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Listing 4 - 20 of 2005 results.

Explicit Numerical Solution of High - Dimensional Advection - Diffusion

Research Article
Author(s): Elham Bayatmanesh
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
The Several numerical techniques have been developed and compared for solving the one-dimensional and three-dimentional advection-diffusion equation with constant coefficients. the subject has played very important roles to fluid dynamics as well as many other field of science and engineering. In this article, we will be presenting the of n-dimentional and we neglect the numerical examples.
Contribution/ Originality


Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 06-2013 Issue: 3

Mathematical Analysis of the Impact of Real Exchange Rate on Output Growth and Inflation: The Case of Tanzania Zanzibar

Research Article
Author(s): Khamis Khalid Said, Eliab Luvanda, Estomih S. Massawe
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
This paper examines the dynamic relationship between stationary time series for the impact of real exchange rate on output growth and inflation in Tanzania: Zanzibar using vector autoregressive (VAR) model. The impact of the real exchange rate on economic performance in Tanzania using VAR approach shows that the main sources of variance decomposition in the volume of tourism and inflation are in their own shocks. Impulse response functions analysis show that the response generated by itself at short run and vanishing at the long run, and the inflation and number of tourism has no instantaneous impact on the first difference of real exchange rate. Variance decomposition analysis show that the impact of number of tourism arrival on real exchange rate increases monotonically to the long-run. Thus analysis show that 98 percent of the variance of number of tourism arrival is generated by its own innovations, while only 87 percent of the variance of inflation is generated by its own innovations and about 99 percent of the variance of real exchange rate generated by its own innovations. Furthermore; the real exchange rate is Granger causal to both inflation and number of tourism, while the number of tourism is Granger Causal to the inflation.
Contribution/ Originality


Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 08-2013 Issue: 4

Discrimination and Classification of Poultry Feeds Data

Research Article
Author(s): Olosunde A.A., Soyinka A.T
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
This study is aimed at employing discriminant analysis method and classification for the purpose of achieving the assessment of a discriminant function through which we can discover the reasons of the actual difference between two groups of eggs of which the chicken were fed with different combination of feeds. Fisher’s Linear Discriminant Function (LDA) was used as a tool for the Statistical analysis. It was estimated on the basis of a sample of 96 chickens, which were classified into two groups of 48 chickens each. One group was fed with in-organic copper salt combination while the second group with organic copper salt combination. Some important attributes are measured from the eggs produced from these two groups; such as egg’s size(g) and cholesterol level(mg).The results obtained assert the efficiency of the discriminant function which we obtained and the possibility of its use for the purpose of discriminating and classifying the eggs of unknown feeds into corresponding group in future.
Contribution/ Originality


Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 10-2013 Issue: 5

Compost Adoption in Northern Ghana

Research Article
Author(s): Imogen Bellwood-Howard
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
Despite describing a decline in soil fertility, Northern Ghanaian smallholders have not universally adopted use of organic, sustainable soil amendments such as compost. Farmers’ decisions about whether to use compost depend on their need and ability to do so. The agroecological context of a single rainfall season with low soil organic matter means that farmers’ need to compost is a paramount factor determining their decision to do so. Rogers ‘diffusion’ model of innovation adoption, that emphasizes the role of communication, is therefore relevant. However, farmers’ ability to transport compost is constrained by a lack of financial capital, meaning there is little opportunity for the participatory extension approach that places similar importance upon need and communication.
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 04-2013 Issue: 2

The Development of Participated Environmental Education Model for Sustainable Mangrove Forest Management on Eastern Part of Thailand

Research Article
Author(s): Chavalit Kigpiboon
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
The objectives of this study were to find factors and environmental education models affecting the participation of people in sustainable mangrove forest management to develop and to evaluate participated environmental education model for sustainable mangrove forest management in the eastern part of Thailand.  This study employed the mixed method and was divided into  3 steps. In the first step, the quantitative method was used for studying facts and factors affecting participation of people to solve mangrove deforestation. The sample sampling was used to selected the samples as household in Chanthaburi province by using multiple-step sampling method. The second step employed the qualitative method for environmental education models design. The aimed of this step were to analyze environmental education model for mangrove forest management in successful institutes and find important compositions of environmental education. In the last step, the environmental education model arranged activities according to the process and was evaluated by quantitative method for validation, efficiency, and appropriateness. Research findings revealed that: 1) Knowledge, understanding and experience in mangrove forest management were the important factors affecting to participation of people in mangrove forest management on the eastern part of Thailand. 2) The most appropriate environmental education model for mangrove forest management on the eastern part of Thailand contained the procedures and compositions as objective of environmental education model, content about mangrove forest management, workshop, evaluation and special factors. 3) Assessment of the environmental skill in sustainable mangrove forest management. It was found that the experimental group  had their environmental skill after workshop were statistically different at .05 significant level.
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 06-2013 Issue: 3

