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Listing 78 - 20 of 1965 results.

A Security Scheme for Protecting Agent Societies

Research Article
Author(s): Antonio Munoz
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
Mobile agent paradigm, in particular multi-agent systems represent a promising technology for emerging Ambient Intelligent scenarios and Cyber Physical Systems sharing a huge number of heterogeneous devices interacting. Unfortunately, the lack of appropriate security mechanisms, both their enforcement and usability, is hindering the application of this paradigm in real world applications. This paper presents a software based solution for the protection of multi-agent systems based on mobility property of agents. This approach focuses on the cooperative agent-based model and the core of this concept is the protected computing approach. Finally, one aspect of this approach is its user friendly style for agent based system developers who are not security experts.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated a mutual scheme mechanism for agent protection. This approach provides the theoretical foundations and a complete description of its implementation, which is supported with a set of tools to facilitate agent based system coding protection by a friendly graphical user interface.
Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

An Investigation into the Factors Affecting the Sustainability of the Land Reform Programme Beneficiaries in Kwa Zulu-Natal Province

Research Article
Author(s): Nomapha Maureen Magula, Shaun Wilbur Pekeur
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
This article sought to investigate factors affecting the sustainability of the land reform programme beneficiaries in Kwa Zulu-Natal Province, South Africa. A consistent decline on production is an enormous concern in land reform in Kwa-Zulu Natal. As a result, the Department of Rural Development and Land Reform is confronted with unproductive farms irrespective of the funds invested in them where there is no evidence on the ground that these farms were recapitalised. In an attempt to reverse this declining trend in production levels; an in-depth understanding of the underlying challenges was needed hence this research attempted to provide possible solutions to the problem. Some of the findings in this research indicated that the key factors influencing the sustainability of land reform programme beneficiaries in KwaZulu-Natal include the financial literacy, general education, specific skills in a field of agriculture and financial management capability. The key recommendations of the study are that land reform programme beneficiaries should be assisted with acquiring particular agricultural skills, financial and human resource management skills, and supported in access to affordable financing. The study recommends that government must select the correct beneficiaries based on their interest and knowledge of agriculture, to train the under skilled beneficiaries and equip them with relevant farming skills. These beneficiaries need to be supported on various aspects of financial, human resource and operations.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by adding insight into the South African government’s approach in accelerating their land redistribution programme. The programme is aimed at redressing some of the past historical injustices relating to land by bringing in more beneficiaries into the agricultural sector to ensure more sustainability in production and food security.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

Likely Effects of Geological Features on Carbonate Rock Strength

Research Article
Author(s): Hasan Arman, Saber Hussein, Shamma Khalfan Alshehyari, Hiba Hashim El Imam, Asmaa Ahmad Alhaj, Maryam Ali Albedwawi
Journal: Review of Environment and Earth Sciences

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Abstract
Rock strength is commonly recognized as a rock ability to resist stress or deformation without breaking down. Its measurement in either in-situ or laboratory environment is costly and requires time-consuming efforts for rock sampling, preparation and laboratory tests. There are different suggested testing methods available such as Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS), Point Load Index (PLI), Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS), Schmidt Hammer Rebound (SHR), etc. and used to interpret of rock strength properties. The study will only focus on carbonate rocks (Upper Eocene Dammam Formation) which were collected from different selected sites in the Hafeet Mountain area, Al Ain city, United Arab Emirates. Following the sample preparations based on the ASTM standards, about fourth UCS, fourth-one ITS, thirty-seven PLI and hundreds to thousands of SHR tests were carried out on rock blocks and core samples according to ASTM Standards. The study indicates that the relationships between UCS and PLI, ITS, SHR of limestone can be estimated using the simple linear mathematical equations. However, the results exhibit a weak to weaker linear correlation with highly scattered data. This may be due to sample heterogeneity and nature of the sample. Therefore, it still needs better confirmation with more samples from different locations in order to use confidently in engineering applications.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the likely effects of geological features on Upper Eocene carbonate rock strength. It is remarkably noted that the presence of either the cavities or fossils, that have heterogonous distribution, certainly affect geomechanical properties of carbonate rock. This impact was clearly on the laboratory results.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Environment and Earth Sciences » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

