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Listing 69 - 20 of 1962 results.

Comparative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Coub-Douglas, Real Business Cycle, and Keynsian Growth Models in Determining Economic Growth in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Chimaobi Valentine Okolo, Nicholas Attamah
Journal: Journal of Empirical Studies

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Abstract
Choosing the most suited growth theory in determining output in Nigeria has been a problem for researchers and policy maker. They have been faced with the question of what drive growth of the Nigerian economy: output derived from supply of capital (savings), or output derived from aggregate demand (spending) or due to shock to technology? This study empirically examined the relative effectiveness of the Cobb-Douglas Production function, the Real Business Cycle model and the Keynesian model to determine growth drivers of the Nigerian economy. Error correction model and vector error correction model was used to examine the relative effectiveness of the three growth models in determining output in Nigeria. The result of the study showed that only the coefficient of technology significantly determined economic growth in Nigeria using the Cobb-Douglas production function. Capital and labour significantly determined gross domestic product in Nigeria in the third year, adopting the vector error correction for the Real Business Cycle model. The Keynesian model proved most significant as all explanatory variables, such a consumption expenditure, investment, government spending and balance of payment were significant determinants of Nigerian economic growth. The explanatory variables jointly contributed the most (58.43%) to the variation in the gross domestic product of Nigeria. Real gross domestic product had positive autonomous growth in the Keynesian model but negative autonomous growth using the other two models. Technology input in production should be boosted by increasing government expenditure in education/ enhanced skill acquisition and the employment of more graduates in the productive sectors of the economy. Researchers and policy makers should henceforth adopt the Keynesian growth model as the most suited for the Nigerian economy.
Contribution/ Originality
The study originates new formula for estimating technological input in production by estimating its input in labour and capital.

Economics » Journal of Empirical Studies » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

Perception of Cassava Farmers of Climate Change on Cassava Production in Ido Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Oyewo, I. O, Adepoju, A.O, Oyewo, E.O, Adigun, M.O
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
The study examined the perception of farmers on the change in climate condition on cassava production in Ido Local Government area of Oyo State. Data were collected through the use of structured questionnaire which were administered to 76 respondents. Descriptive and multiple regression analysis were used to analyse the result of this study. Results showed that 85.8% of the respondents are male and 14.7% were female, 29.2% were between 31-40years, 70.7% of the respondents received information on climate change through neighbours and friends, 100% of the respondents relied on rainfall as a source of water to the farm, 92% made use of manual planting method, while 61.3% of the respondents perceived that climate change does not have absolute effect on cassava production, also majority 50.7% agreed that extension worker do not enhance productivity, major sources of climate change awareness are through radio and television. Regression result showed that labour used was negative and statistically significant at 1%, extension agents visit has a negative coefficient and significant at 5% while source of farm land and farm size has a positive relationship to cassava output in the study. Therefore, extension agent visit or contact should be improved in order to enhance or assist the farmer on how to militate against climatic change and also to help in the adoption of new technology by the farmers in the study area.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents that the cassava farmers labour used could be capital intensive since majority of them used hired labour also decision to have a regular or consistence contact with extension agent could enhance the farmers to acquire basic training, awareness and knowledge intervention in climate change in the study.

Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 09-2017 Issue: 3

Statistical Inference for Discretely Observed Diffusion Epidemic Models

Research Article
Author(s): Aliu, A. Hassan, Abiodun A. A., Ipinyomi R.A.
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
Diffusion processes governed by Stochastic Diffusion Equations (SDEs) are a well known tool for modeling continuous-time data. Consequently, there is widely interest in efficiently estimate diffusion parameters from discretely observed data. Likelihood based inference can be problematic, as the transition densities are rarely available in closed form. One widely used solution proposed by Pedersen (1995) involved the introduction of latent data points between every pair of observations to allow an Euler-Maruyama approximation of the true transition densities to become accurate. Marko Chain Monte Carlo methods are therefore be  using to sample the posterior distribution of the latent data and model parameters .We apply the so called method to epidemic data which are discretely observed, that undergo stochastic transition rate. In this case, we introduced a new innovation scheme approach that would explore efficient MCMC schemes that are afflicted by degeneracy problem. The method that capable of sampling efficient estimate of diffusion parameters from discrete observed epidemic data with measurement error.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing work of Golightly and Wilkinson (2008). Here, we make use of Bayesian argumentation approach on high frequency discretely observed diffusion times. The primary goal, is on the Modified innovation scheme apply to care for sampling degenerating when imputed time is very large. 

Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 01-2017 Issue: 1

The Effect of Phacoemulsification Surgery on Corneal Endothelium

Research Article
Author(s): Khalid Alarfaj MD, Abdullah Al Osaily, Moustafa Magliyah
Journal: Journal of Cells

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Abstract
Introduction: Around half of world blindness and fifth of visual impairment are caused by cataract. Treatment of cataract and  refractive errors correction improve 73.6% of blindness. Preservation of the Anterior chamber and corneal endothelium are very important aims during cataract surgery. Methodology: This prospective, observational study was done at King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFUH), Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia. After getting the Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, the study was initiated at KFUH between April 2016 and August 2016. After getting the patients' informed consents, a thorough assessment was done to each patient prior to surgery. All eyes enrolled in the study have undergone phacoemulsification surgery procedure. For each patient, one month after the phacoemulsification surgery , specular microscopy was performed. The phacodynamic parameters and surgery time were compared with the degree of endothelial cells loss, hexagonality and central corneal thickness. Results: The phacodynamic parameters used during phacoemulsification, namely, power (AVG %), ultrasound time, and elliptical motion showed a strong correlation with the change of endothelial cell density (all P< .001). The length of surgery also showed a positive correlation with the amount of endothelial cell loss ( P < .001). All of these parameters did not significantly affect corneal endothelial hexagonality except elliptical motion. Change in central corneal thickness was very minimal. Conclusion: Endothelial loss was significantly associated with phacoemulsification power, ultrasound time, elliptical motion and length of surgery.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effect of phacoemulsification cataract surgery on density and shape of corneal endothelial cells.

Medical Sciences » Journal of Cells » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

'Manifestations and Extent of Climate Change'. The Case of Merti District, Arsi Zone, Oromiya Region, Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Mulugeta Eshete, Yemiru Tesfaye, Yoseph Teklegiorgise
Journal: International Journal of Climate Research

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Abstract
Climate change threat has got a pronounced impact throughout the world. This study assessed the manifestations and extent of climate change in Merti district, Arsi zone, Oromia Regional state, Ethiopia. The study examined the indicators and perceptions of climate change by local farmers, and climate trend of the area. The study was based on key informant interviews, focus group discussions, household survey questionnaire and time series meteorological temperature and rainfall climate data. Respondents confirmed the variability in rainfall frequent delay, showing irregular patter both at the start and end of the rainy season which usually begin latter or end up earlier , unreliable distribution, erratic a general decreasing trend of rainfall was observed and an increasing warming trend with respect to temperature and abnormal conditions like occurrence of unseasonal, unusual and extreme high and low rain, occurrence of extreme hot and cold temperature, and frequent happening of drought and flood, forest and vegetation cover destruction and diminishing formerly existing wild animals, crop cultivation and livestock production decline  are indicators of climate change and variability and  burning issues  for all the communities in the study area. The recorded time series meteorological temperature and rainfall climate data (1990–2014) also showed an increasing trend in temperature and high inter-annual and intra-seasonal rainfall variability.
Contribution/ Originality
This research will give baseline information for other researchers, practitioners, development actors, and research organizations by assessing and assembling existing information about the manifestations and climate change in Merti and determinants factors in undertaking possible climate change response mechanisms at the smallholder farming household level.

Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Climate Research » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

Implications of Crude Oil Price Volatility and Parallel Exchange Rate Fluctuation on the Cost of Living in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Chimaobi V. Okolo
Journal: Journal of Challenges

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Abstract
As the sixth largest exporter of crude oil, Nigeria heavily depends on oil earnings to fund economic activities. The country also rely heavily on imports of consumables, both oil and non oil consumables. Nigeria’s vulnerability to crude oil price shock at the international oil market exposes the nation to certain unfavourable results. The study investigated the influence of crude oil price volatility on parallel exchange rate and their influence on the cost of living and doing business in Nigeria. Two stage least square, generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity, vector error correction, impulse response and variance decomposition was employed to measure the influence of crude oil price on parallel exchange rate and their influence on cost of living in Nigeria. Crude oil price volatility negatively and significantly influenced parallel exchange rate fluctuation and consumer price index in Nigeria. Parallel exchange rate positively and significantly influenced consumer price index in Nigeria. Declining crude oil prices implies decreasing income for the Nigerian economy and in turn per capita income. Rising cost of living with declining per capita income further impoverishes Nigerians. Therefore Nigeria should effectively take control of the production of crude oil, increase her refining capacity and increase production and export of other products with comparative advantages.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributed to the existing literature on crude oil price, parallel exchange rate and cost of living in Nigeria. The paper’s primary contribution is finding that volatility of crude oil price negatively influenced parallel exchange rate which in turn positively impacted on the cost of living in Nigeria.

Economics » Journal of Challenges » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization for Imprecise Combined Economic and Emission Dispatch Problem

Research Article
Author(s): M.A. El-Shorbagy, A.A. Mousa
Journal: Review of Information Engineering and Applications

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Abstract
Most of researchers presented a model to solve combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem in a precise formulation, but in reality data cannot be reported or collected preciously due to several reasons. The impreciseness of the mathematical model is occurring due to environmental fluctuations or instabilities in the global market which leads to the rapid fluctuations of prices. Therefore, in many cases, the various parameters of CEED model cannot be considered in a precise manner.  So, in this paper, a new methodology is presented to solve imprecise CEED problem. In this methodology, we propose a chaos based enriched swarm optimization algorithm that relies on chaos in order to enhance its global search ability. The enriched swarm optimization algorithm combining two heuristic optimization techniques, particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA) to integrate the merits of both them. Also, to improve the search engine visibility of the proposed approach, PSO has been enriched with a new evolution scheme; where a chaotic constriction factor is used to control the velocity of each particle in the swarm. Furthermore, local search (LS) technique is applied to improve the results quality; where it intends to scan the less-crowded region and obtain more nondominated solutions. Finally, the new methodology is carried out on the standard IEEE 30-bus 6-generator test system. From the results it is quite evident that our approach gives comparable minimum fuel cost and comparable minimum emission or better than those generated by other evolutionary algorithms (EAs). Also using the imprecise model enables us to predict the best cost and emission for any price fluctuation without solving the problem again.
Contribution/ Originality
This study presents a new methodology for solving imprecise combined economic emission dispatch using a chaos based enriched swarm optimization algorithm; where it integrates the main features of particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithm. The tests demonstrated that the proposed approach has a satisfactory performance compared to previous studies.

Computer Sciences » Review of Information Engineering and Applications » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

National Security and Democratization in Nigeria: The Case of Insurgence

Research Article
Author(s): Ozurumba Cyril Okechukwu, Onyeaghala Obioma Hyginus
Journal: International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research

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Abstract
The consciousness and philosophy of the security of a nation assumed a different dimension after World War 11. Defense of a nation has been employed to justify military incursion into politics by many African States. In Nigeria, the emergence of military regimes is always seen as measure to guard or defend National Security which is panacea for sustaining dictate of law, justice and democracy. In the years gone by, national security have been threatened and traumatized with internal crisis like the civil war, ethnic rivalry, religious uprisings, and currently, activities of other sect such as Boko Haram. The unprecedented rise of insurgence in many parts of Nigeria has constituted a challenge to sustainable democracy. The unconventional methods of warfare, adopted by these sect, in addition with the seeming inability of the Nigeria security drives to incapacitate their operational tactics, questions the willingness of our national defense to sustain democracy. This ugly development portrays negative signal on the security of our nation and democratization with its consequences on political stability. Against this backdrop, this paper looks at the challenges insurgence has posed on the security of Nigeria and its democracy. It argues that if the Nigeria State does not decisively debilitate the sects that are posing security challenges, the possibility of achieving sustainable democracy will be a mirage. This is because, by then the Bush - fire - effects of the killer groups may have done great damage to the democratic structure in the country.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies which have investigated the relationship between national security and sustainenace of democracy in Nigeria. It is hoped to sensitize the public on national security issues and inculcates in them that democracy and national development does not thrive in an atmosphere of chaos and insecurity.