Study on Environment and Energy Using Belonging Materials

Research Article
Author(s): T. Kobayashi, H. Kanematsu, R. Hashimoto, K. Morisato, N. Ohashi, H. Yamasaki, S. Takamiya
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
A trial to quantify CO2 emission by utilizing our belonging materials has been conducted. For the Polymer electrode membrane Fuel Cell (PEFC) system, the reduction of more than 23% CO2 emission was measured under a practical operation in a family of Okayama prefecture. The statistical data of the CO2 emission obtained from the student’s homes has shown that the highest CO2 emission results from the commercial electric power, then gasoline for automobile and kerosene follow thereafter, which is consistent with the trend of the average aspect in Japan. In terms of the high efficiency lighting, the plane lighting source like Organic LED is ideal in view of heat transfer, and the multiple point lighting source is more advantageous than the small number of point lighting source.
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 08-2013 Issue: 4

Marxist Political Economy and the Crisis of Relevance in Contemporary World

Research Article
Author(s): Uwem Essia, Ifere Eugene Okoi
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
This paper set out to support the Marx’s thesis that an economic system founded on exploitation and inequities is prone to crises. It agrees however that some assumptions of Marx have been faulted with passage of time, but maintains that Marxism remains relevant as long as its central message cannot be faulted. The methodology adopted was both historical and comparative. The historical approach was used to situate Marxism within the stream of dominant economic thought, and show how well it explains the various historical epochs from primitive era to the more recent post modern societies. The comparative approach was used to review the socialist governments in China and the defunct USSR. The outcome of both approaches point to the fact that Marxism needs to restructure itself to remain continually relevant. More importantly, neo-Marxists need to admit the possibility of change emanating simultaneously from both the political superstructure and the economic base, which among other things, make incorporation of Hegel’s phenomenology into mainstream Marxism expedient.
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 10-2013 Issue: 5

The Impact of Investment Climate Reforms on the Development of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Nigeria: A Policy Brief

Research Article
Author(s): Okezie Goodluck Nwokoma, Ms. Uche Idoko, James Oneal Ebere
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
Due to the relevance of SMEs in the economy of the African continent, it is relevant to re-evaluate how best to apply financial and non-financial resources to the sector, to achieve its full potentials. The investment climate and business environment within which SMEs operate are very important indices in measuring their status. This survey has examined them in Lagos, Abuja and Port Harcourt, Nigeria.Huge potentials exist in each of the states in regards to the contributions of SMEs to their local economies. However, due to political instability, ethnic crises, crime and corruption, the status of SMEs in Nigeria is still at the primary stage. Large amounts of resources have been spent from own-country finances, and foreign aids. But ineffective programming and inefficient implementation of policies by national, state and Local Area Government agencies have left the investment in the firms without much profit.Current polices for SMEs provide financial, technical and logistic supports. However, these policies are only well-documented than acted upon. In some instances where government officials implement any policy, they are not directed to the small investors, but to the big ones and in some cases, such implementations are done on relationship basis. This practice succeeds in Nigeria because of corrupt legal systems and the refusal of SME operators to register and participate in the activities of unions and government agencies. Though there is a risk of undue interference by the officials of these bodies, but the progress of the firms hinges basically on structured and equitable distribution of available supports. Stand alone firms do not maximize the access to government supports. When every SME registers with and attends meetings of unions and government agencies that offer necessary services to it, such businesses will be well coordinated, operators will access available support facilities and there will be internal synergy within SMEs groups through knowledge sharing and mutual logistic support. Further, corrupt government officials will be constrained in executing such practices. This is because a union of SMEs will have a voice which can be heard and respected.
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 12-2013 Issue: 6

