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In order to study the cellular nanoparticles, leafy tissues fractionated to juice during which the upper supernatant obtained is deproteinised juice. This supernatant consists of the majority of the disposed nutrients passed through the juice by heating and isolation of leaf protein of the green crop. Silver nanoparticles has attracted much attention because of their unique shape-dependent optical, electrical, and chemical properties, have potential applications in biomedical proteomic molecular research. An attempt has been made to the formation of the nanoparticles by reduction of the aqueous metal ions during exposure to the broth of Colocasia, fenugreek, Basella and cruciferous leaves by light microscopy and UV–Vis spectroscopy. In earlier research, deproteinised juice found inhibiting the growth of fungi Trichoderma and cell division in the meristematic root tissues of Allium sp and Celosia argentia. During present investigation, it indicates that the constituents responsible were nanoparticles. Attempts were experimented the detection of nanoparticles in the DPJ prepared from various species. Colocasia DPJ found having spherical, irregular, hexagonal and triangular shaped nanoparticles. DPJ nanoparticles binds enzymes for its activation and interacts with cellular soluble proteins. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes presence of silver nanaoparticles in DPJ. It used novel methodology by microscop and spectroscopy. The formula is first attempt in leaf protein research. The contribution motivates to assess gold and nitrogen nanoparticles from fungi grown on DPJ. Biological Sciences » World Journal of Molecular Research » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1
Building a Project Culture through Research and Innovation Training of Future PhDs in Ukraine
Viktoriia Meniailo, Olexandr Gura
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice
Ever since the European model of training of PhD students has been introduced in Ukraine in 2016, the issue of finding effective forms and methods of doctoral studies has been raised in the national education system. The aim of this study is to present a strategy for creating a project culture in which PhD students develop and implement real projects and solve regional problems as a basis of their preparation for research and innovation activities. The main methods used in this study are the theoretical description of the program of research and innovation training of postgraduates using project-based learning and its application in practice. This program includes the following stages of project activities: preparatory, initiation, formation of the project team, analysis of the situation, development of the project concept, ?s well as: fundraising, implementation and concluding of the project. The effectiveness of training and its results were tested through empirical and statistical processing methods. The results of the experiments show the positive impact of the developed training program in building of the project culture and developing transferable skills of the future PhDs (instrumental, systemic, and interpersonal), as well as gaining of the pre-professional experience in the process of working on real projects. The study also reiterates the role and importance training in bringing effectiveness of research and innovation of postgraduates. Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution lies in finding a proposed curriculum for the training of the PhD students: implementation of research and innovation projects; formation of transferable skills; and involving of PhD-students in the solution of regional problems within the framework of the “third mission” of universities. Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 04-2019 Issue: 4
On the Component Analysis and Transformation of An Explicit Fifth – Stage Fourth – Order Runge – Kutta Methods
Agbeboh Goddy Ujagbe, Esekhaigbe Aigbedion Christopher
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research
This work is designed to transform the fifth stage – fourth order explicit Runge-Kutta method with the aim of projecting a new method of implementing it through tree diagram analysis. Efforts will be made to represent the equations derived from the y derivatives and x,y derivatives separately on Butcher’s rooted trees. This is because the rooted trees and derived equations for the y derivatives and x,y derivatives are the same for the explicit fourth-stage fourth-order methods, hence, we are motivated to analyze the fifth-stage fourth-order method. This idea is also derivable from general graphs and combinatorics. Contribution/ Originality
In order to study the balance relation between individual interests and its negative effects, based on a simple rational pigs game to allow robbing food whose negative game system is given by the axiomatic method. The research results are that a system regulation-free will lead to malignant states due to individuals’ immediate interests and that in a system with regulation, a bad equilibrium situation can change into a equilibrium situation with the best public welfare by adjusting some indices. An application to website management shows that the conclusion of this paper conforms to actual situations. Contribution/ Originality
This paper establishes a new axiomatic theory on rational pigs game which is a negative game of a rational pigs game to allow robbing food. The theory can be used to control and to adjust players’ the selfish behavior to injure the public interest to benefit their own private interest.