Economics » International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

Comparative Analysis of Osmotic Dehydration of Fruits and Vegetables: Using Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) and Carrot (Daucus Carota L) in a Semi-Continuous Process

Research Article
Author(s): Duduyemi Oladejo, Ngoddy P.O., Ade-omowaye B.I.O, Abioye A.O.
Journal: International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research

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Abstract
Fruits and vegetables are important part of human diet but are prone to rapid deterioration. Osmotic dehydration (OD) is a method capable of retaining nutrient and organoleptic qualities of preserved food and aid drying at reduced energy requirement for minimally processed food. The study is aimed at analysing and comparing OD of fruits and vegetables using mango (Mangifera indica L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L) as case samples. The effects of sucrose concentration, residence time and temperature of OD media were investigated for water loss (WL) and solute gain (SG) regression. Optimal transport models established for maximum WL and minimum SG at 40-60 oBx, 30-50 oC and 0-180min using Modified Distance Design of the response surface methodology Design Expert 6.0 achieved 46.87% WL and 7.33% SG for mango and 36% WL and 5% SG for carrot. At the optimized conditions of in a semi-continuous process it was observed that high SC did not favour WL in mango while in carrot, increased SC resulted in a consistent increase in WL. The analysis of variance revealed R2 of 72.95% for carrot and 98.44% for mango at (P<0.05) thus showing the effects of the plant morphology on OD process effectiveness in determining the order of processing fruits and vegetables in a semi-continuous process.
Contribution/ Originality


Engineering » International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research » Month: 04-2017 Issue: 1

Effects of Mentoring and Gender on the Achievement of Low-Performing Students in Biology

Research Article
Author(s): Jegede S.A, Olu-Ajayi F.E
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
This study investigated the effect of mentoring and gender on the achievement of low- performing students in Biology. Its main purpose was to measure the response rate of each gender to mentoring approach of science teaching.  It is believed that this will assist in developing individual potentials to becoming better science learners. The study employed the non-randomized pre-test, post-test, control quasi-experimental design. The population of the study was all senior secondary school students in South West Nigeria. The sample comprised 180 Biology students (consisting of 70 males and 110 females) selected from six secondary schools through random and purposive sampling techniques. The instruments used to collect the relevant data for the study was a Biology Concept Test (BCT) which was administered as both pre-test and post-test. The instrument was validated by experts in science education and tests and measurement respectively. Its reliability was ascertained using test-retest method and a reliability coefficient of 0.72 was obtained. The experimental group was treated with a mentoring package involving Classroom Adjunct Instruction Learning Model (CAILM). Data collected were analyzed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA). It was discovered from the study that mentoring enhanced the achievement of low-performing students and that female students performed better than their male counterparts in mentoring relationship. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended (among others) that mentoring should be used by teachers as an adjunct to normal classroom teaching for bringing up slow and poor students to improved level of performance.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is that, low-performing students can improve their achievement in Biology if they can be well mentored. 

Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 07-2017 Issue: 7

Microfacies and Morphotectonic of the Tirgan Formation in Ghorogh Syncline (North of Chenaran)

Editorial Note
Author(s): Hoda Yavarmanesh, Seyed Hamid Vaziri, Ali Asghar Aryaei, Davood Jahani, Mohsen Pourkermani
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
In this research, the Tirgan Formation in Ghorogh Syncline (north of Chenaran) with the thickness of 412 m in north flank and 251 m in south flank is studied. The Tirgan Formation in Ghorogh sectionsis included limestones, marlylimestones, shales and sandstones in lower parts of the formation. In these sections, there are impressions of echinoderms toxasteridae family, many of foraminifera from orbitolinidae family and also lots of calcareous algae that create facies variation along with other nonskeletal allochems. The study of sediment facies led to the recognition of four facies belts and six microscopic standard facies in the Tirgan Formation and shows the oscillation of sea level but totally it can be concluded that the basin was shallow and formed in the ramp platform. According to the evidence, the oolithic limestones and intercalated shales of the Tirgan Formation in south flank, Ghorogh Syncline are slided on the red sandstone of Shurijeh Formation as transition slides because of lubrication. These landslides are distinguished and formed (7times) because of the stresses which are done from the northern syncline to the south of Ghorogh valley and formed the current morphotectonic for the area. This phenomenon could name as decollement.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding real thickness of  Tirgan Formation in south flank Ghorogh Syncline. Morphotectonic studies show transitional slides of Tirgan Formation in Chenaran map (1:100000) wrongly named Shurijeh Formation while this research led to the corrected and these transitional slides named Tirgan Formation.

Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 04-2017 Issue: 4

The Link Between Agricultural Budgetary Allocation and Economic Growth in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Salami Dada Kareem, Atoyebi Kehinde Olusegun, Lawal Samad Arogundade
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
This study investigates the nexus between Agricultural budgetary allocation and Economic Growth in Nigeria by employing simple regression analysis and a further test of cointegration and vector error correction model to determine short run dynamic behaviour of the variable. The result of the study revealed that there is positive relationship between Agricultural budgetary allocation and Economic Growth in the long run. It was also observed that since the Agricultural budgetary allocation and Economic Growth are positively related. This relationship is significant over the two years lagged value of budgetary allocation to Agriculture. And by implication, the government has to stand aloof by increasing expenditure on agriculture because agricultural sector plays a vital role towards the National Transformation in Nigeria.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes to the existing literature on the relationship between budgetary allocation and economic growth. The paper shows its uniqueness by adopting Keynesian macroeconomic approach in specifying growth as a function of agricultural expenditure. The use of vector error correction in our model enables us to capture both short run and long run dynamic behavior of the variables in our model which is an innovation.

Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 02-2017 Issue: 2

Evaluation of the Sustainability Criteria of Forest Management in the Municipality Palma Soriano, Santiago De Cuba Province

Research Article
Author(s): Mercedes Aguilar Castaneda, C. Jose Antonio Bravo Iglesias, Jose Angel Chang Porto, Kellys Cecilia Naranjo Acosta
Journal: Journal of Forests

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Abstract
The monitoring of the criteria and indicators carried out in Cuba to a municipal level and management areas are limited to a valuation according to the established methodology, making an inadequate evaluation of the same ones, what does not allow to obtain results on scientific bases that guarantee a correct valuation to define if the Forest Management is sustainable. This work carries out an evaluation of the criteria and indicators in the municipality "Palma Soriano" Santiago de Cuba province. The indicators were valued by means of a scale that allows judging their behavior using the approved and implemented methodology in Cuba. With these valuations there were carried out the graphs of sustainability, as tools to evaluate the performance of the criteria and indicators during 10 years.  It concludes that the evaluation of the acting for each criteria was of " weak", "Excellent", "Extremely weak", "Weak" and "Favorable", for the criteria Forest Covering, Health and vitality of the Forest Ecosystems, Contribution of the Forest Ecosystems to the environmental Services, Productive functions of the Forest Ecosystems and Multiple Socio-economic benefits to cover the necessities of the society respectively.
Contribution/ Originality
The contribution of the work is to provide information, used as a tool by the local Government in the formulation of effective policies for forest management, the evaluation of development projects and the investigations of the Universidad de Oriente in methodological proposals to measure local development in the municipalities.

Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Forests » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

Effects of Distortion on Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing Straight Walls

Research Article
Author(s): A. Adebayo, J.T Stephen
Journal: Journal of Building Construction, Planning and Materials Research

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Abstract
Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) is a developing rapid prototyping and manufacturing technology which allows the production of large custom made metal parts with high deposition rates, a major concern of the aircraft industry. Despite this, there is few researches on the design method and application of WAAM technology in the aircraft industry. The overall aim of this paper is to study the machinability of the part manufactured through is process especially when a base plate is require. The results showed that removing the best plate prior or after machining can have a significant effect on the overall effective wall width of the samples.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the machinability of Wire and Arc Additive Manufactured thin walls using mild steel. The study shows the effects of machining of WAAM thin walls in relation to the base plate in order to produce useable WAAM parts.

Engineering » Journal of Building Construction, Planning and Materials Research » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

Using ICT Policy Framework as a Panacea for Economic Recession and Instability in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Otuonye Anthony I., Emeka Chinedu
Journal: Journal of Future Internet

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Abstract
In this research article, we have developed an ICT-based strategic model for Nigeria as a panacea for her current fight against economic recession. Research has shown that Nigeria is currently in a recession with her GDP growth rate for the first quarter of 2016 at -1.5% and that of the second quarter of 2016 at -0.36%. The reduced economic activities in Nigeria clearly show in lower gross domestic product (GDP), and high inflation rate. The model developed in this work shows the correlation among the various elements of the framework including Integration, Incentives, Challenges, and Direct Positive Effects, to ensure economic benefits to Nigeria as a nation via the following channels: ICT policy, an entrepreneurial roadmap, a broadband policy, and an deployment of ICT component policy in all educational disciplines across the nation.  This paper recommends a full implementation of the model for a quick recovery of the Nigerian economy and for her economic growth. The government of Nigeria should encourage the dispersal of ICT into the socio-economic life of the people by an adoption and implementation of ICT policies, including adequate investment in IT infrastructure.  We have equally proved that ICT plays a complementary role in industrial development, trade, farming, education, housing, health and financial institutions. We strongly recommend that government should link ICT planning to her national economic and social planning, and the best time to do that is now.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature having highlighted the important role that Information and Communication Technology will play in addressing the problem of economic recession in Nigeria. This study uses new estimation methodology known as the Decision Process Theory. This study also originates new models for sustainable economic growth. It is one of the very few studies which have investigated the solution to economic recession in Nigeria. 

Computer Sciences » Journal of Future Internet » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

Evaluation of the Current Procurement Planning Process in a District Municipality

Research Article
Author(s): Nokwazi Nzimande, Prunella Padayachee
Journal: International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research

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Abstract
Procurement planning represents an important tool within municipal budget activities. Without an effective procurement planning process, municipalities often experience huge challenges towards determining what to buy, when, where and how. South African municipalities often experience procurement planning related challenges with the blame leveled against a procurement planning process. The purpose of this study is to explore a district municipality’s current procurement planning process following indications that the municipality was experiencing serious procurement planning challenges. The population for the study consisted of all employees who work in the municipality from which 10 participants were purposively selected for the sample. The study findings revealed that the municipality does make efforts to draw procurement plans which are not formally implemented. Failure to formally implement the procurement plans can lead to non-compliance, and unauthorised, irregular, wasteful expenditure. A similar study in other district municipalities is recommended, and further, there is need to conduct a repeat of the same study after five years to assess improvements or deteriorations of the procurement planning process.
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

An Econometric Planning Model of Urban Forestry as a Measure of Sustainability: A Matrix of Action and Change