The Technical Efficiency of Collective Irrigation Schemes in South-Eastern of Tunisia

Research Article
Author(s): Mahdhi Naceur, Sghaier Mongi
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to asses the technical efficiency (TE) and proposes a measure for irrigation water efficiency (IE) based on the concept of input-specific technical efficiency for a sample of 46 irrigators inZeuss-Koutine region (South eastern Tunisia). In this paper, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to quantify TE and IE.A major finding of the study is that the irrigation systems are clearly inefficient. Under constants returns to scale (CRS) specification, the average technical efficiency of the sample was 71.75%. A similar pattern of scores was shown for IE; although in this case the average IE was even lower (49.9%) indicating that if farmers became more efficient using the technology currently available, the same level of output can be produced using the same level of other inputs but with, on average, 50.1% less water irrigation. In a second stage, critical determinants of sub-vector efficiency are determined using a Tobit model. Education level (EDU) and agricultural training (AGT) showed a significant impact on the subvector efficiency for water. Such information is valuable for extension services and policy makers since it can help guide policies towards increased efficiency.
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 12-2013 Issue: 6

Removal of Heavy Metals from Synthesis Industrial Wastewater Using Local Isolated Candida Utilis and Aspergillus Niger as Bio-Filter

Research Article
Author(s): Safaa Abd Alrasool Ali
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
In this study biomass filter of Candida Utilis which isolated from food sample in Baghdad local market and Aspergillus Niger which isolated from Baghdad  soil used to biosorption heavy metals from synthesis industrial wastewater. two bio-filters were designed as cylindrical Perspex with height 10cm, diameter 3cm as a shell and inside their are layers of Sponge were prepare as the size of diameter of the cylindrical filter with thickness of 2cm arrange inside it, biomass production were 6 g of Aspergillus Niger and 5.6 g of Candida Utilis spreads between Sponges. pH, residence time,  flow rate  were tested as parameters, Optimum removal efficiency of Chromium, Lead, and Nickel were 89%, 90%, and 91% for Aspergillus Niger bio-filter, while it was 81%, 83%, 80% for Candida Utilis bio-filter at pH 6, residence time 10 min, flow rate 9 ml/min.
Contribution/ Originality


Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 05-2013 Issue: 5

Water Quality Assessment Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates in a Periurban Stream (Cameroon)

Research Article
Author(s): Foto Menbohan S, Tchakonte S, Ajeagah Gideon A, Zebaze Togouet S. H, Bilong Bilong C.F, Njine T
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
In order to assess the water quality of Nga stream, the right tributary of Mefou, physicochemical variables were coupled to benthic macroinvertebrates communities. Physicochemical results revealed a good health status of the Nga stream, with significant differences of conductivity observed between stations and months (P < 0.05). Of the 2553 individuals collected (4 phyla, 7 classes, 15 orders, 74 families and 117 genera), Arthropods (99.25%) was dominated by the class of Hexapods (63.85%), followed by Decapods (35.41%), which were mainly predominated by Atyidae family (34.86%). Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera (EPT) group (14.69%) constituted 25 families and 42 genera. EPT/Chironomidae density ratio varied significantly between stations and months (P < 0.05), while a significant correlation existed between temperature and dissolved oxygen (P < 0.05), temperature and pH, ammonia and nitrites (P < 0.05), Decapods and dissolved oxygen and Ephemeroptera and low degradable organic matter (P < 0.05). The Sorensen’s similarity coefficient expressed a close resemblance between stations Nga 1 and 3 (76.09%) and Nga 1 and 4 (77.69%). Shannon and Weaver and Pielou index revealed a diversified and equal distribution of macrozoobenthos downstream. The rank frequency diagram situated station Nga 1 at the growth phase and Nga 2, 3 and 4 at the maturation phase. The Hilsenhoff index (3.30 - 4.96) indicates good to excellent water status. The results of Nga stream could present referential characteristics used to follow up the evolution status of streams in non anthropisized zones of Cameroon.
Contribution/ Originality


Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 05-2013 Issue: 5

Performance Evaluation of Hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor in the Treatment of Dairy Waste Water

