is not a new concept within the social sciences. In fact, culture has been widely discussed for years to investigate how it has evolved and how it still affects human communication. The aim of this article is to introduce the concept of culture and illustrate its relevance in key theoretical discussions and debates in the social sciences. Also, it aims based on secondary research evidence to highlight how differing cultural factors affect learning and assessing in higher education. The paper concludes that it is essential for assessors to consider the unique cultural characteristics when assessing their students’ performance.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on the role of culture in education by focusing on assessment. It is one of very few studies which suggests that assessing students’ performance should not take place independent of cultural particularities and sets the ground for designing alternative, culturally responsive assessment tools.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 09-2017 Issue: 3

Assessment of the Physical and Chemical Properties of Three Contrasting Soils Under Different Land Use Systems

Research Article
Author(s): Denton O.A, Alemeru M. S., Fademi I.O., Uthman A. C. O., Oyedele A. O.
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
This study was undertaken to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of three contrasting soils under four land use systems. The soil types considered were Vertic Cambisol, Haplic Lixisol and Ferric Luvisol while the land use types studied are cocoa plantation (CP), grazing land (GL), fallow land (FL) and cultivated land (CL). Soil samples were collected at 0-15cm and 15-30cm depths respectively from each of the locations. The soil samples were air dried and passed through a 2mm sieve and taken to the laboratory for analysis. The result of the study showed a higher sand content being recorded in Haplic Lixisol (CL) and Ferric Luvisol 2 (FL) followed by that of Vertic Cambisol (CP) and Ferric Luvisol 1 (GL) in the upper 0 to15 cm depth and lower 15-30 cm. The soil pH within the soil types and depths could be categorized as slightly acidic to moderately alkaline. The organic carbon content of the soils was generally low; it varied from 0.18% to 1.29 % for 0 to 15 cm depth with Vertic Cambisol (CP) having the highest value. The mean available P content was not significantly (P?0.05) different among the soil and land use types. The total nitrogen recorded was generally low 1.006 - 1.304% at 0-15cm while at the lower depth it ranged between 0.566 – 0.768%. The exchangeable bases also decreased following cultivation. The result of the study shows that continuous cultivation without adequate management practices causes a decline in the physical and chemical properties of the soil.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes to existing literature that agriculture being the main user of land is constantly being affected by land use changes. It further seeks to assess how the physical and chemical properties of the different soil types are being affected by different land use types.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 12-2017 Issue: 4

The Analysis of Entrepreneurship Program Within Higher Education (Institution Case Study of the Management of Business in Telecommunications and Informatics, Telkom University - Indonesia)

Research Article
Author(s): Mariana Yosephine Frima, Astri Ghina
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
The entrepreneurial skills have been regarded as the vital factor for the business sustainability. The previous study confirmed that there was a gap for entrepreneurial skills between several countries. The factor driven countries (such as Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, etc.) are dominated with the wholesale/retail activities, while the innovation driven countries (such as Sweden, Belgium, Norway, etc.) will be more dominated with ICT/Finance or the professional services activities. The wholesale/retail activity is said to be easier to enter since it’s generally require lower skill levels. Entrepreneurship education (EE) is needed to enhance the development of the entrepreneurs in order to fulfill this gap, so it is necessary to evaluate the EE program delivered by the university in shaping the entrepreneurial competencies. This research did an evaluation towards the entrepreneurship education program by identifying the learning process (including the definition and objectives of EE, the course contents, the teaching methods, and community outreach activities), and measuring the impacts (by using entrepreneurial competencies). This research was done in the Management of Business in Telecommunications and Informatics, Faculty of Economics and Business in Telkom University. The result is aimed to improve the learning process within institution. On the other side, this research is expected to help the university to achieve the target to be a Global Entrepreneurial University in 2038, particularly to create the global entrepreneurial graduates. This study is also expected to improve the economic growth by increasing the university’s role in creating the graduate entrepreneurs.
Contribution/ Originality


Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 10-2017 Issue: 10

A Study on the Relationship between Problem Solving Skills and Multiple Intelligences of High School Students

