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The use of PowerPoint is widespread in classroom teaching, yet no studies exist that investigate how its use affects teacher sense of efficacy. Teacher sense of efficacy, understood as the teachers’ judgment of their capability to make differences in students’ learning, affects the effort teachers invest in teaching, the goals they set, and their level of aspiration. It has been found that highly efficacious teachers use a variety of teaching strategies and are more willing to integrate new technologies in their teaching practices. As the number of teachers who use presentation tools in their classroom increases, it would be valuable to know whether and how their use affects teacher sense of efficacy. This study expands the current literature on teacher sense of efficacy by investigating how the use of PowerPoint in the classroom relates to the construct. In order to measure whether PowerPoint use affects teacher sense of efficacy, we developed a self-administered questionnaire based on the Ohio State Teacher Efficacy Scale (OSTES) and adapted it to measure the effect of PowerPoint use in teacher efficacy. Twenty five in-service teachers who use PowerPoint quite often in their practices participated in this study. The results show that PowerPoint use has a general positive impact on teacher sense of efficacy. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by investigating the relationship between use of PowerPoint in the classroom and teacher sense of efficacy. The results indicate that PowerPoint use has a general positive impact on teacher sense of efficacy.
Textbooks play an important role in teaching and learning and have a great impact on the students in aspects such as cultural values, norms, and attitudes towards social roles and identities. In particular, textbooks are of great importance to the education for gender equity. This study aims to explore the representation of genders to find if there is any bias and stereotype in a set of English textbooks used in primary schools in Guangzhou, a metropolitan city in South China with a population of more than ten million. The investigation looks at the textbooks from aspects of frequency of genders, the social roles females and males play in different settings, and the priority of mention when both genders are referred to on one occasion. The results suggest that stereotypes and imbalanced representation of genders and gender social roles are evident in the textbooks. The paper also gives some suggestions as to materials writing and teaching. Contribution/ Originality
This study examines the representation of gender in an English textbook series used in Chinese primary schools and finds evidence of stereotypes and imbalanced representation of gender. Besides, it gives some suggestions as to materials writing and teaching.
Critical assessment on the correlation between public investment on road infrastructure and poverty was carried out, and therefore this research paper provides an in depth analyses of the linkage between road infrastructure and poverty, as well as, other relevant macro-economic variables used in the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy (MGDS) as target indicators. Using primary and secondary data from 1994-2013, dynamic time series models were applied in elaborating the various factors with thrust on road infrastructure that may influence poverty in Malawi. Noting poverty reduction as priority of Malawi Government’s development agenda since the early 1990s, MGDS provides the country’s socioeconomic growth and development platforms. According to the latest 2010 Integrated Household Survey (IHS3), the majority of Malawians (50.7 percent) are languishing in abysmal poverty; this level is remotely far from the MDGS target of 27 percent by end 2015. The country has a high inequality index (Gini 0.38) reflecting profound inequalities in access to assets, services and opportunities across the population. The distribution of the benefits of economic growth is also important for the alleviation of poverty. However, the distribution of income and wealth are highly skewed, with a majority of the population living in a state of absolute poverty. Based on NSO surveys (1998-2010), the poorest 20 percent of the population control only around 10 percent of national consumption implying inequality is not decreasing at all for long time. Hosts of factors explaining why poverty level continues to be rampant are: share of agricultural as a percent of GDP (proxy to agricultural production) and export as percent of GDP (proxy to exports). However, this paper findings show that there is significant (p=0.000<0.05) relationship between road network and poverty levels. Estimates from Granger Causality analysis indicate that for one percent increase in road network, a reduction of 7.2 percent in poverty level is perhaps achievable. Average inflation rate over the last 20 years stands at 22.41 percent, and this has an immense impact on poverty level since it dramatically reduces the purchasing power of the majority of the population. For a one percent increase in the inflation rate, there is a consequence of about 3.7 percent increase in the average poverty level. Average Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate is 4.7 percent annually with a minimum of -4.9 percent and a maximum of 10.2 percent in the last 20 years. Poverty level appears to significantly respond to (GDP). There is a 4.27 percent reduction in poverty level if a one percent GDP increment takes place as shown in the dynamic time series analysis. In fact, the declining of agricultural production for export and the growing gap in balance of payment (average Malawi Kwacha -498.92 billion or approximately US$-1.1 billion) would immensely influence GDP negatively and therefore poverty becomes abysmal as GDP growth plummets. In a nutshell, the findings confirm that in the long run economic growth is the key to alleviation of extreme poverty since it creates the resources to raise incomes. Given the importance of agriculture in contributing towards GDP in Malawi, the positive impact that this sector has on poverty is evident. For agriculture to meaningfully impact economic growth, road infrastructure plays a great role. Other pro-poor variables such as development roads and other investment on infrastructure are vital for economic growth and hence poverty alleviation. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies which have analyzed the influences of road infrastructure on poverty in Malawi. It also demonstrates how road infrastructure development enhances economic growth, which is the engine of combating poverty in Malawi. It, in fact, investigated the links between various economic growth variables, road infrastructure development and alleviation of poverty in Malawi, as a whole.