Research Article
Author(s): R. Thenmozhi, R.N. Uma
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
Dairy industries have shown tremendous growth in size and number in most countries of the world. These industries discharge wastewater which is characterized by high chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, nutrients, and organic and inorganic contents. Such wastewaters, if discharged without proper treatment, severely pollute receiving water bodies. For treatment of dairy waste water, several physical, chemical and biological methods are available. However, dairy waste responds best to the biological processes the heavily aerated effluent is brought in contact with microorganisms, which oxidize its organic matter to carbon dioxide and water. In anaerobic processes, the microorganisms convert organic matter to biogas and cell biomass. To start with a digester was inoculated with 10%of volume of the reactor and the remaining space was filled with dairy waste water with an organic loading rate of 2.5g/l/day, 3.0g/l/day and 3.5g/l/day and was acclimatized for the development of microbial population and 10% of the reactor was left for gas collection.
Contribution/ Originality


Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 05-2013 Issue: 5

Antimicrobial Activity of Orange Oil on Selected Pathogens

Research Article
Author(s): Obidi O. F., Adelowotan A. O., Ayoola G. A, Johnson O. O., Hassan M. O., Nwachukwu S. C. U.
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
The antimicrobial activity of orange oil extracted by steam distillation from peels of orange fruits (Citrus sinensis) was screened against some medically important microorganisms. Gram-positive bacteria (Staphyloccocus aureus 001, S. aureus ATCC 25923, Enteroccocus feacalis 002, E. feacalis ATCC 295212); Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa 003, Escherichia. Coli 004, E. coli ATCC 29522) and fungi (Candida albicans 010, C. albicans ATCC 90028) were used. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of orange oil was estimated using disc diffusion method at concentrations ranging from (1.65-422 mg/ml). Orange oil exhibited inhibitory effects against all the organisms. The MICs observed for the isolates were: S. aureus 001 (1.65 mg/ml), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (0.69 mg/ml), Enterococcus feacalis 002 (0.09 mg/ml), E. feacalis ATCC 295212 (0.05 mg/ml), P. aeruginosa 003 (1.85 mg/ml), E. coli 004 (1.37 mg/ml), E. coli ATCC 29522 (0.82 mg/ml), C. albicans 010 (0.02 mg/ml), C. albicans ATCC 90028 (0.01 mg/ml). The GC-MS revealed that orange oil contained  mainly cyclohexane, 1-methylene-4-(1-methylethenyl; bicyclo [4.1.0] hept-2-ene, 3,7,7-trimethyl; D-limonene; 1, 6-octadien-3-ol, 3,7-dimethy-l,2-aminobenzoate; 3-cyclohexen-1-ol, 4-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl); 2-cyclohexen-1-ol, 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl); 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol; 3- furanacetic acid, 4-hexyl-2, 5-dihydro-2,5-dioxo; naphthalene, 1,2,3,5,6, 8a-hexahydro-4,7-dimethyl- 1-(1-methylethyl) -, (1S-cis) and n-hexadecanoic acid. The result indicated that orange oils have antimicrobial properties and may be applied in local therapies in the treatment of diseases caused by the microorganisms tested.  Further research is needed to achieve appropriate formulation.
Contribution/ Originality


Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 06-2013 Issue: 6

The Prevalence of Alcaligenes Faecalis in Bacteremia, Meningitis and Wound Sepsis in a Tertiary Health Care Institution in Western Part of Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): R M Mordi, E O Yusuf, S O Onemu, C L Igeleke, E E Odjadjare
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
The objective of this study is to determine the rate of recovery of Alcaligenes faecalis from clinical specimens of blood, cerebrospinal fluid and wound swabs and the antibiogram in a tertiary healthcare institution. The design was prospective and cross-sectional. The subjects for the study were patients seen at the various facilities in the hospital. There were two thousand and eight hundred patients made up of 1025 (36.6%) adult males; 1475 (52.7%) adult females while 300(10.7%) were children. Specimens of wound, blood culture and cerebrospinal fluid were collected from the various facilities in the hospital for microscopy, culture and sensitivity. Isolates were identified by morphological characteristics and biochemical tests using the protocol of Cowan and Steel. Isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by the disc diffusion method of Kirby-Bauer. 1577 wound samples yielded 165(5.99%) Alcaligenes organisms.933 blood samples yielded 6(0.21%) Alcaligenes organism while 290 cerebrospinal fluid samples yielded 4(0.14%) Alcaligenes faecalis and they had varied susceptibility to the various antimicrobials. Despite the very low percentage of Alkaligenes faecalis in the study its ability to produce extended spectrum beta-lactamase enzymes makes it a potential pathogen. Measures were advanced for the control of the organism.
Contribution/ Originality


Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 07-2013 Issue: 7

Growth Analysis of Forage Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor L) Varieties under Varying Salinity and Irrigation Frequency

Research Article
Author(s): Saberi A. R., Siti Aishah H.
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
Growth of forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties was assessed under saline conditions (EC 0, 5, 10, 15 dS m-1) and irrigated when the leaf water potential reached -1(control),-1.5 and -2 MPa. The forage sorghum varieties namely Speedfeed and KFS4 were differed significantly for emergence, leaf area index, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate. Plants grown under water stress and saline conditions resulted in decreased leaf area which subsequently led to reduced plant growth. Infrequently watered sorghum plants had reduced dry mater, LAI, NAR and eventually dry matter yield. These reductions were higher when lower irrigation frequency was coupled with salinity.  The highly significant declined was mostly at -2 MPa irrigation frequency. This indicates that irrigation at 2 weeks interval or till leaf water potential reaches to -1.5 MPa, is possible for forage sorghum.
Contribution/ Originality


Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 07-2013 Issue: 7

Influence of Potassium and Boron on Some Traits in Wheat (Triticum Aestivum Cv. Darab2)

Research Article
Author(s): Mahdi Zare, Masoud Zadehbagheri, Arash Azarpanah
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
The boron element is unique among the essential elements in that a narrow range in concentration can mean the difference between plant deficiency and plant toxicity. Effect of potassium on boron toxicity reduction in wheat was evaluated at Agriculture Research Station located in Jahrom, Iran, during 2009. An experiment was conducted in a factorial experiment based on Completely Randomized Design (CRD) in three replications. The treatments were four levels of B (0, 20, 40 and 60 mg) and four levels of K (0, 25, 50 and 75 mg). The studied traits were number of spikes plant -1, number of kernels spike-1, 1000 seed weight, biological yield, harvest index and seed yield. The results demonstrated that all of traits except biological yield were increased when K element was applied. On the other hand, all of traits were decreased when B levels were increased. It seems to be that soils containing higher boron concentration were considered to probably cause B toxicity. B1 × K4 and B4 × K1 interaction effects had the highest and lowest seed yield (8.92 and 1.15 ton ha-1, respectively), indicating that K promotes photosynthesis and transport assimilates of carbohydrates to the storages organs. In this research, 1000 seed weight had the highest correlation with seed yield.
Contribution/ Originality


Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 08-2013 Issue: 8

In Vitro Susceptibility of 57 Isolates of Plasmodium Falciparum to Atovaquone And Lumefantrine in Abidjan

Research Article
Author(s): Trebissou Jonhson Noel David, Beourou Sylvain, Bla Brice k, Yavo William, Djaman Allico Joseph
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
To evaluate the in vitro chemosensitivityof Plasmodium  falciparum isolates to lumefantrine (LUM) and atovaquone (ATO).  The measurement of the in vitro activity of the two antimalaria molecules was conducted according to the microtest optical variant of the WHO. Out of 64 Plasmodium falciparum isolates tested, 57 (89%) gave interpretable results of in vitro culture. It was found that 67% of them were susceptible to LUM against 33% who were resisting. All were sensitive to ATO. The presence of Plasmodium falciparum isolates resistant to LUM could compromise the effectiveness of artemether-lumefantrine recommended in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Côte d’Ivoire. While the combination atovaquone / proguanil is a suitable regimen for malaria prophylaxis.
Contribution/ Originality


Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 09-2013 Issue: 9

Nutrient Concentration of Forage Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor L) Varieties Under Influenced Of Salinity and Irrigation Frequency