A Case Study of Local Government Implementation of the Ward Based Local Economic Development (LED) Program

Research Article
Author(s): N. L. Nxumalo, L.D. Naidoo
Journal: International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research

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Abstract
The local economic development (LED) had been in existence prior to the advent of democracy in 1994 government. At that time there was a strong focus on the agricultural sector. The apartheid government at that time fully supported the LED initiatives but not all citizens of South Africa benefited from that support. The Acts and policies of the apartheid government such as the Group Areas Act forced black people to move out of places with resources and placed them into areas with poor resources. After 1994 the South African government adopted LED as a strategy to deal with the disparities of the past such as poverty, unemployment, and poor standards of living. Several strategies were put into place to overcome the challenges that was as a result of the apartheid past. The Zululand district with similar intention of the post-apartheid government embarked on initiating the ward based LED program to deal with the consequences of the past. The status quo report of the Zululand district still identified high levels of poverty and unemployment and a slow growth in the local economy as a major concern. This study aimed to investigate the ward based LED program in order to establish if the program has made the achievement towards its objectives and also to establish what challenges are encountered by the local government in the implementation of the program. The study used a qualitative research method which was conducted with the adoption of one on -one interview as a tool for data collection. The researcher prepared an interview schedule of open ended questions to allow the liberty and a flexible expression of perceptions, experiences and understanding of participants on the phenomenon under investigation.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature of Local Economic Development (LED) in South Africa which uses ward base as a starting point. This study uses, an exploratory research approach which adopted a phenomenological (qualitative) paradigm. The study found that while the LED ward based program is a great initiative with very good intentions, the municipalities have to do some improvements in order to achieve the objectives of the program.
Economics » International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Assessing Key Performance Indicators in Government Secondary Schools of Matabeleland Region in Zimbabwe

Research Article
Author(s): Lillie Beth Hadebe, Reinford Khumalo
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Key Performance Indicators are a necessary guide to any organisation that needs to achieve its objectives. Hence to successfully measure performance, the organisation needs to identify Key Performance Indicators and this can only be done through an assessment of the organisation’s core activities. This paper, therefore, sought to identify and analyse Key Performance indicators in government secondary schools in Zimbabwe. The thesis used mixed method research methodology, adopting pragmatism as a research philosophy. A case study method was used, multi-cited in the three provinces of Matabeleland Region namely Matabeleland South, Matabeleland North and Bulawayo Metropolitan provinces. Purposive sampling was used to identify the sample of 16 schools, 23 education officers. Document analysis, observation and interviews were the research techniques used to collect data. The findings revealed that although there was a number of Key Performance Indicators used to measure performance, not all of them had strong correlation with O level results. The heads needed to critically identify Key Performance Indicators that were an actual measure of school performance, and from these a performance score card check could then be developed so as to monitor performance over a period of time.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes in the existing literature of Key Performance Indicators with special reference to secondary schools. Statistical significant correlations are calculated and the study originates a formula of correlation of key performance indicators. The paper’s primary contribution is that key performance indicators vary in their level of significance and hence bring out the indicators with a strong relationship with performance.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 02-2018 Issue: 2

How Parental Education and Literacy Skill Levels Affect the Education of their Wards: The Case of Two Schools in the Effutu Municipality of Ghana