Studies by leading educators and researchers indicate that ECCE teachers’ level of education affect their classroom practices and career paths. This paper is based on a descriptive study carried out among 296 preschool teachers in Peninsula Malaysia. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of preschool teachers’ education on their classroom practices and career paths. Questionnaires were used as instrument (instruments) to collect the data. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD. The findings indicated that preschool teachers with higher levels of education (diploma and above) significantly have better classroom practices than their counterparts with lower levels of education (below diploma). Similarly preschool teachers with higher levels of education have significantly better career paths than those with lower levels of education. The findings have crucial pedagogical and practical implications towards early childhood education in Malaysia. In terms of pedagogical implications, the findings suggest that a diploma should be the minimum educational qualification for preschool teachers because the results indicated that better educated teachers are more effective in their classroom practices. In terms of practical implications, policy makers should look into this matter seriously and take the necessary steps to enhance preschool teachers’ level of education and skills. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies which has investigated the effect of preschool teachers’ education on their classroom practices and career path in Peninsula Malaysia. Hope this study will shed some light to the Ministry of Education to enhance preschool teachers’ knowledge and skills on their best practices.
Objective: This study was aimed at determining the external validity of the psychometric properties of a two-factor Collegiate Learning Assessment Performance Task Diagnostic Instrument (CLAPTDI) for use in assessing learning skills among predominantly black college students. The construct validity of the two factors CLAPTDI had been established in a previous study exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Establishing the external validity involved conducting a multi-group test of the measurement instrument’s factorial scores equivalence across panels of lower class and upper class students from a predominantly black college. Method: The study relied on a strict test of equivalence categorization by focusing on tests for invariance across the two groups with respect to factor loadings, intercepts, and error factor loadings by estimating the difference in chi-square goodness-of-fit statistic and comparative fit index (CFI). Sets of measurement and structural parameters were put to the test in a logically ordered and increasingly restrictive manner. Results: The analyses found that the CLAPTDI scale’s factorial measurement structure was invariant across lower class and upper class PBC students. Conclusion: The collegiate learning assessment performance task diagnostic instrument with two latent factors and five observed variables is a valid measurement scale for assessing the level of analytic reasoning and problem solving learning among predominantly black college students. Contribution/ Originality
The study is one of very few studies which have investigated the external validity of the psychometric properties of a two-factor Collegiate Learning Assessment Performance Task Diagnostic Instrument (CLAPTDI) for use in assessing learning skills among predominantly black college students.