Research Article
Author(s): Hakan Karatas, Mehtap Bademcioglu, Suleyman Celik
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Problem solving is a complex process in which encountered problems are defeated as reaching a target and problem solving skills are developed in school years. And, intelligence is defined as the ability to solve problems or to create products being valued within one or more cultural settings. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to examine the relationship between multiple intelligences and problem solving skills. The relational model was used in the current study. The research group included 181 female (48.39 %) and 193 male (51.61 %) students studying at Zubeyde Hanim Vocational and Technical Anatolian High School and Gazi Industrial Vocational High School. The Multiple Intelligences Inventory adapted in Turkish by Ozden (2003) and Problem Solving Inventory developed by Heppner and Peterson (1982) and adapted in Turkish by Sahin et al. (1993) were used as the data collection tool. Data were analyzed using the analysis of Pearson correlation. The findings indicated that there have been found some significant positive and negative correlations between variables.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by investigating the relationship between high school students’ problem solving skills and multiple intelligences.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 10-2017 Issue: 10

Communicating Academic Achievement of Schools To Stakeholders: The Use of Weighted Average

Research Article
Author(s): Michael Amakyi
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
This paper examined the statistical approach adopted by schools to communicate their academic achievement to stakeholders. The paper looked at the most frequently adopted method, the use of percentage scores, and discussed the limitations of its usage. The paper also explored the use of the weighted average of scores and compared it to the use of percentage scores. Data from the West Africa Examinations Council and standardised test scores from a selected high school were used for the paper’s analyses and illustrations. The paper demonstrated that the weighted average of scores accounted for quality of grades obtained as well as the number of candidates presented by a school. The paper identified the use of weighted average of scores as a preferred option to percentage scores in communicating academic achievement to stakeholders.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the use of weighted average of scores as the preferable means of communicating student test scores to stakeholders.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 11-2017 Issue: 11

Making Schools More Girl Friendly: Exploring the Effects of Girl Friendly Space on School Attendance of Adolescent Girls

Research Article
Author(s): Elijah Kipchumba, Munshi Sulaiman
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
School enrolment and attendance for adolescent girls is a key priority for education sector in most developing countries. In Somalia, this is even more prominent given the low enrolment rate of girls and the gender specific challenges that the girls face. Girls in Somalia often remain absent from schools during their menstrual periods due to lack of hygiene facilities and the social stigma in using the facility where they exist. Girl Friendly Space (GFS) has been adopted as a means to mitigate these challenges. Despite strong narratives of the effectiveness of the GFS, there is lack of evidence on the impact of GFS on reducing school absenteeism. By using secondary data, this study explores the potential effects of GFS on reducing school absenteeism. The study indicate that having GFS in schools can reduce the likelihood of adolescent girls being absent from school in the past month by about 15 percentage points. Absenteeism due to ‘sickness’ is about 17 percentage points lower in schools with GFS compared to schools without the facility. Although this study cannot fully address the selection bias to claim these as impact estimates, the differences for boys between the two types of schools in absenteeism is much lower indicating possible effects of GFS on girls’ school attendance.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies that have sought to demonstrate potential effects of girl friendly spaces in reducing adolescent girls’ school absenteeism in culturally sensitive regions like Somalia. Primarily the study shows equipping and enhancing privacy in girls-only toilets can potentially reduce absenteeism up to 15 percentage points.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 11-2017 Issue: 11