This paper outlines an effective and comprehensive public-private partnership approach that has the potential to enhance natural resource management (NRM) and improve access to essential community services (CS). The paper is based on the institutional and resource-dependency theories on the management of Kenya Coastal Development Project (KCDP) community development fund (Known in Swahili as Hazina ya Maendeleo ya Pwani, HMP), financed by Kenya Government through a loan from the World Bank at the Kenya coast. The HMP fund targets CS and NRM sub projects implemented by communities in the six coastal counties. To ensure sustainability of HMP financed sub projects, the framework involved strategic planning, system design, finance usage, implementation, and connection of theory and practice based on research and interpretation. KCDP data on HMP financed community projects implemented since 2013-2015 was used in the evaluation of project performance. Counties with enhanced security, and improved socio-economic status benefit the most in the project. The coastal communities were more willing-to-contribute towards implementation of CS than NRM projects due to consumptive nature attached to the former in the short term. Gender parity in the HMP participation occurred, attracting more women than men. By careful designation of the project management framework, sustainable management of natural resources and access to most immediate needs, considered crucial by coastal residents are highly likely to be met. Contribution/ Originality
This study documents and discusses a comprehensive public-private partnership approach for resource mobilization and capacity building towards sustainable delivery of essential social and ecosystem services for improved wellbeing of the communities along the Kenya coast.
Dengue fever is a fatal infection affecting the lives of the patients and this study was designed to further explore its pathological effects. A total of 200 consecutives of dengue viral infection were included in this prospective descriptive study conducted at the Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore from October, 2009 to September, 2010. A special proforma was designed to collect all the relevant clinical information from each patient. All the strip positive cases of dengue virus were further confirmed by performing IgM capture ELISA and then analyzed for hepatic impairment through liver function tests including serum bilirubin, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum ALT and AST. The results were then gathered and analyzed. The already existing liver diseases like hepatitis A, B, C, E and inherited liver disorders were not included in the study. Total number of patients included in study with Dengue IgM +ve were 200. Out of 200 cases 130 were male and 70 were females. The patients were categorized into two classes according to severity of sign symptoms like puerperal rash on the body. The classes are dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). The total number of DF cases was 28.50% (57/200) and number of DHF cases was 71.50% (143/200). The patients of DHF group were found to have more liver derangement that is 90.20% (128/200) while the patients belonging to DF group were at a less risk for impairment of liver function that is 9.80% (15/200). The patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever are more prone to have liver enzyme derangement and it has a direct relation with the titer IgM in the body of patients infected with dengue virus. The liver enzyme which are found to be more raised are serum ALT and AST while serum alkaline phosphatase and serum bilirubin are not markedly raised. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by exploring pathological effects of dengue fever in humans and relation with biochemical parameters. The logical analysis has primary contribution in its finding that dengue fever is more prevalent in males and serum liver enzyme level rises as IgM level raises.
The abnormalities of the kidney can be identified by ultrasound imaging. The kidney may have structural abnormalities like kidney swelling, or change in its position and appearance. Kidney abnormality may also arise due to the formation of stones, congenital anomalies, blockage of urine etc. For surgical operations it is very important to identify the exact and accurate location of stone in the kidney. The ultrasound images are of low contrast and contain speckle noise and could affect human body in some situations like pregnancy. This makes the detection of kidney abnormalities rather challenging task. Thus, microwave imaging could be a good alternative. A microstrip patch antenna scanning system allows to identify the exact and accurate location of stone in the kidney. A physical testing system will be developed in order to generate antenna response surfaces on material which could represent the human body. The serum is used in the experimental measurement because it has similar dielectric properties as human body. In order to represent stone presence in an homogenous medium, small calcium sto ne bearings of different sizes embedded are used to simulate the abnormality. Compact microstrip patch antenna were designed and tested at different frequencies in ISM band : 2.26 GHz, 2.38 GHz, 2.5 GHz, and 2.62 GHz for the RF investigation imaging system in order to detect and localize stones in the kidney. Contribution/ Originality
The current study aimed to demonstrate the hepatoprotective effect of chamomile extract and its role in relieving the ultrathin structure changes in liver tissue caused by 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D) using electron microscopy.This experiment was performed on 12 -14 weeks old male Wistar rats divided into six groups (six animals each). The first group was kept as control. The second and third groups received orally accumulative doses of 75 and 150 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.), of 2, 4- D respectively. The forth group received orally Chamomile extract (500 mg/kg b.wt.) alone. The last two groups received Chamomile extract with either doses of 2, 4-D (75 or 150 mg/kg b.wt). At the end of the experimental period (4 weeks), the liver was dissected and examined by electron microscope. Histopathological examination of liver sections of rats administered 2, 4-D75 mg/kg showed differences in nuclear shapes and size, envelope and increase in heterochromatin masses. Adminstration of 2, 4-D150mg/kg showed pyknosis and changes inmitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Kupffer cells, increases in lysosomes and lipid droplets. Chamomile group showed the normal control ultra structure of the liver. In group treated with chamomile and 2, 4-D75,there was improvements in all degenerative changes induced by 2, 4-D75. Chamomile and 2, 4-D150 groupshowed partial improvement in both nucleus and the mitochondria. Chamomile reduces the oxidative damage induced by 2, 4-D due to its antioxidant properties. It is recommended that Chamomile extract can be taken to ameliorate hepatotoxicity. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have demonstrated chamomile role in relieving hepatocytes ultrastructural changes caused by 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The paper's primary contribution is finding that chamomile has antioxidant effect against oxidative stress. This study documents the hepatoprotective effect of chamomile against 2,4- D toxicity.