Vulnerability of the water resources is a continuation of such trends. The first step in management of the groundwater resources is a determination of the vulnerable areas. The objective of this research was determining the vulnerability assessment of the central plain of Gilan using DRASTIC model. Principles of the model are based on overlaying of seven thematic maps of depth to water table, net recharges, aquifer media, soil media, topography, vados zone and hydraulic conductivity by considering appropriate weights and rates. The database was constructed by introducing the mentioned maps. Index of DRASTIC model for aquifer vulnerability of the central plain Gilan was ranged in 82-182. In this plain, there was not very much and very low vulnerability classes. The final map of DRASTIC model showed that %¬48.64 of the area has high vulnerability and %¬50.55 has medium vulnerability and only a small area of plain (%0.81) has low vulnerability. The statistical summary of the DRASTIC model elements shows that the element of depth to groundwater table has the greatest impact on DRASTIC model. Also based on the map remove and single element sensitivity, depth to groundwater table is identified as the effective element in the central plain of Gilan. The results of the correlation between the elements of DRASTIC model and nitrate concentrations showed that there is the highest correlation between nitrate and depth to groundwater table. The average concentration of nitrates is 8.92 mg/lit in the wells studied at the Central Plains Gilan. In all wells studied, nitrate concentration was lower than the recommended level by US Environmental Protection Agency (45 mg/lit). Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated via DRASTIC index for sensitivity analysis of effective parameters which was validated by using of two methods for the map remove and single element in amount of nitrate pollution.
For México, the base projection shows that the demand for this meat grows at rates faster than the production, reason why an increase in the imports in the long term is expected. The base projection shows that purchases abroad will reach a level close to 390 thousand tons in 2018.In Mexico, the deficit in the milk market is complemented by imports. For 2009, an import of 1.0 billion liters is estimated and in 2018 these are hoped to fall to 946 million liters . According to these projections makes it necessary to analyze the pressure for increased food production of animal origin, leading to review technologies applied in the rest of the world to carry out such an increase, a technology is the application of mechatronics to animal production, which is also known as livestock farming precision. Being the objective of the present article the revision of the state of the art in the world and in Mexico of this technology. In Mexico it is possible to increase the productivity of Livestock Farming, if the decision to guide and formed human capital and training are taken at all three levels ; Bachelor , Masters and Ph D , to the research and application of livestock mechatronics, results in developed countries so it evidence Mexico cannot be left behind in this regard , besides that is the only way to increase food production, applying mechatronics in animal production .So previously treated the perspectives for the precision animal production in the country are very big. Contribution/ Originality
The Precision livestock farming is important in the social and economic environments of Mexican animal production and has been Kept in oblivion for many years . Being that at present, as verified by the mentioned references is the only way to alleviate the needs of animal food in the country. This paper provides the first overview of the Precision Livestock Farming and the application of mechatronics to animal production in Mexico.
This study compared the food security status for small grains and long grains smallholder farmers and analysed the factors that affect food security status for smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe. The study was conducted in Masvingo Province of Zimbabwe and the respondents were stratified into small grains cultivators and long grains cultivators. Data used in the analysis of food security was collected through a researcher administered structured questionnaire. The results established that the adoption of small grains is widespread within the province. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics had an effect on the dependence of either small grains or long grains farming. The results of the study revealed that both small grains and long grains smallholder farmers had at least attained primary education which reveals that all farmers are functionally literate. Results of the Household Dietary Diversity Score HDDS revealed that on average 76 percent of small grains smallholder farmers were measured to be food secure whilst only 41 percent of long grains farmers were food secure. The (HDDS) reflected the dietary diversity consumed by members of the household in the previous 24 hours Similar trends were observed from the descriptive statistics which showed that small grains smallholder farmers consumed relatively greater percentage of nutritious food groups than long grains smallholder farmers. Results of the Binary logit regression model indicated that the significant factors which explain food security status for smallholder sampled households are farming activity, education, number of livestock, remittances, income and access to credit. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have compared the contribution of small grains and long grains cultivation to food security of smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe. The paper contributes to existing literature on food security for smallholder farmers in developing countries.