Research Article
Author(s): Anthony M. Rodriguez, G. Solomon Osho, Lalita Sen
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
The urban forest holds several important positions within the built and unbuilt environments. Those positions include economic, health, sustainability, quality of life measures, and overall protection of the environment, including air, water, and soil. The points are highlighted by Wolf (2005;2007); McPherson (2005) and Rowntree and Nowak (1991). This research references the four socio-economic sectors; the public or government sector, for profit or market sector, philanthropic or nonprofit sector, and the household or private sector (Biggs and Helms, 2007). The common purposes and role of each sector with respect to the urban tree cover takes on importance as they interrelate with concerns for public health, economic viability, tree coverage, tree placement, ecological relationships, and public policy. Harris County and its 52 heterogeneous sub-governmental units serve as the study area and the base for the administration of a random internet-based survey. Additionally, the research used urban tree canopy data to relate socio-economics, household preferences, sustainability measures, and overall environmental consciousness to gauge the sectors’ connection to the urban forest. The research used multiple correlation analysis and regression modeling with secondary data. The research incorporated the results of the primary data collected, employed hierarchal linear modeling to address the perceived problem of a lack of concern for the urban forest and sustainability in respect to sectoral frame of reference in answering the survey questions. The element of willingness and receptivity serves as independent variables and overall environmental sustainability. The results can help policy makers promote sustainable initiatives that enhance the urban forest and protect the overall natural environment for the benefit of all, now and in the future.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies that examined the urban forest resource as a critical element of our overall ecosystem with values and benefits that far outweigh the cost of maintainance and or expansion. The study also demonstrated that awareness and knowledge precipitates action. How we act though, may require clarity of understanding of the various roles of all the sectors and how each sector, may or may not, take, or be willing to take responsibility for our urban tree canopy’s future. There is a need for a balance within the ecosystem in order to enhance as well as retain our natural heritage of our homes, communities, and regions, by protection of the urban forest, both its resources and benefits. The public in general may not perceive the urban forest as an economic good, but often as an abstraction and not accounted as real property. 

Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 1

A Tobit Analysis of Propensity to Discontinue Adoption of Yam Minisett Technology among Farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Anaeto F.C, Okereke- Ejiogu . N, Uke P.C, Korie O.C, Ohajianya D.O
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
This study analyzed farmers’ propensity to discontinue adoption of yam minisett technology in Anambra State, Nigeria. Data were collected in 2015 with validated questionnaire from 134 proportionately and randomly selected yam farmers. Data collected were analyzed using the Tobit model. Results of the estimation showed that significant variables leading to discontinuance of adopted yam minisett technology were extension visit, participation in extension related workshops, feedback provision, input availability, and  perception of yield.  Foremost among these factors were extension visits and participated in extension related workshops which therefore should be sustained after farmers have adopted a technology.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated propensity to discontinue adoption of yam minisett technology among farmers, using Tobit analysis. The paper’s primary contribution is finding that determinants of discontinuance of adopted yam minisett technology were extension, participation in workshops, feedback, input availability and yield perception.

Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 09-2017 Issue: 3

Traveling Wave Solutions for the Nonlinear Fractional Sharma-Tasso-Olever Equation

Research Article
Author(s): Dianchen Lu, Mengyang Ye
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
In this paper, the generalized exp(-Φ(ξ))-expansion method along with the Jumarie’s modified Riemann-Liouville derivatives is proposed to solve the nonlinear fractional Sharma-Tasso-Olever (STO) equation. Consequently, the exact solutions are obtained in terms of the trigonometric, exponential, hyperbolic, and rational functions, which confirm the proposed technique is very effectual and easily applicable.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on the use of the exp(-Φ(ξ))-expansion method. The method is applied to find the exact solutions to the fractional STO equation for the first time. Consequently, we get some new forms of exact solutions.

Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 01-2017 Issue: 1

Technological Innovation in Central and Eastern Europe: What’s the Contribution of Innovation Policy?

Research Article
Author(s): Kamilia Loukil
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
If European Union member states are technologically lagging behind other member countries, especially Eastern European countries, it is important to analyze whether or not public policies contribute to the reduction of this gap. In this respect, our study examines the effect of public innovation policy on technological innovation in Central and Eastern European countries. The estimation of panel data model for 10 countries over the 1998-2013 period show that innovation policy in these countries is not efficient.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by showing in another manner the inefficiency of innovation policy in Central and Eastern European countries. It assesses public efforts by considering two periods: before policy implementation and after policy implementation.

Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 1