Palm Kernel Separation Efficiency and Kernel Quality from Different Methods Used in Some Communities in Rivers State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Akusu O.M, Kiin-Kabari D.B, Barber L.I
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
The separation efficiency and palm kernel quality of five palm kernel shell separation methods used in selected communities in Rivers State, Nigeria were evaluated. The methods include traditional handpicking, clay-water bath (kaolin), mechanical dry separation, pneumatic and hydrocyclone separations. The weight of recovered palm kernels obtained from each separation method was determined and used in the calculation of separation efficiencies. Free fatty acid (FFA), shell/fibre and moisture content of the palm kernels recovered from each separation method was determined. The results show that the least free fatty acid (FFA) content of (3%) was found in sample separated by the pneumatic method and highest (8%) in the clay-water bath (kaolin) method. High moisture content of 11% was recorded for kernels separated by clay-water bath (kaolin). Pneumatic separation method retained the least percentage of shell/fibre content (2%). Hand picking and clay-water bath (kaolin) methods had shell/fibre retention of 8% and 6%, respectively. However, mechanical, pneumatic and hydrocyclone separation techniques conform to the quality parameters when compared to SON/NIS standard. The mechanical, pneumatic and hydrocyclone separation methods gave higher separation efficiencies of 74, 90 and 96% respectively and palm kernels of superior quality that meets the palm kernel industrial standards. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in separation efficiencies between the traditional hand picking and the clay water bath methods however there was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the above two methods and mechanical, pneumatic and hydrocyclone separation methods.
Contribution/ Originality
This study shows that pneumatic and hydrocyclone separation methods are the most efficient in separating cracked palm kernel mixtures. This study also provide information on the best method of palm kernel recovery that meets quality requirement for Nigerian Industrial standard.
Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 2

The Value of Nuclear Medicine Versus Ultrasonography in Diagnosing Renal Disease

Research Article
Author(s): Salman A. Mohammed, Omar M Alamoudi, Saeed M Bafaraj
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
Objective: The study aims to assess the value of nuclear medicine and ultrasonography for diagnosing renal diseases among patients of different ages. Method: Quantitative analysis has been opted for evaluating the effectiveness of both imaging modalities for the diagnosis of renal diseases. 80 patients were targeted, who were having renal disease indications and they were diagnosed through modalities. The outcomes of both imaging techniques were compared through data analysis. Results: Positive findings of the nuclear medicine were observed between the age groups 0-12 years (58.1%), 13-24 years (16.1%), 25-36 years (1.6%), 37-48 years (9.7%), 61-72 years (3.1%) and 73-84 (8.1%) years of patients. Concerning the ultrasonography technique, positive effects were observed among the patients of age-group 0-12 years (58.7%), 13-24 years (17.5%), 25-36 years (3.2%), 49-60 years (3.2%) and 73-84 years (3.2%). The sensitivity rate for nuclear medicine was 100% as compared to ultrasonography, which was 93.6%. However, the specificity and accuracy rates for nuclear medicine were 78.4%, and 21.5%; however, similar rates for ultrasonography were 79.7%, and 13.92%, which showed better outcomes of ultrasonography. Conclusion: Ultrasonography was observed showing positive results among all age groups as compared to nuclear medicine imaging modalities. Future studies must focus on other imaging techniques to timely diagnose the disease and initiate the treatment before it get worse.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes to assess the efficiency difference between the nuclear medicine and ultrasonography to effectively analyze the case of the renal patients, before it gets severe. The study further documents the value of nuclear medicine in comparison with ultrasonography for the early diagnosis of renal mortal and morbid complications.
Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 6

Rural Roads Infrastructure and Agricultural Products Distribution: A Focus on Akure South Local Government Area, Ondo State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Olaogbebikan Jimoh Eniola, Iyare Osas
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
This study assesses the effects of Rural Road Infrastructure on the distribution of Agricultural products in Akure South Local Government area with a view to providing solutions to the problems caused by inadequate provisions of road infrastructure and its negative impact on agricultural product distributions in the study area. The study evaluated the opinion of the farmers, traders, drivers who are the users of rural roads as well as the government officials in charge of rural road maintenance and construction. Furthermore primary data were employed in eliciting information from the respondent through the questionnaires and systematic random sampling techniques were employed in gathering relevant data and information within the study area. The result of the analysis revealed a significant relationship at 0.05 between the quality of the road infrastructure and the transportation of agricultural product in the study area at p-0.02 and r-0.186. The study concluded that the roads in the study area as well as those connecting the farms with markets are bad and recommended that these roads should be widened and bituminized as well as the provisions of other road infrastructure and the member of the community should participate in rural roads construction and maintenance.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes in the existing literature on rural roads infrastructural provision, uses new estimation methodology in examining the state of rural roads, originate new formula for investigating road infrastructure, contribute the first logical analysis of roads infrastructure, its primary contribution is finding inadequate roads and document road infrastructural needs.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 6