The field study was conducted on at the experimental field of SALU – Khairpur during, 2016. Two hundred eggs were kept for each replication on cotton plants grown in large pots. When eggs hatched, the life table parameters such as; apparent mortality, survival fraction, mortality survivor ratio, indispensable mortality and k-value were studied. Natural enemies such as; Chrysoperla carneae, lady bird beetles, Spiders and Anasius bambawallae were found active on the potted and surrounding cotton plants in the field conditions. The total mortality in egg stage went to 19.00%. The mortality percentages of 1st instars due to natural enemies recorded was (18.73%) while, in 2nd instars (13.13%) mortality was recorded. The total combined mortality in 1st and 2nd instars was recorded (26.34%) and (15.64%), respectively. However, the mortality of 3rd instars and pupae due to parasitoids were recorded (7.28%) with the total mortality (10.26%) and the total mortality (54.83%) in cotton potted plants was recorded. Consequently, (45.17%) of adults survived with male and female ratio as ♂1:6.52♀, respectively. The highest apparent mortality was (26.34%), indispensable mortality (96.89) and k-value (0.13) recorded in 1st instar. The maximum survival fraction was recorded (0.90) in third instars/pupae with the total k-value generations (0.35). The study revealed that the predators and parasitoids should be encouraged in cotton field when mealybugs appear, because predators are highly voracious feeder of 1st and 2nd instars whereas; the parasitoid, A. bambawallae is known as main controlling natural enemy of cotton mealybug. Contribution/ Originality
This study documents over the biological parameters of cotton mealybug to check its, egg laying, mortality, survivor ratio, total life span, fecundity, fertility, different life stages, predators activity and aboitic factors with the different equations about this vigorous pest under cotton field conditions.
Abiotic stresses limit crop growth at different growth stages resulting low yield of rice. Molecular characterization of parental materials gives precise information on the extent of genetic diversity exists between them. A set of 60 SSRs randomly distributed over 12 chromosomes were used to analyze eight cultivars intend to be used as parent in breeding programs to address cold and drought tolerance, and nutritional quality of rice. A total of 300 alleles were detected across the cultivars for 51 polymophic markers with 5.88 alleles per loci. On average 30.6% of the genotypes shared a common allele at any given locus. UPGMA cluster analysis showed that 67% common alleles were shared by the cultivars. The cultivars were clearly grouped into two distinct clusters at 67.0% genetic similarity. Hbj. BVI showing high tolerance to cold stress at seedling stage differed from cold susceptible BR1, BRRI dhan28 and BRRI dhan29 by 33% alleles while BR18 that showed moderately cold tolerance differed by 29.0 - 29.9% alleles which indicated that only 3-4% alleles difference caused higher cold tolerance in Hbj. BVI. The moderate genetic distance between cold tolerant Hbj. BVI and high yielding BRRI dhan28 and BRRI dhan29 indicated that there is higher possibility of obtaining high yielding cold tolerant segregants from the crosses between them. On the other hand, Kalobokri, which had 31.7 mg zinc a kilogram of polished rice differed by 33.0% alleles from the drought tolerant rainfed low varieties BRRI dhan56 and BRRI dhan57 having moderate level of zinc (~20 mg/kg), which also indicated that crosses between them might produce progenies with higher nutritional quality under drought environment. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies which have investigated the genetic distance between the parental lines that are intended to be used in the breeding program to address abiotic stresses, like drought and cold tolerance with high yield potential and enhanced nutritional quality, particularly zinc content in rice.
This paper was carried to investigate the effect of used motor oil contamination on geotechnical properties of Clay soil in UYO-AKWA IBOM. In view of this, evaluating possible changes caused by waste motor oil spills in the environment and determining the suitability of some engineering construction materials in the area of study were made possible. The contaminated soil was prepared by adding different percentages of waste motor oil; 4%, 8%, 12% and 16%. The particle size distribution test (sieve analysis), compaction test, Atterberg limit test and California Bearing Ration (CBR) test were determined in both contaminated and uncontaminated sandy and clay soils. The result showed an increase in particle size distribution of soil after carrying out the analysis: reduction in optimum moisture content and maximum dry density for compaction test, reduction in liquid limit, and also a reduction in CBR value due to waste motor oil contamination. These show that the presence of waste motor oil has a remarkable effect on geotechnical properties of clay soils. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the effect of oil spill on the geotechnical properties of clay soils. The increase in used motor oil content reduces the Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) and Maximum Dry Density (MDD) of the soil. It affects the Atterberg limits of the soil. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of the soil also reduces with it. The work will assist Civil and Structural engineers in choosing materials for foundation structure and construction when working on such soils.
