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China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is a comprehensive development strategy that not only causes to economic and social environment in two countries but also has potential of incorporation with other sub-regions of Asia. It is like a game changer project which could transform the fate of Pakistan. It helps to improve the trade, infrastructure, and enhance regional connectivity. Despite these opportunities there exist several internal and external challenges for the government of Pakistan to implement this multidimensional project. The study is organized to analyze some internal and external challenges for Pakistan that are associated with the implementation of CPEC project. Contribution/ Originality
Advances in technology are classified as one of the external factors that trigger organisational change, even for Higher Education Institutions. The transition to e-learning presents new challenges as expectations and roles of employees and students evolve. The primary objective of this study was to investigate employee perceptions of the Open Distance and e-Learning model at a university in South Africa. The research questions for this study addressed factors that necessitate change and the barriers to change in Higher Education Institutions. The study further investigated the extent to which competences of employees match the strategic objectives for the ODeL business model and also recommended intervention strategies that can be employed to minimise risk and smoothen the change process when ODeL is introduced. A quantitative research methodology was used to arrive at the findings through a survey. The findings revealed that most of the employees acknowledge the need for change. But the ODeL model was not well embraced as the intervention that could solve the discrepancies. This was because results showed that some employees did not have appropriate capabilities to effect the change, the management was not perceived to give them the necessary support, and employees could not see how the ODeL intervention would benefit them. A recommended area for further research would be on how the institution could optimise its resources for a cost-effective ODeL. Contribution/ Originality
The primary contribution of this paper revealed that although open distance and e-learning initiatives are crucial in tertiary institutions, which have to cater for growing numbers of students, without the necessary commitment from management to allay the concerns of employees, transformative change in the form of technological advancement would be exacerbated.
This study appraised government feeding programme on increased school enrollment, attendance, retention and completion among secondary school students in Maiduguri, Borno state, Nigeria. Descriptive survey method was the research design adopted for this study. The target population for this study comprised day public secondary schools in Maiduguri, Borno state, with a total population of nine thousand three hundred and thirty eight (9,338) students. The sample of 934 students was selected using simple and stratified random sampling techniques. A self- developed questionnaire was the instrument of data collection. The response mode for the instrument was a modified four points Likert type scale. Descriptive statistics of frequency counts, and percentage scores was used to answer the research question, while Chi-square test was also used to analyze the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The results showed that the school feeding programme improved the nutritional health status of the students. The findings recommended that Federal Government should assign Ministry of Finance to perform monitoring and evaluation functions, allocate more funds and logistics and give up-to-date records to the state government to make sure the feeding programme achieve an optimal level of the desired objectives. Appraisal tools other than questionnaires should be employed when appraising the students cognitive capabilities in order to ensure effective outcome and reporting. Borno State government Donor agencies, and stakeholders in education should increase funding and make sure the schools have constant supply of food through committed food distribution channels. Individual targeting should be used as a mechanism to motivate enrollment in school or more regular attendance. The target group should be families with children who are not in school or who are frequently absent. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of Home-grown school feeding programme. This study uses new estimation methodology of descriptive survey method in selecting sample of 934 students was selected using simple and stratified random sampling techniques. This study originates new formula on Descriptive statistics of frequency counts, and percentage scores was used to answer the research question, while Chi-square test was also used to analyze the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the trend of school feed feeding programmes existing in public secondary schools. The paper contributes the first logical analysis using a self-developed questionnaire and response mode for the instrument was a modified four (4) points Likert type scale with a response mode of strongly agree, agree, disagree and strongly disagree. The paper's primary contribution is finding that The Federal Government should assign Ministry of Finance to perform monitoring and evaluation functions, allocate more funds and logistics and give up-to-date records to the state government to make sure the feeding programme achieve an optimal level of the desired objectives. Other types of appraisal tools other than questionnaires should be employed when appraising the students cognitive capabilities in order to ensure effective outcome and reporting. This study documents that Borno State government Donor agencies, and stakeholders in education should increase funding and make sure the schools have constant supply of food through committed food distribution channels to ensure the children do not go hungry and this will have more positive impact on the students’ comprehensive preparedness to actively participate in the learning process. Individual targeting should be used as a mechanism to motivate enrollment in school or more regular attendance. The target group should be families with children who are not in school or who are frequently absent.