In this communication, a new multi-antenna system based on two microstrip antennas is analyzed and proposed for LTE (Long Term Evolution) terminals. The multi-input multi-output (MIMO) antenna is printed on a FR4 substrate with size of 60×100×1.6 mm3. The proposed design, in its basic form, operates around 2.3 GHz, and provides a transmission coefficient of -19 dB. In order to improve the isolation between the two antenna ports, some rectangular and circular slots are inserted in the ground plane between the two antennas. With this modification, the mutual coupling of -59 dB was achieved, which are 40 dB improvements over the initial antenna. The simulated results are presented and discussed in term of reflection coefficients, transmission coefficients and radiation patterns. Contribution/ Originality
This study presents a new antenna design, proposed for MIMO/LTE application. This proposed antenna provide a low mutual coupling (less than -59 dB) between the two ports which ensure a high isolation.
This paper introduces a novel design of aperture coupled microstrip antenna for MIMO array applications. The proposed antenna uses 2x4 patches excited from two ports via rectangular slots. HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator) and CST (Computer Simulation Technology)softwares are used to simulate the antennas performance. The results are given in term of S-parameters, radiation patterns and gain. In addition a parametric study is done to evaluate the effect of certain antenna parameters on the antenna performances. Form the simulated result, it is concluded that the proposed concept provides a good isolation between the two antenna ports (with low mutual coupling, S12/21 < -28 dB) and high gain. In addition, the obtained results are in good agreement. Contribution/ Originality
This study presents a new multi-input multi-output antenna array with a reduced coupling between the two antenna ports.
In this paper, we study the ability of quantum networks to support both random and non-random data traffic single-photon quantum communications signals on a shared infrastructure. The effect of wave length on distance coverage with the quantum bit error rate (QBER) of a quantum key distribution (QKD) system is increasing. The results of random phase showed minimal distance coverage over non-random phase. For fluctuating amplitude of random show a change in system performance improved sending capabilities. Hence, it is found that rare fluctuations should not degrade system performance significantly, but the data sending mode has a significant effect on channel integrity. Contribution/ Originality
This study presents an original structure of generalized quantum key distribution suitable for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) application.
In this paper, a novel integrated dual-port rectangular dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) is presented for 802.11a WLAN system applications. The antenna structure is formed by integrating the concept of antenna array with a single DRA element to produce a radiation characteristic necessity. The array is composed of four identical rectangular DRA elements placed on a horizontal ground plane and separated by a distance of 0.54λ at design frequency of 5.97 GHz, excited through rectangular shaped aperture slots by a microstrip transmission line from port 1. The central element fed from port 2 by 50 Ohm microstrip line via a slot etched on the ground plane. The designed proposed antenna sized of 60×80×0.672 mm3 operates over the frequency band between 5 and 6 GHz for VSWR < 2. The simulated average gain is 10.55 dB for port 1, and 5.92 dB for port 2. Simulations are performed using both CST Microwave studio employing the Finite Integration Technique (FIT) and Ansoft HFSS employing the Finite Element Method (FEM). Good agreement is obtained for main antenna characteristics such as the reflections coefficient and transmission coefficient. The results confirm that the proposed structure suitable for reconfigurable gain applications with good isolation between the two structure ports. Contribution/ Originality
This study proposed a new structure of integrated single/array Dielectric Resonator Antenna for reconfigurable applications.
