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Listing 8 - 20 of 1965 results.

Importance of Corporate Governance Quality and Voluntary Disclosures of Corporate Governance Information in Listed Malaysian Family Controlled Businesses

Research Article
Author(s): Norziana Lokman, Joseph M Mula, Julie Cotter
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
This paper investigates the impact of family control on the association between corporate governance quality and voluntary disclosures of corporate governance information of publicly listed Malaysian family controlled businesses. In addition, the impact of incentive factors are also examined for both family and non-family controlled businesses in relation to voluntary disclosures. The findings suggest that the positive association between corporate governance quality and voluntary disclosures is weaker in family controlled businesses. Stock-based compensation significantly impacts the association.
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 02-2014 Issue: 1

New Evidence on the Link Between Income Inequality and Misery Index: A Nonlinear Time Series Analysis

Research Article
Author(s): Seyed Kamal Sadeghi , Maryam Barzegar Marvasti , Reza Karbor
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
This paper investigates the relationship between the misery index and income inequality by estimating a nonlinear time series model in Iran from 1972 to 2011. Misery index, defined as the sum of the unemployment rate plus the annual rate of inflation. We showed that the dynamics of the mentioned relationship can be well approximated by a class of smooth transition autoregressive (STAR) models using the level of misery index as a transition variable. The findings indicated that by increasing misery index upper its threshold value, as counted 49.52, a strongly positive link is existed between two variables. However, any significant relationship was not confirmed for misery index in lower than 49.52.
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 02-2014 Issue: 1

Seasonal Variation of the Water Quality of the Senegal River (Mauritania)

Research Article
Author(s): Abdoulaye Demba NDIAYE, Mohamed Ould Sid Ahmed Ould KANKOU
Journal: International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research

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Abstract
The aim ofthis studyis to monitor and to assessthe physicochemicalwater qualityof the river Senegal during the rainy and dry season. The conventional physico-chemical parameters (pH, EC and DO), dissolved and suspended particles (turbidity and TSS), OM and nitrateswere considered in this study. The samples are collected at the Beni Nadji site between February and November 2012. The values of the measured parameters were compared with WHO standards for drinking water quality.The findings  show  that  all  the  physicochemical  parameters measured were within  the  tolerable  values  except the turbidity and TSS  that  exceeded with  respectively the maximum values of 980 NTU and  674 mg/L for the rainy season only. The analysis of the correlation matrix can be noted strong correlations between the turbidity and TSS (0.996), turbidity and OM (0.924), TSS and OM (0.931), nitrates and TSS (0.814), nitrates and turbidity (0.800) and nitrates and OM (0.744). These strong correlations allow us to say that these parameters are governed by the same mechanism or phenomenon that could possibly be leaching during the rainy season.Therefore, frequent monitoring of physicochemical parameters of Senegal River water resources is imperative.
Contribution/ Originality


Engineering » International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research » Month: 01-2014 Issue: 1

Relationships Between Leadership Roles and Project Team Effectiveness as Perceived by Project Managers in Malaysia

Research Article
Author(s): Han-Ping Fung
Journal: Journal of Empirical Studies

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Abstract
 Today, more and more project teams are formed to achieve organizational objectives as organizations generally recognized the importance and benefits of project teams.  However, in order to ensure project teams perform effectively, project managers need to learn and exhibit some of the leadership roles proposed by Quinn (1988) as these roles can impact the project team effectiveness.  The current study developed a research model underpinned on Cohen and Bailey (1997) team effectiveness framework, Quinn (1988) leadership roles and Hoevemeyer (1993) five criteria of project team effectiveness.  Based on a sample of 201 project managers, an empirical study had confirmed that a project manager’s leadership roles like mentor, facilitator, innovator and coordinator are important in influencing four out of five criteria of project team effectiveness which include team mission, goal achievement, empowerment, open and honest communication.
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » Journal of Empirical Studies » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

On the Procedures for the Extraction and Isolation of Flavonoids Present in the Methanolic Extract of Leaves of Acanthospermum Hispidiumdc

Research Article
Author(s): Abe R. T., Edewor-Kuponiyi T. I.
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
This paper presents the procedures of the extraction and isolation of flavonoids present in the methanolic leaf extract of Acanthospermum hispidium DC .The leaves of Acanthospermum hispidium dc was extracted with polar and non-polar solvents. The activecomponents (.i.e. flavonoids) were found in methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol while methanol, chloroform, ethylacetate and n-butanol contained steroids. From the chromatographic analysis, it was observed that the component 1and 2 have RF values of 0.61 and 0.48. The identification of the components and the specific absorption band were determined by spectroscopic analysis.
Contribution/ Originality


Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 02-2014 Issue: 2

Testing the Random Walks in Korea Stock Exchange

Research Article
Author(s): Latifa Fatnassi Chaibi
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to investigate random walk in Korea stock exchange.  The results of unit root, autocorrelation and the variance ratio tests are applied, using daily data on returns of two indexes in the period 1997:7 to 2012:12. The null hypothesis of random walk is rejected for the two indexes and therefore the markets are no weak-form efficiency.
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 01-2014 Issue: 1

Effects of Aqueous Extract of Yerba Mate (Ilex Paraguariensis) On the Oxidative Stress in Rats Fed a Cafeteria Diet

Research Article
Author(s): Lidiane Caroline Zenaro, Lucas Bertaiolli Andrade, Patrícia Santos, Claudriana Locatelli
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
Ilex paraguariensis A. St.- Hil., Aquifoliaceae, is a native species of subtropical and temperate regions of South America, whose leaves and steams are used to make tea and traditional infusions, such as chimarrão and tereré. These beverages are considered beneficial to health because of their physiological effects on the treatment of rheumatism, obesity, fatigue, fluid retention, hypertension and liver disorders. This study examined the effects of aqueous extract of I. paraguariensis leaves on the oxidative stress of rats fed a cafeteria diet. A total of 40 male Wistar rats were equally divided into four groups and fed distinct diets for 15 days: group C (rat chow and water), group E (rat chow and aqueous extract of I. paraguariensis), group CD (cafeteria diet and water) and group ED (cafeteria diet and aqueous extract of I. paraguariensis). Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity (CAT) were subsequently assessed. Brain and liver histological analyses were also carried out. The results showed that aqueous extract of I. paraguariensis was able to reverse the oxidative stress caused by the cafeteria diet on serum, as well as significantly reduce lipid peroxidation in liver and brain tissues. A significant increase in GSH levels in the brain of animals fed the cafeteria diet was observed. However, this effect was only observed in the liver of animals fed with rat chow. Therefore, the aqueous extract of I. paraguariensis has important effects on the modulation of antioxidant defenses and oxidative stress, possibly being beneficial to health after eating the cafeteria diet.
Contribution/ Originality


Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 3

Impact of Plant Oils as Antifungal Activity Against Fungal Pathogens of Cinnamomum Zeylanicum (Cinnamon)

Research Article
Author(s): Aisha Mohammed Homod Alrajhi
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
Eleven fungal species were isolated from cinnamon plant, and two fungal genera could not be identified because they failed to sponulate in pure cultures. The identified species of fungi belonged to the genera Curvularia, Helminthosporium, Pestalotiopsis, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Cladosporium, Nigrospora and Trichoderma.The effects of plant oils and synthetic fungicides were studied in a series of experiments against fungal pathogens of Cinnamon. The present results indicated a range of plant oils over the concentration range of 0.1-3% is capable of inhibiting fungal spore germination on Cinnamon. Several oils were shown to be more efficient than the synthetic fungicide Amister at field concentrations. The oils of cinnamon bark and clove provided the greatest inhibition of spore germination of most of the fungal provided the greeted inhibition of spore germination of most of the fungal species tested. Cinnamon oils completely inhibited spore germination of most fungi over the whole range of concentrations tested, and especially at low concentration. Also, the results revealed tea-tree oil (TO) significantly inhibited germination of all of the fungi isolated from cinnamon at concentrations of 0.1 or o.2% with the exception of Curvularia inaequalis which responded only at the highest concentration (3%). lemon grass oil (LgO) provided  that complete inhibition of Pestalotiopsis (C21) spore germination occurred at all concentrations tested. Meanwhile, complete inhibition of germination on Curvularia sp. (C30) occurred at 1 or 3 concentration. I can concluded that the oil lemon grass greatest suppress the germination of fungi isolated from Cinnamon
Contribution/ Originality


Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 01-2014 Issue: 1

Relationships among Team Trust, Team Cohesion, Team Satisfaction and Project Team Effectiveness as Perceived by Project Managers in Malaysia