Research Article
Author(s): Robert Andrews Ghanney
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
The study sought to explore how parents’ level of education and literacy skills affect their children’s basic education within the context of cultural capital theory.To achieve the objectives of this study, a case study design was employed which comprised the use of interviews with twelve parents and twelve teachers in two school communities in the Winneba East educational circuit of the Effutu Municipality of Ghana.The population of the study consisted of all parents in the Effutu Municipality in the Central Region of Ghana. A snowball sampling technique was used to select the individual parents for the study. The data were analysed through coding to identify themes.The study reveals that most parents were aware of the benefits of education but the reality of their lives including educational and literacy challenges affected involvement in their children’s basic education.In-spite of this handicap, most parents relied on extended families and community members for assistance.Thus, when parents are eager to see their wards through formal education, their own illiterate status does not become a handicap. Consequently, the study recommends that policies on education decentralization must reflect greater consideration of contextual factors including formal education and literacy skill levels which impact on parental involvement in children’s basic education.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes to the existing literature related to parental education and literacy skill practices in the home setting. The study has highlighted specific issues to do with differences in parental capacity linked to level of education and literacy skills which affect children’s education. This demands focus on contextual factors when considering parental involvement in children’s education.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 3

Teacher Perception of Parents Involvement in their Children’s Literacy and their Reading Instructions in Kuwait EFL Primary School Classrooms

Research Article
Author(s): Anaam Al-Fadley, Abeer Al-Holy, Amal Al-Adwani
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
There is an increasing awareness of the benefits that accrue from parental involvement in a student's academic learning and of the impact that teachers have on programs regarding such parental involvement. This study seeks to investigate the views of the teachers working in Kuwait’s public schools regarding the effectiveness of parental involvement in their children's’ learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) in primary school. Epstein's Overlapping Spheres of influence framework (2002), provides the conceptual framework to address the study questions. Data collection was driven by the case study methodology. The data were triangulated from: 1) face-to-face interviews with 33 English language teachers having at least 5 years' experience in teaching English in a primary school; 2) documental analysis of the teachers' backgrounds; and, 3) observing and tracking the reading activities included in the Kuwaiti curriculum that is used in the EFL classroom. Data collected from the documents and from the face–to-face interviews were analyzed using (Maxwell, 1996) strategies for analyzing qualitative data as that it helped prevent confusion. Three main themes emerged from the data. First, teachers believed that parental involvement in their children's preparatory learning of a foreign language was valuable, although the level of parental involvement varied, depending on the locality and the educational level of the parents. Second, teachers offered various suggestions to promote the parents' home reading activities with their children. Third, the teachers were fully aware of the deficiency in the reading skills of the student’s in Kuwait's public schools. However, they did have insights and suggestions to overcome such challenges.
Contribution/ Originality
Educating children in a foreign language is a challenging endeavor which intimidates some parents, but understanding how teachers influence parental involvement has the potential to create positive social change and awareness among educators and parents which will facilitate the improvement and support for students' literacy programs. Thus, we believe that this study can contribute in the existing literature by pinpointing the importance of understanding teachers’ perceptions of parents’ involvement, a thing that can help in providing valuable initial insights about the level of parental involvement that teachers believe in. In addition, this study can help in filling a current gap in prior research regarding teachers’ perceptions of parental involvement in their children’s literacy.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 3

Social Media: Research on Changing the Roles of Journalists

Research Article
Author(s): Amjad Omar Safori
Journal: Journal of New Media and Mass Communication

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Abstract
The impact of rise in the use of social media on the journalism and on various positions within the industry has been discussed by several researchers. However, contemporary studies do not provide any significant qualitative research related to the impression of journalist interaction with social media. The current study is focused on the opinions of the Jordanian journalist about how the social media has affected their profession and role in journalism. Several interviews are conducted that provide an insight on the journalist perception related to the interaction with the reader. Audience interaction, rise of personalized journalism and preferences of the journalists related to social media are investigated in this study. The investigation provides contrasting views. A result validates the drastic impact of social media on profession with some participants supporting that social media has helped in advancement in their profession, and others consider it as interference in their professional role.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature to explore the perception and opinion of journalist about how social media effect their profession. Additionally, the study may also help to document the recent advancement of social media, its impact on journalists and journalism, and an insight to future of the industry.
Social Sciences » Journal of New Media and Mass Communication » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Some Thoughts on Operationalizing the Concept of Sufficiency in Efficiency Analysis