Research Article
Author(s): Saberi A. R, Siti Aishah H.
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
The responses of forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)Moench] varieties to salinity and irrigation frequency were studied from December 2008 to December 2009 at Universiti Putra Malaysia. Two salt tolerant varieties of forage sorghum, namely Speedfeed and KFS4, were grown under salinity levels of 0, 5, 10, 15 dS m-1 and irrigated when the leaf water potential reached -1(control),-1.5 and -2 MPa. Salinity and irrigation frequency significantly (P?0.01) affected nutrient concentration of forage sorghum varieties tested. The factorial treatment combinations were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications.Sodium content decreased 7 and 17% among the irrigation frequency treatments of -1.5 and -2 MPa, respectively. Abrupt increases in Na contents were noticed at 5 and 10 dS m-1 salinity when Na accumulation increased 4 to 9 fold. Potassium diminished 29, 38 and 54% under 5, 10 and 15 dS m-1 salinity treatment respectively, and decreased 4 and 10% with increase in water stress to -1.5 and -2 MPa respectively. Accumulation of K+, Ca2+ and Mg+ in the shoots was strongly inhibited by salinity.Salinity substantially reduced plant growth as reflected by a decrease in the dry forage yields, and percent of mortality at high salinity levels. The maximum dry forage yields were 45.1, 38.9, and 38.5 g plant–1 for frequent, intermediate, and infrequent irrigation regimes, respectively.  Based on salinity, the forage dry weight in control plants had the highest yield (44.09 g plant–1), while plants under the high salinity treatment gave the lowest yield (32.76 g plant–1).
Contribution/ Originality


Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 10-2013 Issue: 10

In Vitro Regenarationof Artemisia Annua (Wormwood) Using Seed Explants

Research Article
Author(s): Tahir S. M., Usman I.S., Katung M. D., Ishiyaku M. F
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
The most effective concentration of some plant growth hormones on the in vitro regeneration of Artemisia annua using seed explants was investigated in the Biotechnology Laboratory of Plant Science Department of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Fresh and healthy seeds of a Chinyong variety were sourced, sterilized and inoculated on a full and half strengths Murashige & Skoog basal media supplemented with varying concentrations of plant growth hormones using the procedure of Hamish, 1998. Combined treatment of GA3 (1.0 µm/l) and NAA (0.5 µm/l) in a half strength MS media recorded the fewer days to germination. Highest germination percentage was observed at combination of GA3 (2.0 µm/l) and BAP (0.5 µm/l) in a full strength MS media. Equal concentration of combined GA3 and BAP (ie 0.5 µm/l) in a full strength MS media had the best vigor, followed by varying concentration of GA3 (2.5 µm/l) and NAA (0.5 µm/l) in a half strength MS media. Highest seedling height was observed at equal concentration of combined GA3 and BAP (ie 0.5 µm/l) in a full strength MS media. This was followed by varying concentration of GA3 (0.5 µm/l) and NAA (1.0 µm/l) in a full strength MS media. Result of Analysis of Variance indicated significant difference among some of the treatments compared with the control (P?0.05). Treating Artemisia seeds using these plant growth hormones had reduced the effect of the phenolic secretions reported on the seeds thereby enhancing its germination. Therefore, this is a promising approach to faster in vitro regeneration of Artemisia plant.
Contribution/ Originality


Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 11-2013 Issue: 11

Response Surface Methodology Optimization of Deproteinization from Sardine (Sardina Pilchardus) Scale of Moroccan Coast

Research Article
Author(s): F. Bellali, M. Kharroubi, FZ. Lahlou, M. Lotfi, Y. Radi, N. Bourhim
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
The present study was designed to determine the optimum conditions for the deproteinization of Moroccan sardine scale (Sardina pilchardus) by using a central composite design of response surface methodology.A central composite design was consisted of eight experimental points and five replications at the center point, which was used to determine the effects of two independent variables (NaOH concentration and treatment time) on hydroxyproline content. A second-order polynomial model was used for predicting the response. Until now, a very few researchers has focused on deproteinization of scale by using a surface response methodology. The results showed the optimal conditions for lowest value of response when the concentration of NaOH was 0.5% and the treatment time was 4h. The experimental value for the hydroxyproline content was 2.46mg/l. That result was in agreement with the predicted value, which indicates that the model used was adequate for deproteinization step.
Contribution/ Originality


Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 11-2013 Issue: 11