In modern day society, cleaner, more sustainable forms of electrical power are needed to keep costs lower and to ensure a healthier environment for future generations. The use of piezoelectric devices installed within a road would enable the capturing of kinetic energy from automobile traffic. This energy can then be converted into electrical energy and can be used to offset some of the power coming from the main grid. Such a source of power can also be used to operate road lighting and signage systems, or it could be injected to the grid at an appropriate Point of Common Coupling (PCC). This paper discusses investigation of energy harvesting from piezoelectric materials when installed in a road. The work includes conversion of kinetic energy to electrical using piezoelectric materials, the energy harvesting method, and experimental research on piezoelectric materials. Contribution/ Originality
Both authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.
Determining the relationship between percentage resection and development of short bowel syndrome is important as it provides information on the expected outcome of the resection carried out which will enable the surgeon to prepare adequately to manage such patients. Ten adult Nigerian indigenous dogs with mean body weight 11.2 kg were used in this study. The animals were premedicated with atropine (0.04mg/kg) and xylazine (1mg/kg) intramuscularly. Anaesthesia was induced with thiopentone sodium (10mg/kg) intravenously. The abdominal cavity was entered through the ventral midline incision. Three animals each were subjected to 50% and 60% small intestinal resection while four animals were subjected to 70% small intestinal resection. The animals subjected to 50% and 60% intestinal resection did not manifest signs of short bowel syndrome. However, the animals subjected to 70% small intestinal resection manifested clinical signs attributable to short bowel syndrome. The animals subjected to 50% and 60% small intestinal resection had remnant small intestinal tract of up to 100cm while dogs that underwent 70% resection had remnant small intestinal bowel length of less than 100 cm. It is therefore, concluded that 70% small intestinal length resection is the minimum that can produce short bowel syndrome in Nigerian dogs and animals with remnant small bowel length of less than 100 cm after undergoing resection will come down with short bowel syndrome. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the crown-rump length, total small intestinal length and the percentage small intestinal resection that will result in short bowel syndrome in Nigerian dogs.
Modern power system is a complex network comprising of numerous distributed generators, transmission lines, switchgears, distribution network and variety of loads. However, the quality of the power supplied to the end users is deteriorating as network expand due to inherent system disturbances such as voltage dips, harmonic distortions and phase angle deviations caused mainly due to low voltage network faults. This has resulted to high level of customers’ dissatisfaction and complains. Research has shown that over 60% of system perturbations are caused by natural events such as lightning strikes and system faults. There are various methods power utilities are employing to realize a robust and reliable power transmission system. Such methods include re-conducting of transmission lines, construction of new transmission lines and in recent time installation of Flexible AC transmission system (FACTs) devices. The FACTS are power electronic devices that have ability of controlling the network voltage condition both in steady and transient state of complex power system. The most common power electronic controllers are, Dynamic voltage stabilizer (DVS), Static Synchronous Compensators (STATCOM), shunt compensators and Unified power flow controller (UPFC). The STATCOM devices are the most widely installed power electronic controllers as they provide excellent performance in stabilizing the power system both in steady state and non-steady state (system disturbances) conditions. It is for this reason the author propose installation of STATCOMs to reinforce the Kenya Power national power grid to achieve a robust and resilience system which improves the power quality supplied to the end users. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the impact of installing STATCOM devices to enhance the quality of power supplies and improve on power stability/ reliability in Kenya power grid. In recent time, the power grid has experienced several power disturbances in major load centers.