It has been demonstrated that the single TiO2 has high capabilites for photodegradation process for all types pollutants. However, TiO2 are still far from becoming a potential candidate for photocatalytic system due to weakness for the adsorbtion process, separation as well as dissolution during the treatment. Therefore, this study highlights on the highly adsorption, easy separation and promising stability of TiO2(SY) photocatalyst by fabrication of Chitosan-TiO2(SY) supported glass substrate (Cs-TiO2(SY)/Glass substrate) photocatalysts. Cs with abundant R-NH and NH2 groups promotes adsorption sites of synthetic dyes. Meanwhile, present of glass substrate support increase the stability and easy separation of the potocatalysts. The fabrication process Cs- TiO2(SY)/Glass substrate has been done through dip-coating methods. Further analyzed by the adsorption photodegradation with Methyl Orange (MO) as a model of synthetic dyes compound. Approximately, 70% of total removal of MO by optimize 8 layers of photocatalyst analysis has been achieved within 1 hour of UV irradiation. Besides that, the adsorption photocatalyst has been achieved about 50% when no exposure of light for 15 minutes irradiation. It concluded that, a suitable photocatalytic conditions and sample parameters, possessing the Cs-TiO2(SY) gave the benefits of adsorption-photodegradation practice in the abatement of wastewater contaminants. Contribution/ Originality
In the present study, a sol-gel dip-coating process was used to deposit almost stress free highly c-axis oriented nanostructured ZnO thin films on glass substrates. The effects of low silver doping concentration (Ag ? 1 at.%) on the structural, morphological and optical properties of such films were investigated using different characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements have revealed that all the ?lms were single phase and had a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The grain size values were calculated and found to be about 24-29 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images have shown that film morphology and surface roughness were influenced by Ag doping concentration. Optical properties such as transmittance and optical bandgap energy (Eg) were examined using UV-Visible spectrophotometry. The results have indicated that all the prepared ?lms were highly transparent with average visible transmission values ranging from 80% to 86%. Moreover, it was found that the Ag contents leads to widening of the bandgap. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the preparation of low Ag-doped ZnO thin films by the sol-gel dip-coating technique. It was put into evidence that incorporation of low Ag concentrations (Ag ? 1 at.%) in ZnO can indeed improve its physical properties.
The Measurement Inversion Vertical Electrical Logging (IVEL) in the Regency of Muara Enim Indonesia aims at measuring and mapping the resistivity associated with the spread of lithologi coal seam as Coal Bed Methane reservoirs (CBM). Resistivity measurements of new method performed with the sounding system as much as 5 points, with spaces between the point of 100-200 m, range of penetration achieved with these measurements to a depth of 500 m from the ground surface. The results of the processing and interpretation of data from the IVEL indicate that on site research was generally dominated by layers of rock and clay shale with a resistivity less than 2 Ohm.m as well as sandstones 2-5 Ohm.m. while the coal layer was found at the depth of 60 to 80 meters,100 to 180 meters, and 340 to 350 meters above the resistivity value of 5 Ohm.m. Contribution/ Originality
New method in data acquisition to extract structural and lithological information. A IVEL survey for coal seam exploration should be designed by using Schlumberger electrode configuration.
In today’s world, the biological sciences are mostly considered separate from the existing modern knowledge of various other fields of sciences and engineering; however, there are many properties of nature and known facts of biological sciences that can be proved in the other domains of science and technology as well. Correlation of the geometric and buoyant properties of the swimming animals with the hybrid buoyant aerial vehicles is an example of this hypothesis. In the present work, some experiments related to the geometric parameters of a California sea lion were carried out. It was found that the fineness ratio of this animal is of the same order as the optimum value of that for the condition of minimum drag and power required for the buoyant aerial vehicle. The role of multiple fins on the elongated bodies of shark is also discussed in its application for yaw stability as well as to shroud the antennas that are used in the aircraft for various communication systems. Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is to show that the hydrodynamic and a few geometric parameters of a California Sea Lion resemble to that of the well-known facts of buoyant and hybrid buoyant aerial vehicles.