Childhood Adversity, Families, Neighborhoods, and Cognitive Outcomes: Testing Structural Models of the Bioecological Framework

Research Article
Author(s): Mark W. Olofson
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Over half of the children in the U.S. experience adversity early in childhood. These experiences, along with conditions in their families and neighborhoods, have profound developmental effects. The bioecological model of development includes these proximal contexts in a theory of development that incorporates the threats and supports present in these spaces to describe child development. This study used structural equation modeling to build latent measures of childhood adversity, family conflict, and neighborhood quality and tested theoretically-implied pathways to determine the relationships among these measures and cognitive outcomes in children. This study of US children ages 5-17 (N = 2,907) employed a nationally representative sample from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to create and test these measures. Results indicate that adversity, family conflict, and a lack of neighborhood quality negatively impact cognitive function, even when controls for socioeconomic status and race are introduced. Testing of models indicated that family conflict and neighborhood quality are mediated by adverse childhood experiences, and these contexts should not be related to cognitive outcomes without the inclusion of adversity measures. This study provides further insight into the relationships among these contexts and children’s lives, and offers guidance for future research with these constructs.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the literature on Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Bioecological model of development by identifying the mediational nature of family conflict and neighborhood quality measures when relating ACEs to young adolescent outcomes. Additionally, the paper identifies and analyzes latent measures of these variables.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 12-2017 Issue: 12

Virtual Learning Environment: Exploring the Role of Teacher as a Central Factor

Research Article
Author(s): Ma. Del Carmen Nolasco Salcedo
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Online training permits or encourages a change in the teacher’s role. It is in this sense that the objective of this paper was to analyze the implications of the application of an unconventional model to the teaching process, supported by Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and incorporating new methodological paradigms into the teaching-learning process for course presentation and management, encouraging students to change the role they have played to date, given their preliminary training process, which has been based, nearly always, on a traditional model. Using online courses to support the student-centered teaching-learning process involves knowing what features the online teacher must have and how teachers can help their students in their new role. On the other hand, it is important to employ the lessons learned by traditionalist teachers, because the latter can take advantage of their experience to teach in a better way by implementing the use of information and communications technologies.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature a learner-orient environment for the teachers and students.in which it is attempted to recognize the importance that the teacher has in this current knowledge society, where undoubtedly the tutor has two decisive roles: offer feedback and manage and strengthen relationships between students-teachers. This study documents aspects such as communicating effectively and the Role of teacher as a central factor in the virtual learning environments
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 12-2017 Issue: 12

Performance Evaluation of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Varieties at Benatsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Misgana Mitiku, Awoke Tadesse
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
Onion varieties were evaluated for adaptability to the climatic conditions in Benatsemay woreda. Three varieties of onion were planted under a complete randomized block design experiment with three replications at farmer’s field at Benatsemay woreda. Yield and yield component data like; plant height, number of leaves, bulb size and bulb yield of each varieties were collected. Bulb of all onion varieties were harvested at their maturity stage (90% tops down) and then weighted. SAS were used for data analysis. The result indicated that, the three varieties namely; Adama red, Nasick red and local contribute similarly to total yield, plant height, number of leaves and bulb size. The variety local was the best variety as it produced the highest bulb yield of 7.0033kg/plot numerically. Based on the result, we advise farmers to use local variety followed by Nasick red and Adama red therefore, government should promote these onion varieties for cultivation in Benatsemay woreda especially for Beneta kebele and its vicinity. Concerning body has to work together to ensure the availability of the seed of Local and Nasick red varieties. So that, onion producer can be interested for accepting these varieties for large scale production. The effects of different agricultural practices on yield of onion have to be considered for future investigation.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the potential of different onion varieties to increase the productivity and income of onion producer in the studied area and its vicinity.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1