Over the period of thirty four years, between 1981 and 2015, the East African Community economies have witnessed inconsistent and downward trend on the level of private investments as percentage of GDP. Several studies have been done regarding the determinants of private investment at country level while others have focused on budget/fiscal deficit, regional integration and economic growth but the findings are inconsistent. However, from the empirical literature review, most of the studies ignore effect of budget deficit on private investment. It is against this background that this study was carried out to investigate the effect of budget deficit on private investment in EAC using panel data over the period 1981-2015. The study adopted the Modified Flexible Accelerator model. Using Levin et al. (2002) to test the unit root, the study found the variable to be non-stationary at level. Co-integration test error correction model were carried to analyze the long-term and short-term dynamic of the selected macroeconomic variables on budget deficit account. The study results showed that fiscal deficit had a negative effect on private investment in the region. Debt reduction and government expenditure scaling down strategies should also be adopted in the region so as to improve the fiscal deficit hence boosting private investment and faster real GDP growth in the long run. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature in the field of public finance. This study uses new panel estimation methodology. This study originates new formula of controlling budget deficit. This study is one of very few studies which have used panel data. The paper contributes the first logical analysis that increasing budget deficit discourages investment. The paper's primary contribution is finding that fiscal deficit negates investment. This study documents controlling budget deficit.
Uranium ore has been mine for decades before it was abandoned in Mika village of Yorro LGA of Taraba state. Uranium mining poses high risk of radiation exposure to members of the public and local community. Despite the high risk associated with uranium ore deposit and mining in the area, the local community have continued to live in the surroundings of the abandoned mine sites and engaging in their day to day socio-economic activities. No attempt has been made to investigate the characteristics and current condition of the abandoned uranium mine site in the area and its potential impacts on the socio-economic life of the people. This study examined the potential environmental impact that could arise from the abandoned uranium mine site and associated past activities. Data was generated through desk review of existing data sources, including literatures, field observation and measurements of abandoned uranium mine pits and related features. Measuring tape and Garmin 12 X GPS (Global Positioning System) was used in the measurements. Interview of key informants was also carried out. Findings from the study show that the uranium ore is found on hill top (425metre above sea level). The mine wastes and overburden were deposited around the mine pits. Most of the overburden materials have been washed away. Findings from the study revealed that scooping of uranium ore samples have been ongoing in Mika area before independence in 1960. The uranium mineral samples collected from the site were taking to France and subsequently to Iran. Despite the risk posed by the abandoned uranium mine pit, the local communities insist that they did not observe any strange sickness or effects associated with the mining activities. Many of them depend on the water collected in the abandoned uranium mine pit for domestic consumption. Based on the findings, the study recommends periodic monitoring of water and agricultural crop to ascertain the possible effects of radioactivity associated with the uranium ore deposits in the area and enlightenment of the local communities on the potential impact of the abandoned uranium mines on their land, soil, air and water in the area. Contribution/ Originality
The study is one of the few studies that have investigated the characteristics and current condition of abandoned uranium mine site in the study area and its potential impacts on the socio-economic life of the people.