This paper presents a summary of the results of a study on the use of a local admixture Ipomoea asarifolia (‘Ajara’) on the compressive strength and weight of specimens made from both cement stabilized and unstabilized lateritic soils. The effect of Ipomoea asarifolia extractions on the strength characteristic of lateritic blocks was investigated. Three mix proportions of cement: laterite of 0:1, 1:2 and 1:4 using lateritic soils from four different locations from around Ife while using six concentration levels of extracted liquid of Ipomoea asarifolia (0; 20; 40; 60; 80 and 100%) in fresh water as the mixing “water” (fluid). Ipomoea asarifolia specimen was analyzed to determine constituent chemical composition and their effect in reaction with other materials. Sieve analysis of the lateritic of the lateritic soil mix was carried out while a total of 132 – 100 mm cubes size were tested using a 1570 kN Avery-Denison Compression Testing Machine. Contribution/ Originality
The right to good administration is a concept through which there are protected the rights of citizens against the abuse of public authorities and institutions, based on the general principles of European administrative law, such as: objectivity, proportionality and equality, non-discrimination, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. Maladministration occurs when a public authority or institution violates the principles of good administration and it does not respect the fundamental rights of citizens. For the achievement of the paper we have used content analysis and descriptive documentary research of the documents relevant to this very current issue and of particular interest to citizens, European institutions, national public authorities and institutions, especially the European Ombudsman Report for 2015 and 2014. In conclusion, the most common instances of maladministration in the European Union refer to transparency issues (transparency of decision making, transparency of lobbying activities), ethics, human rights etc. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few that has analysed, in parallel, the most frequent types of maladministration found in the European Union and in Romania, starting from the definitions given for good administration.
Tanzania has one of the largest populations of domestic ruminants in Africa. Their performance is less than their potential. Health, particularly disease due to gastrointestinal parasites, is a major constraint to improved productivity. Internal parasites also affect the country’s very diverse and huge array of wild ruminants. This review is based on a thorough search of the formal and informal literature pertaining to gastrointestinal parasites of ruminants in Tanzania. The occurrence and geographical distribution of helminth (nematodes, trematodes and cestodes) and protozoan parasites are presented. Cattle, goat and sheep nematodirus (roundworm) infection usually comprises mixed infections of several taxa of which 13 species in nine genera have been recorded. A total of seven species of trematodes (flukes) in six genera have been found. Some six species of cestodes (flatworms) have been recorded, three being in the genus Taenia. The most prevalent species of protozoan parasites, of which seven have been identified in cattle and 18 in sheep and goats, belong to the genus Eimeria: four other species of protozoan parasites are also recorded. A general overview of the epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites is provided and the main methods of control are discussed. Contribution/ Originality
Domestic ruminants are an important part of the Tanzania economy. They contribute to food security, biodiversity, household income and human welfare. This paper reviews with the aid of 74 published references the status and distribution of the main internal parasites of domestic ruminants in Tanzania.
The objectives of this study were to determine the growth and survival parameters and blood IgG and total protein levels of calves born in the first production year of Brown Swiss and Simmental cows imported from Austria to a newly-established dairy cattle enterprise in Manisa, Turkey. The study material consisted of 62 Brown Swiss and 266 Simmental calves. Calves were separated from their mothers after birth and put into individual sections and subjected to colostrum feeding. At the end of three days, calf grower feed was given. Calves were weaned around 60-days of age unless there was an abnormality with their development. Birth weights, weaning weights on the 65th day, and daily weight gains of calves were 40.31 kg and 41.76 kg, 77.16 kg and 83.9 kg, 0.56 kg and 0.64 kg for Brown Swiss and Simmental breeds respectively. Simmental calves were born heavier and had more weight gain until weaning. We determined that breed and sex affected calves’ growth while delivery method only affected birth weight. Calves with high birth weights caused difficult birth, but this effect disappeared until weaning. Survival rates of calves until weaning were 98.39% for Brown Swiss and 95.49% for Simmental. The survival and mortality rates of Brown Swiss and Simmental calves at weaning were at normal levels, while the calves with difficult birth had losses around 10%. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the performance and adaptation levels of imported breeds in Turkey. It contributes in the existing literature by producing information on the growth, survival, immunity levels and locality adaptations of calves born in Turkey after heifers’ importation.