Research Article
Author(s): Malte L. Peters, Stephan Zelewski
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
The concept of sufficiency is rarely acknowledged in mainstream business economics and has not been addressed so far in the literature on efficiency analysis. In this paper, satisficing levels as known from the Efficiency Analysis Technique With Output Satisficing (EATWOS) and from its extension Efficiency Analysis Technique With Input and Output Satisficing (EATWIOS) are suggested to operationalize sufficiency in efficiency analysis. Moreover, a simple data transformation approach is proposed in order to use satisficing levels in other efficiency analysis techniques, particularly in the widely used Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA).
Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes to the literature on efficiency analysis and to the literature on sustainable development. Its primary contribution is to operationalize sufficiency in efficiency analysis by utilizing the concept of satisficing levels.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

A Behavioral Study of Cylindrical Object Impacted by Bullet Using FEA

Research Article
Author(s): Tanadon Saisueb, Pattaraweerin Woraratsoontorn
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
Crime news has now become a popular mass media topic with offenders often using pocketknives and firearms. Pocketknives are inexpensive and easily obtained while in Thailand firearms have also become readily available. Some people are lucky and survive gunshot wounds; articles carried in their shirt pockets, especially a metal pen, may increase survival chances. Deformation behavior of a cylindrical object and a stainless steel pen impacted by a 9 mm FMJ (full metal jacket) bullet were investigated under various conditions. Finite element analysis (FEA) was applied to simulate different shooting conditions. Comparison of FEA shooting test simulation results revealed that a cylindrical object and stainless steel pen behaved in a similar manner. Simulation results can be useful to support forensic science examinations. Analysis of the findings indicated that having a stainless steel pen in your shirt pocket may improve the chances of surviving a bullet wound.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the chances of survival after being shot by a bullet. A simplified cylindrical object was used to replicate a stainless steel pen with a simulation using 3D finite element analysis.
Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

Profiling Saltwater Recreational Anglers toward the Threats of Marine Environment

Research Article
Author(s): Jennifer CHI, Yeong Nain CHI
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
This study utilized cross-sectional data extracted from the 2013 National Saltwater Angler Survey, conducted by NOAA Fisheries Service, to examine saltwater recreational anglers’ concerns to the threats of marine environment, identify groups exhibiting common patterns of responses, and examine the association between clusters of identified socio-demographic characteristics. The format of marine environmental threats in this study was composed of 13 Likert-scaled items scored from severe threat to not a threat at all. Concerns of marine environmental threats from these participants were examined through factor analysis which identified three reliable factors. Cluster analysis was used to identify three prominent clusters. Statistical tests were used to investigate the association between socio-demographic characteristics, including age, gender, income level, educational level, region of the respondent, and the identified factors and clusters. Results of this study may provide insight to understanding saltwater recreational anglers’ concerns of marine environmental threats and could be an indicator of potential participation and behavior of saltwater recreational fishing projects.
Contribution/ Originality
This study focuses on trying to understand saltwater recreational anglers’ perceptions on what they may consider a threat to the marine environment they interact in. This gives us the opportunity to receive some empirical insight on the groups’ common response patterns. This insight can thus provide baseline information about what they may deem as a concerning factor towards marine environmental threats. In return, there is growth to take these results and apply them towards marine fisheries awareness programs and/or management campaigns that can improve the quality of marine life. There is not a lot of collected data on this particular group, whom may offer a different perspective on how marine life has changed over time. Through their expertise, their insight would be considered quality information which can be transmitted into collectable data.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 02-2018 Issue: 2