This work deals with the synthesis and cytotoxicity of some heterocyclic compounds starting from 2-acetylfuran. The title compound was used for the synthesis of thiophene derivative 3 through its reaction with elemental sulfur and ethyl cyanoacetate. Compound 3 was used for the synthesis of thiophene, thieno[2,3-c]pyrazole, thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine and pyridine derivatives through its reaction with different reagents. The newly synthesized compounds were screened through three cancer cell lines. Compound 13b showed the highest potency among the synthesized compounds. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature that thiophene
derivatives can be produced from simple commercially available starting
materials. The reactions of the produced thiophene derivative with
different reagents gave both pyrazole and pyridine derivatives. The
cytotoxicity of the produced products gave that some compounds with high
potency. Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 01-2017 Issue: 1
Comparative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Coub-Douglas, Real Business Cycle, and Keynsian Growth Models in Determining Economic Growth in Nigeria
Chimaobi Valentine Okolo, Nicholas Attamah
Choosing the most suited growth theory in determining output in Nigeria has been a problem for researchers and policy maker. They have been faced with the question of what drive growth of the Nigerian economy: output derived from supply of capital (savings), or output derived from aggregate demand (spending) or due to shock to technology? This study empirically examined the relative effectiveness of the Cobb-Douglas Production function, the Real Business Cycle model and the Keynesian model to determine growth drivers of the Nigerian economy. Error correction model and vector error correction model was used to examine the relative effectiveness of the three growth models in determining output in Nigeria. The result of the study showed that only the coefficient of technology significantly determined economic growth in Nigeria using the Cobb-Douglas production function. Capital and labour significantly determined gross domestic product in Nigeria in the third year, adopting the vector error correction for the Real Business Cycle model. The Keynesian model proved most significant as all explanatory variables, such a consumption expenditure, investment, government spending and balance of payment were significant determinants of Nigerian economic growth. The explanatory variables jointly contributed the most (58.43%) to the variation in the gross domestic product of Nigeria. Real gross domestic product had positive autonomous growth in the Keynesian model but negative autonomous growth using the other two models. Technology input in production should be boosted by increasing government expenditure in education/ enhanced skill acquisition and the employment of more graduates in the productive sectors of the economy. Researchers and policy makers should henceforth adopt the Keynesian growth model as the most suited for the Nigerian economy. Contribution/ Originality
The study originates new formula for estimating technological input in production by estimating its input in labour and capital.
The study examined the perception of farmers on the change in climate condition on cassava production in Ido Local Government area of Oyo State. Data were collected through the use of structured questionnaire which were administered to 76 respondents. Descriptive and multiple regression analysis were used to analyse the result of this study. Results showed that 85.8% of the respondents are male and 14.7% were female, 29.2% were between 31-40years, 70.7% of the respondents received information on climate change through neighbours and friends, 100% of the respondents relied on rainfall as a source of water to the farm, 92% made use of manual planting method, while 61.3% of the respondents perceived that climate change does not have absolute effect on cassava production, also majority 50.7% agreed that extension worker do not enhance productivity, major sources of climate change awareness are through radio and television. Regression result showed that labour used was negative and statistically significant at 1%, extension agents visit has a negative coefficient and significant at 5% while source of farm land and farm size has a positive relationship to cassava output in the study. Therefore, extension agent visit or contact should be improved in order to enhance or assist the farmer on how to militate against climatic change and also to help in the adoption of new technology by the farmers in the study area. Contribution/ Originality
This study documents that the cassava farmers labour used could be capital intensive since majority of them used hired labour also decision to have a regular or consistence contact with extension agent could enhance the farmers to acquire basic training, awareness and knowledge intervention in climate change in the study.
Diffusion processes governed by Stochastic Diffusion Equations (SDEs) are a well known tool for modeling continuous-time data. Consequently, there is widely interest in efficiently estimate diffusion parameters from discretely observed data. Likelihood based inference can be problematic, as the transition densities are rarely available in closed form. One widely used solution proposed by Pedersen (1995) involved the introduction of latent data points between every pair of observations to allow an Euler-Maruyama approximation of the true transition densities to become accurate. Marko Chain Monte Carlo methods are therefore be using to sample the posterior distribution of the latent data and model parameters .We apply the so called method to epidemic data which are discretely observed, that undergo stochastic transition rate. In this case, we introduced a new innovation scheme approach that would explore efficient MCMC schemes that are afflicted by degeneracy problem. The method that capable of sampling efficient estimate of diffusion parameters from discrete observed epidemic data with measurement error. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing work of Golightly and Wilkinson (2008). Here, we make use of Bayesian argumentation approach on high frequency discretely observed diffusion times. The primary goal, is on the Modified innovation scheme apply to care for sampling degenerating when imputed time is very large.