Growth characteristics of Bifidobaceria pseudocatenulatum G4 in low concentration milk medium were studied. During cultivation process, profiles of cell growth, pH changes, organic acids and sugar profile were monitored. A finding showed that final cell concentration (cfumL-1) obtained in 2 and 4% (w/v) milk concentration was two times lower than in comparative media. However, 6% (w/v) skim milk gave a promising media for B. pseudocatenulatum G4 growth. Organic acids production (acetic, lactic, formic and citric acid) by strains was detected in all milk medium concentrations and similar profile were observed. Except for formic acid which actively produced in 2 and 4% (w/v) milk concentration. The accumulation of formic acids was believed due to carbon limitation. As for sugar profile, co-metabolized galactose and glucose were observed in 2, 4 and 6% (w/v) skim milk concentration. Meanwhile high carbon remains occurred in 8 and 10% (w/v) milk concentrations after cultivation period. Among all concentrations, milk with 6% (w/v) concentration showed better support for cells growth without formic acid presence and low carbon remains at the end of cultivation period. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated financial table's reports gaps in Jordanian Islamic banks. There must be way to face ten gaps by unit efforts between Supervisory Sharia Board report, External Auditor report and Islamic Managing Announcing Disclosure. There work must be unit as integration to give one result. Jordanian Islamic banks case study shows this cooperation to get fair result for major accounting data in financial tables. The searcher recommended to apply model as work paper to study strength or weakness of gaps which impact the financial analysis success in Islamic banks. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated practically impact of corporation between Supervisory Sharia board external auditor and internal auditor on Income statement fairly in Jordanian Islamic banks.
This study determined the influence of nursing-mothers’ parity and index child factors on adoption of exclusive breastfeeding practice by rural nursing-mothers in Imo State Nigeria. Nigeria has only 13% compliance to exclusive breastfeeding practice, hence the need for this study that employed descriptive survey design to obtain information from 340 nursing mothers from three selected communities in the state. The target population of the study was all the 405 nursing-mothers with children aged twenty-four months and below in the selected communities but 340 nursing-mothers responded. Instruments for data collection were structured questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Reliability of the instrument was established and r = 0.8. Ten nursing mothers from each of the communities participated in FGD. Results of the study revealed that exclusive breastfeeding practice was 13.5% in the target communities. Only parity, place of ante-natal care and place where the child was delivered were statistically significant (P<0.05). The study concluded that parity and type of facility attended for ante and natal care played a role in the adoption of exclusive breastfeeding practice. There is need to strengthen maternity facilities to render effective exclusive breastfeeding promotion, and also to follow up mothers in the community. Contribution/ Originality
This is an original research article. The study contributes to existing literature on exclusive breastfeeding, particularly as it relates to nursing-mother’s parity, facility where she received ante-natal care, where she delivered her child and index child’s factors. These variables received little attention previously and hence, this study fills this gap.
This study aimed at investigating linguistic errors committed by students majoring in Non-English Department in writing English composition. A total of 20 first year students at Economic College IBBI Medan who have taken an English subject course were involved in this study. Their compositions were analyzed for the purpose of scrutinizing linguistic errors they made. In analyzing the data, this study adopted Hubbard (1996) classification of errors including grammatical, syntactic, substance, and lexical errors. The results of data analysis discovered that students committed 352 errors in their compositions with the following frequencies: 82 errors in propositions, 32 errors in tenses, 29 errors in articles, 48 errors in subject verb agreements, 37 errors in word order, 17 errors in capitalization, 21 errors in punctuation, 28 errors in spelling, and 58 errors in word choice. Hence, it is concluded that the most difficult linguistic error that students face is prepositions, while the easiest part of linguistic error that poses difficulty for students is capitalization. Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that Indonesian EFL learners tend to face problems in deciding which prepositions to use in writing. The results showed that almost all types of prepositions were misused by students. Thence, it is important for English teachers in Indonesia to put more emphasis on preposition usage.