The aim of research to study the character and analyze the phenotypic diversity among variants swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Pampangan at Ogan Komering Ilir, South Sumatera. Quantitative data are determined by the circumference of the chest (Li Da), body length (Pa Ba), tail length (Pa Ek), the length of the head (Pa Ke), head width (Le Ke) and hip height (Ti Pi). Qualitative data is determined based on the character of each variant shown through the hair color, the shape and direction of growth of the horn. Characteristics that indicate of genetic relationship between the variant of swamp buffalo. Methods of observations carried out directly on the morphology and methods NTSYS Ver. 2.1 to the analysis of kinship and then presented in the form of a dendrogram. Results showed that there are four variants of buffalo Pampangan namely red buffalo, black buffalo, buffalo striped and Lampung buffalo. Morphology of buffalo such as body size, hair color, shape and direction of growth of the horns is different. Genetic relationship shown with value of correlation coefficient 0.57 was found in group A (OTU-1) and group B (OTU-2, OTU-3 and OTU-4), and value of correlation coefficient 0.612 found in group A (OTU-2 and OTU-4) and group B (OTU-3). The correlation coefficient of more than 0.57 indicates a kinship between the variance of the swamp buffalo Pampangan relatively close. It is suspected inbreeding between variants tends to be high. The analysis also showed that the closest genetic relationships found in OTU-2 (black buffalo) and OTU-4 (buffalo Lampung) with a correlation coefficient 0.85. This condition is believed that the OTU-2 and OTU-4 derived from the same lineage. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studied which have investigated about the characteristics of local endemic animals that have the potential to be developed or preserved. Swamp buffalo in South Sumatra is the local animal with the potential to be cultivated and become a major food source.
Hybrid electric vehicles have gained attention throughout the globe with its advantage of green technology and reduced greenhouse gases emission. Moreover, hybrid vehicles being powered by battery would be the best option of replacing current petrol or gas dependent vehicles. There are drawbacks though; battery has limited lifetime and is very costly. Hence, it is hybridized with other energy storage systems such as supercapacitor. This paper focuses on the energy management system for the energy storage system consisting battery and supercapacitor of a hybrid electric vehicle using fuzzy logic based controller. The energy management system, which manages energy feed between battery and supercapacitor, is then simulated in Matlab/Simulink to verify its reliability and validity of operation. Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding an energy management that could distribute or split energy between two sources of which in this paper is using battery and supercapacitor. The energy management in this paper uses fuzzy logic control to split the energy between the two energy sources.
Islamic architecture has a clear impact for systems and the relationships of Mathematical and Geometrical proportions , which reflected in their buildings. The research will deal with an important aspect that linked in two mains elements in the Congregational Mosques. The first is a house of prayer (Al-mousala) as the main and most importantly space in the mosque, and the second is a dome as structural and decorative element, who was significantly associated with Congregational Mosques later. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the kind of the Mathematical& Geometrical proportions relationship, also the spatial linking of these two elements with each other's. Through the statistical analysis that links the relationship between their different dimensions and the positioning kind of the main dome on a house of prayer (Al-mousala). For this purpose the resaerch has been selected two sets of samples. The first models include a different regions of Islamic Congregational Mosques represent different patterns of Congregational Mosques as a sample of general Islamic architecture while the second comprises a number of Congregational Mosques in Mosul city, a representative of the local architecture. Contribution/ Originality
Cheese analogues are cheese-like products with varied compositions and functional properties which produced by partial or whole replacement of milk components, in particular milk fat, by non milk-based components. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of replacement of milk fat in processed cheese with different formulations from olive, corn and sesame oils on some chemical and sensory properties. The results indicated that the peroxide values were not affected by the replacement of milk fat with vegetable oils significantly (P <0.05), while the free fatty acid content was slightly but significantly affected. These two values were significant (P <0.05) increased during the three months of storage. The cholesterol contents in the cheese samples with olive, sesame and corn oils were 86.9, 84%, and 83.1%, respectively lower than those of the whole milk cheese sample. The replacement of milk fat with vegetable oils did not affect the appearance, color and tenderness of the processed cheese samples. The replacement of milk fat with vegetable oil significantly (P <0.05) affected the flavor of the cheese analogue samples. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the influence of the olive and sesame oil on the chemical and sensorial properties of processed cheese analogue.