Research Article
Author(s): Han-Ping Fung
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
Today, more and more project teams are formed to achieve organizational objectives as organizations generally recognized the importance and benefits of project teams. There is a compelling reason to study what are the team outcome factors that can predict project team effectiveness as it is unclear whether these team outcome factors can yield the same result in project setting whereby there is resource and time constraint compare to normal work teams which are ongoing and operational in nature.  This study has developed a research model underpinned on Cohen and Bailey (1997) Team Effectiveness Framework to empirically analyze some team outcome factors in which result showed that team trust is directly predicting team cohesion, team satisfaction and project team effectiveness. However, team cohesion is not directly predicting project team effectiveness but it is directly predicting team satisfaction. In turn, team satisfaction is directly and positively predicting project team effectiveness. In other words, team cohesion indirectly predicting project team effectiveness via team satisfaction. Discussion, limitation and conclusion are also included in this article.
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 01-2014 Issue: 1

How Telecommunication Development Aids Economic Growth: Evidence from Itu Ict Development Index (IDI) Top Five Countries for African Region

Research Article
Author(s): Ani Wilson, Ugwunta David, Eneje Beatrice, Okwo Mary
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
This study examines the effect of telecommunication development on economic growth in five leading ICT developed countries for African region. Following previous studies, teledensity (or the penetration rate) is defined as the number of fixed-lines and mobile phone subscribers per 100 persons as a proxy to measure the development of the telecommunications sector, while economic growth is proxied by Gross domestic product at current prices (US dollars). After ensuring data stationarity, the Granger causality test shows no causal relationship between mobile and fixed teledensity and economic growth. In spite of this, the OLS test clearly shows that telecommunication development in Africa has a positive and significant influence on economic growth.
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 02-2014 Issue: 2

Monte Carlo Modeling for Aflatoxin B1 Distribution in Pistachio Samples: A Prerequisite for Sampling Plan Validation

Research Article
Author(s): Nathalie Wesolek, Alain-Claude Roudot
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
AFB1 is the main aflatoxin found in pistachios, and as it is dangerous for health, the European Union (EU) has set a maximum level at 8 µg/kg in pistachios in 10 kg samples. Given that efficient sampling plans must be used in order to determine this contaminant level accurately, a mathematical validation of sampling plans has to be achieved with to Operating Characteristics curves. However, a prerequisite before drawing these curves is to assess the contaminant distribution within the food lot as well as to determine the variability between samples taken from the food lot. This is difficult to achieve for AFB1 in pistachios, as the contamination incidence rate is low, and concentrations differ greatly between food items. More precisely, the contaminant is heterogeneously distributed. Contrarily to current contaminant distribution assessment methods used on a regulatory basis and which are based directly on variability between samples, the method developed relied first on variability between individual pistachios, before computing the variability between samples, thus triggering more reliable results. This work assessed the distribution and incidence of aflatoxin in pistachio nuts, thanks to a Monte Carlo simulation, with pistachios split into categories, which were early split sound kernel, cracked sound kernel, and mouldy pistachios. A 30 kg sample size of Iranian pistachios for export to Europe was considered. Differences between good and bad lots were taken into account with lots split into 3 classes for mean contamination levels in export packages. Simulation results were in good accordance with observed contamination levels in Iran.
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

Dietary Inclusion of Palm Oil in Bangladeshi Dietensures Better Nutrition with Minimal Cost: An Overview

Research Article
Author(s): Shatabdi Goon
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
The paper outlines the situation, consumption and importation of fats and oils in Bangladesh considering its latest trend of marketing with palm oil covered by health and economic issue. Recommended dietary intake of fats and oils are missing from Bangladeshi diet having poor knowledge regarding its importance and low purchasing ability. In this regards, Palm oil being the cheapest commodity vegetable oil and also the cheapest oil to produce and refine, can be an important component of the increasing intake of oils and fats in the developing world like Bangladesh. Compared with other imported edible oils, Palm oil having better nutrition value and low cholesterol as well as  price and import cost has gained much attention by Bangladeshi government in recent years. The active presence of different suppliers of palm oil, direct interactions between suppliers and local importers and refiners can uplift the present situation of oils and fats consumption aiming popularity for palm oil in Bangladesh.
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

Kashmir Peasant Economy under Dogra’s: A Case Study of Agrarian Produce and Livestock 1885-1925 A.D