Making a differential diagnosis between schizoaffective disorder with major depressive episode and paranoid schizophrenia is difficult. The patient is at the threshold of neurotic versus psychotic, the intensity of ideation phenomenon being very high and specific to both disorders, it is required an assessment based on life and disorder history information, but also the emotional presence of the patient in the clinical interview. In this case study we suggest a literature comparison but also an evaluation profile of the disorder, marked by a psychiatric illness in which the person shows both affective symptoms (depressive or maniac) and symptoms of schizophrenia (such as delusions, hallucinations). Hypothesis: symptoms of the patient are oscillating between paranoid elements (paranoid schizophrenia) and affective elements (schizoaffective disorder). These oscillations are based on a fragile Ego structure with cognitive rigidity. The study outlines an immature-dependent personality profile, based on interpretativity, with passive-aggressive elements, hypersensitivity, psychotic operation and through psychotic elements manifested in the past (auditory hallucinations, as voices). Also, the basis of the transfer and counter-transference elements identified, the emotional resonance is low, with a risk of psychotic decompensation. Conclusions: Depressive schizoaffective disorder is characterized by presence of both depressive and schizophrenia symptoms in the same time period. Depressive symptoms includes: depressed mood, reduced interest, sluggishness, low energy, difficulty concentrating, insomnia, feelings of despair. During the same episode are present symptoms of schizophrenia: hallucinations, delusions of control, state of hyper-vigilance, delusions injury. Clinical examination cannot be a chance encounter because the history of mental suffering tight interfere with subject's essential history in that it creates a gap and that subjectivity psychiatric symptoms inferred immense emotional and personal participation of the subject. Contribution/ Originality
This study assessed government feeding programme on improved nutritional health status of secondary school students in Maiduguri, Borno state, Nigeria. Objectives and corresponding research questions were used in the study. The research design adopted for this study was survey research method. The target population for this study comprised of day public secondary schools in Maiduguri, Borno state, with a total population of nine thousand three hundred and thirty eight (9,338) students. Five public secondary schools were selected using purposive sampling technique. The sample of 934 students was selected using simple and stratified random sampling techniques. A self- developed questionnaire on government feeding programme among students in Maiduguri, Borno State was the instrument of data collection. The response mode for the instrument was a modified four(4) points Likert type scale with a response mode of strongly agree, agree, disagree and strongly disagree. Descriptive statistics of frequency counts, and percentage scores were used to answer the research question, while Chi-square was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results showed that the school feeding programme improved the nutritional health status of the students. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that Government should employ qualified food scientists, nutritionists, dieticians and caterers to assist in running the programme and to make them responsible for the purchase of needed food items to be cooked in schools. Furthermore, Government should also encourage more international donor agencies like the International Non-governmental organizations to come in with more improved varieties of school meals to increase the nutritional health status of the internally displaced students in the society. School feeding programmes should encompass both public and private primary and secondary educational institutions across the country. Feeding should be well guided by a menu which reflects the nutritional need for energy and micronutrients body requirements of the particular geographical area. Contribution/ Originality
Background and Purpose: There is currently no culturally appropriate instrument to assess Nigerian physiotherapists’ knowledge and attributes of professionalism. This study sets out to develop a psychometric instrument to assess the knowledge and attributes of professionalism of Nigerian physiotherapists, and to investigate the instrument's readability, stability, and internal consistency. Methods: A Professionalism Inventory with eight demographic questions, ten knowledge of professionalism questions and sixteen attributes of professionalism perception-based statements was developed. The attributes of professionalism scale assess clinical competence, a spirit of inquiry, accountability, autonomy, advocacy, innovation and visionary, collegiality and collaboration, and ethics and values. The Inventory was completed on two occasions, after two-week interval, by 91 Nigerian physiotherapists. Results: The Inventory’s average grade reading level was 10. The intra class correlation coefficient (ICC 3, 1) for the knowledge of professionalism scale ranged from “moderate” (0.421, p<0.001) to “substantial” (0.770, p<0.001). The Kendall's coefficient of concordance for the attributes of professionalism scale ranged from “fair” (0.368, p<0.001) to “moderate” (0.547, p<0.001). The Cronbach alpha for the knowledge of professionalism scale was “almost perfect” (0.813, p<0.0001); and “substantial” (0.780, p<0.001) for professionalism attributes scale. Conclusion: The knowledge and attributes of professionalism scales are stable and internally consistent. The availability of this psychometric instrument will promote studies of professionalism in physiotherapy. Contribution/ Originality
This study is the first psychometric instrument developed to assess Nigerian physiotherapists’ knowledge and attributes of professionalism and also the first to document the instrument's readability, stability, and internal consistency statistical properties.