Assessing Situated Knowledge

Research Article
Author(s): Walter M. Geerts, Henderien W. Steenbeek, Paul L. C. van Geert
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Subconsciously, experienced teachers make use of situated knowledge: knowledge that is connected to, and arises from, the interactions between the physical environment where the action takes place and a material body acting in that environment. Since situated knowledge is important in day-to-day teaching to solve incidents, it should be taught in teacher training courses. Consequently, in the test at the end of such a course, these learning objectives should be tested. By using cases and by setting higher learning objectives that explicitly address the situated nature of this knowledge, situated knowledge can be assessed. In this study, the main question is: Do teacher trainers use cases that are aimed at acquiring situated knowledge? An empirical study, carried out in eleven secondary teacher-training programs in the Netherlands, revealed that just a single program did indeed assess situated knowledge. Considering its importance, however, it is essential that it is included in all secondary teacher-training programs. To assist teacher training programs to achieve this goal, this article offers recommendations for implementing tests with cases to assess situated knowledge.
Contribution/ Originality


Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 3

Mössbauer Research of Surface-Surface Concentric-Zonal Color Effects in Zoloceramic Materials

Research Article
Author(s): Shokanov A.K., Vereshchak M.F., Kulbekov M.K., Manakova I.A., Hamraev Sh.Zh., Smikhan Y.A.
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
The paper describes the results of a study of volume-surface concentric zonal color effects in gyro ceramic materials. The dependence of zonal flowers on the phase composition is established by the Mossbauer effects method.
Contribution/ Originality
The work is devoted to Mossbauer studies of wastes from coal-fired power plants. These products, according to their physical and mechanical properties are 1.5 to 4 times superior to traditional materials from clays. The paper's primary contribution is finding that Mossbauer research of surface-surface concentric-zonal color effects in zoloceramic materials.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 3

The Simulation of Egg Hatching Trend of Aedes Aegypti Associated with Rainfall Distribution

Research Article
Author(s): Najir Tokachil, Nuraini Yusoff
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
Aedes aegypti is primary vector of Zika virus, dengue, and chikungunya which go through four different stages of life cycle: Egg, Larva, Pupa, and Adult. The mosquito might be able to lay 100 eggs at a time. The eggs can hatch when there is water and submerged in the water, but it can survive without water almost to 8 months by sticking to the walls of a container. In this research, the trend of egg hatching was simulated by using a stage-structured Lefkovitch matrix model. The matrix model consists of a function of egg hatching which associated and depends on rainfall distribution. The purpose of the function is to identify the relationship between egg hatching and rainfall which provide water to egg. Using the same mathematical model, the population of adult Aedes aegypti has also simulated which the population related to egg simulation and rainfall. The graphical results were shown to illustrate the relationship between the rainfall, egg number and adult Aedes aegypti. We found that there was a significant relationship between the rainfall and these two stages of mosquito life cycle which are egg hatching number and adult Aedes aegypti. However, it is recommended to look for more possible factors such as the size of an opening container and humidity which possible to contribute to the development of mosquito to acquire more accurate results.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes in the existing literature which stated that both factor rainfall and temperature involved in the development of mosquito life cycle. We found that, the rainfall distribution factor is the most significant to identify the trend of development of mosquitos’ population and meanwhile the factor of temperature influences more on the increase of dengue virus transmission.
Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Investigation on SMEs Features in Both China and Iran