Introduction: Around half of world blindness and fifth of visual impairment are caused by cataract. Treatment of cataract and refractive errors correction improve 73.6% of blindness. Preservation of the Anterior chamber and corneal endothelium are very important aims during cataract surgery. Methodology: This prospective, observational study was done at King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFUH), Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia. After getting the Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, the study was initiated at KFUH between April 2016 and August 2016. After getting the patients' informed consents, a thorough assessment was done to each patient prior to surgery. All eyes enrolled in the study have undergone phacoemulsification surgery procedure. For each patient, one month after the phacoemulsification surgery , specular microscopy was performed. The phacodynamic parameters and surgery time were compared with the degree of endothelial cells loss, hexagonality and central corneal thickness. Results: The phacodynamic parameters used during phacoemulsification, namely, power (AVG %), ultrasound time, and elliptical motion showed a strong correlation with the change of endothelial cell density (all P< .001). The length of surgery also showed a positive correlation with the amount of endothelial cell loss ( P < .001). All of these parameters did not significantly affect corneal endothelial hexagonality except elliptical motion. Change in central corneal thickness was very minimal. Conclusion: Endothelial loss was significantly associated with phacoemulsification power, ultrasound time, elliptical motion and length of surgery. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effect of phacoemulsification cataract surgery on density and shape of corneal endothelial cells.
Climate change threat has got a pronounced impact throughout the world. This study assessed the manifestations and extent of climate change in Merti district, Arsi zone, Oromia Regional state, Ethiopia. The study examined the indicators and perceptions of climate change by local farmers, and climate trend of the area. The study was based on key informant interviews, focus group discussions, household survey questionnaire and time series meteorological temperature and rainfall climate data. Respondents confirmed the variability in rainfall frequent delay, showing irregular patter both at the start and end of the rainy season which usually begin latter or end up earlier , unreliable distribution, erratic a general decreasing trend of rainfall was observed and an increasing warming trend with respect to temperature and abnormal conditions like occurrence of unseasonal, unusual and extreme high and low rain, occurrence of extreme hot and cold temperature, and frequent happening of drought and flood, forest and vegetation cover destruction and diminishing formerly existing wild animals, crop cultivation and livestock production decline are indicators of climate change and variability and burning issues for all the communities in the study area. The recorded time series meteorological temperature and rainfall climate data (1990–2014) also showed an increasing trend in temperature and high inter-annual and intra-seasonal rainfall variability. Contribution/ Originality
This research will give baseline information for other researchers, practitioners, development actors, and research organizations by assessing and assembling existing information about the manifestations and climate change in Merti and determinants factors in undertaking possible climate change response mechanisms at the smallholder farming household level.
As the sixth largest exporter of crude oil, Nigeria heavily depends on oil earnings to fund economic activities. The country also rely heavily on imports of consumables, both oil and non oil consumables. Nigeria’s vulnerability to crude oil price shock at the international oil market exposes the nation to certain unfavourable results. The study investigated the influence of crude oil price volatility on parallel exchange rate and their influence on the cost of living and doing business in Nigeria. Two stage least square, generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity, vector error correction, impulse response and variance decomposition was employed to measure the influence of crude oil price on parallel exchange rate and their influence on cost of living in Nigeria. Crude oil price volatility negatively and significantly influenced parallel exchange rate fluctuation and consumer price index in Nigeria. Parallel exchange rate positively and significantly influenced consumer price index in Nigeria. Declining crude oil prices implies decreasing income for the Nigerian economy and in turn per capita income. Rising cost of living with declining per capita income further impoverishes Nigerians. Therefore Nigeria should effectively take control of the production of crude oil, increase her refining capacity and increase production and export of other products with comparative advantages. Contribution/ Originality
The study contributed to the existing literature on crude oil price, parallel exchange rate and cost of living in Nigeria. The paper’s primary contribution is finding that volatility of crude oil price negatively influenced parallel exchange rate which in turn positively impacted on the cost of living in Nigeria.