Research Article
Author(s): Jamsheed Bhat, S.A. Khanday
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
Just as the Indian economy which is mainly agrarian based, the economy of the princely state of Jammu & Kashmir was/is primarily agricultural. The bulk of the people in the state lived on agriculture. Agriculture therefore, constituted the backbone of the Kashmir’s economy and prosperity of the state depends upon the well-being of its peasant. The socio-economic life in Kashmir has always been very deeply rooted in agrarian sector, the peasant’s main domain. The present study entitled “Kashmir Peasant Economy under Dogra’s: A Case study of Agrarian produce and Livestock 1885-1925 A.D.”, is a humble yet sincere attempt by the researcher to critically examine the agricultural produce and livestock of peasant economy and to assess the validity of the statement of ‘the dawn of modernism’. The Third study is devoted for assessment of the peasant economy in the light of rural produce and livestock. It elaborates on a wide variety of crops (both Kharif and Rabi) cultivated by Kashmiri peasant. Furthermore makes it clear how the nature of agrarian produce, the productivity of land and yield per acre was significantly controlled and determined by the regimes, and also discusses the role of animal husbandry, the backbone of rural economy. The study is based on sources both conventional and non-conventional. A good use of primary sources like archival material, contemporary work biographies, travel accounts, poetic literature have been made use of for putting the history of this period into proper perspective and to formulate the conceptual framework for this study.
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 01-2014 Issue: 1

Social Sustainability of High-Rise Buildings

Research Article
Author(s): Mohammad Javad Mahdavinejad, Ali Sadraie, Golrokh Sadraie
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
Nowadays, High-rise building is proposed as a dominant form in world’s Major cities which its rapid growth has caused social and cultural concerns of the residents of these buildings. Social capital is remembered as a basis for economic development of any society. Its importance can be seen in the economic development of developing countries. Social capital is the invisible wealth of a country that encompasses institutions, relationships and norms that shape social interactions. In this paper, we try to achieve points in the social issues of these buildings with architectural principles and standards. For this purpose, we has been examined the relationship between the three elements of social capital, networks, confidence, partnership and architectural elements such as natural light, security, natural ventilation, visibility, space variability, physical identity, exterior solemnity, quality of entrance and lobby, quantity and quality of roadway and pedestrian access, beautiful landscaping and transfer of the annoying sounds in a number of samples. In this study we have chosen  9 high-rise building in Shiraz (one of the major cities of Iran) and to evaluate them in terms of social capital and architecture in two ways of Observation and navigation (questioning residents by Questionnaire and sampling) which Finally substantially points were achieved in the design of high-rise buildings.
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 02-2014 Issue: 2

A Comparative Study of Radiofrequencies Field Levels of Some Base Stations in Makurdi and its Environs in Benue State, North Central Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): J.T Iortile, L. Alumuku
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
A comparative study of radiofrequencies field levels of some base stations in Makurdi and its environs was carried out in Makurdi, Benue State, North central Nigeria. Electromagnetic field tester (EMF 827 Lutron) was used for measurement at distances ranging from 5.00, 10.00, 15.00 and 20.00 meters away from the base stations at the North, South, West and East directions. Electric field intensity and specific absorption rate (SAR) were calculated with reference to the human tissues. The result indicates that the average magnetic field levels of GLO and ZAIN base stations ranged between 0.10µT to 0.16µT. The mean electric field values for eye, brain and muscles ranged between 20.90〖vm〗^(-1) to 35.20〖vm〗^(-1). The specific absorption rate (SAR) ranged between 0.22〖Wkg〗^(-1) to 1.17〖Wkg〗^(-1). The GSM base stations under study conform to the standards set by regulatory agencies which pose no threat to residents located within the base station areas.
Contribution/ Originality


Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 3

Heavy Metal Contamination and Physicochemical Characteristics of Soils from Automobile Workshops in Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Osakwe Stephen Anapuwa
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
Soils samples were collected from selected automobile workshops in Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria, at the depths of 0 – 15cm, 15 – 30cm and 30 – 45cm representing top,- sub- and bottom soils respectively and also from control site and 20m away from the point of impact. The soils were analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal levels. The pH values of the soils in all the sites ranged from 3.6 to 6.7 with mean value of 5.97 showing that the soils were moderately acidic. The electrical conductivities of the soils ranged from (µScm-1 ) 202.0 to 478.0 with mean value of 306.28 indicating significant presence of soluble inorganic substances with their corresponding ions. Total Organic Carbon content ranged from (%) 29.56 to 77.76 with mean value of 42.07 signifying presence of degradable substances and increased microbial activities in the soil. Total nitrogen contents ranged from (%) 2.03 to 9.35 with mean value of 4.19 which may be attributed to presence of some organic matters. Soil textural classification showed that the soils were sandy loamy. The heavy metal levels had the mean values of (mgkg-1) 40.05 for Fe, 16.74 for Zn, 34.39 for Mn and 0.66 for Cu showing the abundance trend of Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu. The Relative Pollution Potential and contamination/Pollution Index values revealed that the soils were slightly contaminated by heavy metals. Although the present level of heavy metal contamination of the soils does not call for any alarm, proactive steps must be taken to minimize gradual accumulation of these metals. It is hereby recommended that a separate portion of land be set apart for automobile workshops which can be called mechanic village as it is in some cosmopolitan areas in this country.
Contribution/ Originality


Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 04-2014 Issue: 4

Agricultural Dualism, Wage Inequality and Development Policies

Research Article
Author(s): Ranjanendra Narayan Nag, Rakhi Banerjee
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
The main purpose of this paper is to explore how globalization affects  wage inequality and welfare in a small open economy characterized by agricultural dualism . By using a three- sector general equilibrium model we establish the possibility of a decline in welfare in the trail of  different liberalization measures.In particular, we examine effects of agricultural trade liberalization and capital market liberalization. We demonstrate that  implicatins of these liberalization measures  for welfare and wage gap are critically sensitive to agricultural dualism, factor specificity and  factor intensity ranking.
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

Farmer’s Decision To Practice Crop Rotation in Arsi Negelle, Ethiopia: What are the Determinants?

Research Article
Author(s): Musa H. Ahmed
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
Though Ethiopia is an agrarian country, imbalance between the population growth and the agricultural production growth rate is one of the pronounced national problems that the country is facing. In addition, the agricultural sector in the country is characterized by inadequate resource endowment, traditional methods of cultivation and husbandary practices, limited access to land, credit and agricultural innovation. Crop rotation is one of the responses to enhance productivity and improve soil fertility. However, the adoption of this practice by smallholder farmers is limited. Therefore, the major concern of this study is to empirically examine factors influencing adoption of crop rotation by smallholder farmers in Arsi Negelle district of Ethiopia. In the process of the study both primary and secondary data were used. In this study, stratified sampling procedure was used to select 160 sample households from three kebeles  (74 household who are practicing crop rotation and 86 non-adopters). The required data were collected using interview through structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing adoption of crop rotation and results of the regression analysis indicate that educational level of the household, farming experience and extension contact were the most important factors influencing decision of the farmer to practice crop rotation.  Hence, emphasis should be given to improve the human capital through education and providing extension service to bring the non adopter into the board.
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

Gender, Poverty and Energy Nexus: Unpacking The Conflict in Zimbabwe

Research Article
Author(s): Obediah Dodo, Chamunogwa Nyon
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research

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Abstract
In year 2000, the Zimbabwean government embarked on a national land reform programme meant to redistribute land between the minority white commercial farmers and the majority black peasant farmers. In the roll-out of the programme, women were considered an important cog though they had no specific quota in the allocation of land. The eventual land ownership structure was that over three hundred thousand black indigenous peasants had suddenly become new and larger land owners, over-crowding the once sparsely populated commercial farming areas. What did not get into the minds of many especially women and the youth was the impending challenge to do with the firewood availability for their energy requirements. Now over ten years into the land reform exercise, the youth are now embroiled in firewood poaching for resale in both the neighbourhood and the nearby urban areas where electricity availability is a nightmare. This massive criminal activity has also negatively affected women who have to bear the exorbitant firewood prices and deforestation, experience land degradation and witness cat-and-mouse wars between the youth and law enforcement agents. This paper examines the gender, poverty and energy nexus in rural areas of Bindura district, Zimbabwe. The study specifically focuses on two administrative wards; 3 and 4 in the Matepatepa commercial farming area of Bindura. It is the submission of the researcher that indeed, women have massively degraded and deforested the once thick forests for self-sustenance and in the process created conflicts amongst themselves.
Contribution/ Originality


Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

Energy Demand and Financial Sector Performance in Sub-Saharan African Region

Research Article
Author(s): Isola Wakeel , Ajide Kazeem Bello
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research

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Abstract
This study analyzed the impact of energy demand on financial sector performance in Sub Saharan African. It adopted the production theory that was augmented with energy input. The study considered a panel unit root and co-integration test to examine the time series properties of the variables and a static panel estimation technique (pooled, fixed and random effect model) to determine the impact of production inputs on financial sector performance in SSA. The result reveals that energy demand weakens financial sector performance (showing a negative relationship), but when interacted with labour force it strengthens financial sector performance in SSA. The study, thus, attributed the negative relationship between energy demand and financial sector performance to the externalities produced from energy usage. This study therefore recommends that to support the growth of the financial sector, gross capital formation should be intensified and efficiently used and also that energy use should be effectively combined with labour force to strengthen the financial sector.
Contribution/ Originality


Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1