Research Article
Author(s): Babak Besharati Loroun, Xu Ming, Syed Ahtsham Ali
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
In this article the Chinese and Iranian SMEs features have been investigated and briefly pointed out some common features and differences. Comparable table has been developed. It is also mentioned that how the Chinese entities started the low price strategies to capture the foreign markets. It has been discussed that how SMEs of China could overcome the challenges and barriers they have encountered. But recently Chinese companies have lot of advantages to go to the market with low price strategy due the elements which influences their cost to be low is getting expensive. On the other side, SMEs of Iran are more risk taker and also interested to be more active in international markets. But due to the lack of interest to develop their initial relationship with overseas companies, political risks, sanctions, lack of banking and finance support of government, fluctuation of exchange rate occurs. So they are not so successful in entering the foreign markets despite of their suitable capacities and possibilities. Chinese SMEs are more cautious and playing a role in stable economic and political environment and having also better access to the market intelligence, fund and wide range of business services render by different providers. By studying the feature of SMEs in both countries we will have a better study on similarity and differences and we will find out the effect of any specific feature in business cooperation of two sides. It could be also helpful how to identify and recognize the ways and methods to make SMEs of two countries to be closer to each other and maintain the stable economic and commercial ties between two nations.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper has been studied for a practical orientation results which enable managers of SMEs from both countries to get familiarity with features and specialty of the other side in order to maintain the best possible ways and approach to be closer and start their collaboration.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 02-2018 Issue: 2

Effect of Substrates on Nutritional Composition and Functional Properties of Pleurotus Ostreatus

Research Article
Author(s): Mbassi Josiane E. G., Mobou Estelle Y., Ngome Francis A., Sado Kamdem S. L.
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
Pleurotus species, commonly known as oyster mushrooms, are edible fungi cultivated worldwide. Pleurotus genus is one of most extensively studied white-rot fungi due to its exceptional ligninolytic properties. These mushrooms have the ability to colonize and degrade a wide variety of lingo-cellulosic wastes with relatively short cycle. The objective of this study was to review published research works on the effect of substrates on nutritional composition and functional property of Pleurotus ostreatus. A literature search was done on the internet and university libraries in this area. It was found that different substrates used in cultivating mushrooms do have effect on the functional, organoleptic and nutritional properties of mushrooms. This review presents a practical checklist of effect of substrates on quality of Pleurotus ostreatus that may help different users.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effect of type of substrate on nutritional composition and functional property of Pleurotus ostreatus.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

The Effect of Work-Life Balance on Accounting Ethics

Research Article
Author(s): Cem Berk, Fatih Gundogmus
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
Accounting professionals work in a stressful environment where their social life might have effect on work performance and unethical behavior. For this study, a survey is conducted for members of Istanbul Chamber of Certified Accountants, Turkey. The number of respondents is 491. The methodology used in the research is a multiple regression. The research questions are whether there is an effect of work-life balance on ethical behavior at work and if the work life balance and accounting ethics differentiate based on demographic factors for the respondents. The main objectives of the research are to test the relationship, and analyze four different independent variables of work life balance to find out whether they contribute to accounting ethics. Other objectives of the research are testing the differentiation of work life balance and accounting ethics based on gender, age, education and marital status. The main hypothesis is that there is a relationship between accounting ethics and work life balance. Based on the results, the main hypothesis is statistically accepted.
Contribution/ Originality
There are many studies that explain ethical behavior but this study is unique to combine work-life balance and accounting ethics by a survey applied to Istanbul Chamber of Certified Accountants. This creates many practical opportunities to rethink the way accountants are employed. The availability of differentiation analysis also helps to focus some potentially problematic cases and take proactive decisions.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Duration of Freezing Influences Sensory Attributes of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Plantain (Musa paradisiaca AAB)