This paper explores the determining of which factors/variables, and the optimal levels of these factors that lead toward successful online posts in a B2B context. Using real data from a software development company’s official social media outlets, data made available only to the authors, we conducted a fractional-factorial design with two dependent (output) variables, which were measures of success: number of impressions, and number of actions. We examined the impact of six independent variables (“factors”) and some selected interactions of these factors on the two output measures. The factors are: day of post, time of day of post, presence of an image, presence of a hashtag, length of the message, and specific channel used. Three of the six factors were significant when analyzing number of impressions, while none of the factors made the 5% significance level when analyzing number of actions. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the factors that determine the success of online posts in a B2B context. Also, it is the first paper to investigate this issue using a fractional-factorial design.
This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of prediabetes and the associated risk of kidney disease in Nnewi, Nigeria. A total of 277 apparently healthy subjects (73males and 204 females) who were willing to participate were recruited. Anthropometric indices and blood pressure were measured using standard methods while the demographic data and dietary pattern of subjects were obtained using a well-structured questionnaire. 5mls of blood was collected from eligible subjects (20 prediabetes and 20 non prediabetes ) and dispensed in fluoride oxalate and plain containers for glucose, creatinine (Cr), Urea(Ur), Na+, K+, Cl-, and HCO3- estimation respectively using standard methods. The result showed a prevalence of 7.2% prediabetes in the population. BMI was significantly higher in prediabetes than the control groups (39.4±5.8 vs 29±4.4kg/m2; P>0.05). Again, significant increases in the prediabetic values of FBG (117.54±16.84 vs 83±16.84mg/dl; P>0.05) than the control group were observed. The SBP (128± 11.26 vs 120±2.2mmHg; P>0.05) and DBP (92±4.43 vs 60±5.3mmHg; P>0.05) was also higher in prediabetic groups. Interestingly, result showed no significant difference between the renal parameters in prediabetes and non prediabetes (p>0.05). The study therefore, suggests that the major determinant for predabetes in the study population may be hypertension and obesity whereas kidney function was not impaired. Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the Prevalence of Prediabetes and the associated risk of kidney disease in apparently healthy individuals in Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria.
The most accepted Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) is heavily applied to measure the transformational leadership in private sector and central government organizations than provincial council organizations in Sri Lanka. Thus this paper describes the development of a 21 item instrument for assessing transformational leadership in provincial council organizations in Sri Lanka with special reference to the western provincial council. To do so, both qualitative and quantitative methods were applied in three fundamental stages recommended by Churchill (1979). Initially a qualitative research was undertaken in five ministries in the western provincial council within Colombo district through interviews with 15 senior and middle level administrative officers from different back grounds which produced 21 items with four factors emerged. These 21 -items were included in a questionnaire and quantitative study was undertaken with the same respondents who were currently involved in the service in the Western Provincial Council. 60 questionnaires were distributed and 56 questionnaires were returned and found to be useful 56, which represents a 93% response rate. More than half (52) of the respondents were female between the age of 40-55. To ensure the reliability and validity of the measures of transformational leadership construct, mainly reliability test, factor analysis, was used. Finally, 21 items were deducted into 10 items and a new scale was developed to measure the transformational leadership in public sector organizations with three dimensions idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and. Regarding the limitations of the study in this respect, only the senior and middle level managers were considered. The sample size was 60 and it was selected only from the western provincial council with the use of purposive sampling technique. Further studies with large sample size which covers the all provincial councils using newly developed scale to measure the transformational leadership and replication studies with other organizations would be useful for further generalizations of the newly developed scale. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have developed scale for measuring transformational leadership in the public sector organizations in Sri Lanka. Such a study is significant that its leadership development is at crucial stage. Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 04-2017 Issue: 4