Research Article
Author(s): Mbassi Josiane E. G., Mapiemfu-Lamare D., Eyenga Eliane F., Ngome A. F.
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
In order to reduce post-harvest losses, this work was designed to evaluate the impact of freezing time on the organoleptic and nutritional properties of cassava and green plantain. Peeled fresh cassava (C), fresh plantain without peeling (PWP) and fresh plantain with peeling (PP) were cut into pieces of regular sizes, weighed, bagged in plastic packages and placed in a freezer at -18 °C. Over a period of 30 days, samples were removed from the freezer for sensory and nutritional analysis. Sensory analysis revealed that there was a significant difference (P?0.05) between samples frozen at different time for different sensory attributes. The score for taste decreased from 3.56 to 2.9 for the cassava and 4.55 to 2.60 for the plantain with the increase in the time of freezing. As far as the overall acceptability is concerned, all the cassava samples were rated approximately the same, while for the plantain, there is significant difference between non-frozen and 30 days frozen. In fact, the score for the overall acceptability of non-frozen plantain was the highest (4.00) followed by 3 and 7 days frozen plantain and from 14 days of freezing, the samples had the least mean value (1.85) because they started getting brown and their taste has changed. Regarding the nutritional properties, there is no significant differences both for the cassava and plantain. Freezing time has no significant impact on the cassava while the taste and color of plantain change from the seventh day. Freezing time decrease the organoleptic properties of cassava and plantain but does not affect their nutritional quality.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the influence of freezing duration on physic-chemical and proximate analyses of cassava roots and plantain fruits.
Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 1

Biostratigraphy and Paleoecology of Maastrichtian and Paleocene Sediments in the Northern Alborz, Iran, Using Foraminifera

Research Article
Author(s): Masoud Asgharian Rostami, Behnaz Balmaki
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
In this study, the late-Maastrichtian and early-Paleocene transition at the Ziarat-Kola section has been investigated to recognize the biostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental changes. We applied a high-resolution quantitative study by using planktic foraminifera taxa and benthic foraminiferal morphotypes. Sixty-five species belong to twenty-eight genera were identified and seven biozones were differentiated. These biozones are 1. Racemiguembelina fructicosa, 2. Pseudoguembelina hariaensis, 3. Pseudoguembelina palpebra, 4. Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina, 5. Parasubbotina pseudobulloides, 6. Subbotina triloclinoides, 7. Globonomalina compressa-Preamurica inconstans. In the late Maastrichtian, benthic and planktic foraminifera are well mixed of epifauna/infauna morphotypes and diversified suggesting a stable and mesotrophic environment. By contrast, the early Paleocene is marked by high values of epifaunal benthic morphogroups, and extinction of Cretaceous species suggesting highly unstable and variable conditions, partly due to the dramatic collapse of calcareous primary producers. Additionally, four different zones were determined based on the benthic foraminifera morphogroups that show several changes in oxygen and organic matter flux during this time. Also, analysis of planktic foraminifera genera in this section indicating a close similarity with assemblages in Tethyan provinces.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes a new methods to understand the biostratigraphy and ageing the rock samples in late Cretaceous of eastern Tethys. Also, This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the pal ecology and oxygen changes in Campanian-Maastrichtian sediments by using the plank tic and benthic foraminfera that are small microorganism.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 3

Security Threats and Privacy Issues in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET): Survey and Perspective

Research Article
Author(s): Emmanuel Bamidele Ajulo, Raphael Olufemi Akinyede, Olumide Sunday Adewale
Journal: Journal of Information

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Abstract
In Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) Wireless-equipped vehicles are able to communicate with each other as well as Road-Side Units (RSUs) located at strategic places on the road, this enables the formation of self-organized networks connecting the vehicles and RSUs. The (vehicles) nodes are fast mobile causing the network topology to change frequently and unpredictably. Since VANETs do not really rely on any form of central administration or control, nodes in the wireless range dynamically discover each other and establish connection with each other. Due to the pervasive nature of the mobile nodes, it cannot be assumed that VANETs will always be under the control of their owners; nodes could be stolen or tampered with. Each vehicle (node) acts as an independent router and fault detection and network management becomes distributed and more difficult. The shared wireless medium is accessible to both legitimate and illegitimate users; and this has raise formidable research challenges to providing security for this network. This paper take a selective review of the published research work carried out in the security and privacy issue of VANET between 2003 and 2015 and derived a new perspective into the security and privacy attacks in VANET.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated security and privacy issues in VANET. We carried out a selective review of published work on this field between 2003 and 2015; and based on our findings, derived a new perspective, and categorized the security attacks on this type of network.
Computer Sciences » Journal of Information » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1