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Listing 65 - 20 of 1962 results.

Comparing Patatin Class I and Camv 35s Promoters in Expression of Human Calcitonin Gene in Potato (Solanum Tuberosum Cvs. Kardal And Marfona)

Research Article
Author(s): Fatemeh Ghorbaniparsa, Hamideh Ofoghi
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
Calcitonin (CT), a 32 amino acid polypeptide hormone is a powerful and specific inhibitor of bone resorption and is used to treat several human diseases like hypercalcemia and osteoporosis. To date, many pharmaceutical proteins of mammalian origin have been synthesized in plants. To increase the production level of heterologous proteins in plants, strategies such as choice of stronger promoters and optimization of codon usage are of major concern. In this study, a human calcitonin (hCT) gene, driven by two different promoters (Patatin Class I and Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S) was expressed in two types of potato's cultivars (cvs) Kardal and Marfona plants, using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transgenic plants were analyzed by molecular methods and hCT concentration was determined by quantitative EASIA. The results showed the localization of hCT production in Kardal potato tubers led to 0.7% of total soluble proteins whiles total soluble protein was 0.2% when CaMV 35S promoter was deployed, these results of Marfona when used Patatin Class I and Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoters were 0.3% of the total soluble protein and 0.1% of the total soluble protein in the respect. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using analytical statistics. There was significant difference in mean score of hCT production when two different promoters and two different cultivars were used. These results showed that organ specific expression in potato led to nearly 3 fold higher hCT accumulation than constitutive expression and Kardal cultivar expressed hCT about 2 times higher than Marfona cultivar.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that the expression of foreign gene under the control of organ specific promoter is more than constitutive promoter in transgenic potato. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated on the effect of two different potato plant cultivars for heterologous gene expression level.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 04-2016 Issue: 4

Review of Biological Impacts of Genetically Engineered Crops and Neonicotinoid Treated Seed Use on Staten Island

Research Article
Author(s): Sintayehu Admas
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
Genetically modified organism (GMO) crops particularly Roundup Ready Crops have been widely used in commercial agriculture in the United States in general and Staten Island in particular. However, its use has promoted concerns about the potential environmental effects of this technology. Therefore, this work was initiated to review impact of GE crops and Neonicotinoid to biodiversity, special focus on bees, birds, and super weeds development at Satan Island. Glyphosate herbicide is now widely used for growing Roundup Ready crop, like maize and soy bean. Scientists reported that using glyphosate herbicide by far better than using the previously used herbicide to the environment and biodiversity. It is also known that super weed may develop through gene flow from Roundup Ready Crops to its wild relatives and develop resistance against roundup. However, this might not be a problem in Staten Island where there is no wild relative species for widely grown Roundup Ready Crops like corn and alfaalfa.With regards to Neonicotinoids, it has lower toxicity to mammals like birds, and fish than other non-target insect species specially bees and other pollinator. The effect of Neonicotinoids to non-target species can be minimized using Fluent Agent in seed coating the which reduces dust contamination. Therefore, the use of Genetically Engineered Crops and Neonicotinoid Treated Seed needs special care and management in order to minimize its damage to non-target insect species.
Contribution/ Originality


Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 04-2016 Issue: 4

Unprotected Sex among Sexually Active Unmarried Young Adults: A Pariah or Preemptive Incidence

Research Article
Author(s): Taofik Olatunji Bankole, Rasheed Adebayo Yinusa, Muazu Alhaji Shamaki
Journal: Journal of Diseases

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Abstract
Globally, HIV endemic has been linked to several but preventable predictors, amongst these, is the practice of unprotected sex. In spite of the burdens of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria, there is a dearth of studies with focus outside the conventional approach to predicting the incidence of unprotected sex among sexually active unmarried young adults in Nigeria. This study addresses this limitation. The study adopted a cross-sectional and multistage sampling technique. A total sample size of 384 respondents was systematically and randomly selected among young adults aged 20-29 in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Unprotected sex was the study’s response variable and was categorised into respondents who had unprotected sex in at least the last three months prior the survey with single sex partner and those who had with multiple sex partners over the same period. The key explanatory variables were a pariah and preemptive factors while the confounding variable was knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Rank-ordered logistic regression was employed using Stata 14. Results showed that pariah and preemptive factors were significantly associated with unprotected sex (p<0.05). The study concluded that the incidence of unprotected sex among unmarried young adults across Ile-Ife communities was predisposed to pariah and preemptive factors.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by reconnoitering risky sexual behaviour outside the conventional recognized approach; it documents joint influence of pariah and preemptive factors on incidence of unprotected sex; as such document provides insights to inhibiting the spread of HIV and avoidance of unwanted pregnancy outside wedlock.
Medical Sciences » Journal of Diseases » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Effects of Segregated Early Weaning at 7 Days on Dams Body Condition, Parturition Interval and Offspring Birth Weight and Litter Size in the Agouti (Dasyprocta Leporina) for Intensive Production

Research Article
Author(s): Riyadh Mohammed, Kavita Kemeela Sant, Gary Wayne Garcia
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
There has been limited information reported on the impacts of segregated early weaning on agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) dams. The study lasted 485 days where 4 parturitions were recorded from 12 (2 year old) multiparous dams, hence there were 48 (12 x 4) parturitions in total with 100 offspring being born. Data was collected on 1) the live weight gain of dams (+/- g), 2) re-conception time and parturition interval (through theoretical calculations assuming that the gestation period was 104 days), 3) litter size at each parturition 4) weight of each individual offspring born per litter as a % of dams’ live weight and 5) the ratio of offspring sex at each parturition. Results showed that dams can reconceive and have a successive parturition as early as 119 days after the day of her previous parturition. Average live weight gain after 4 consecutive parturitions for dams were 276g. Average offspring weights increased by approximately 23 g (193 g to 216g) after 4 parturitions when weaned at 7 days. Average litter size per dam increased by 33% (1.75 to 2.33) after 4 parturitions when weaned at 7 days. Litter size as a percentage of dam’s body weight increased by 0.11% (5.47 to 5.58) after 4 parturitions when weaned at 7 days. This study concludes that weaning at 7 days post-partum is very beneficial for dams’ body condition and re conception, offspring growth and development and for continuous reproduction in an intensive production unit.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the impacts of segregated early weaning on agouti (Dasyprocta leporina). Weaning at 7 days post-partum is very beneficial for dams’ body condition and re conception, offspring growth and development and for continuous reproduction in an intensive production unit.
Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Comparing Post-Partum Growth by Body Weight between Sex and Litter Size of Agouti (Dasyprocta Leporina) Offspring from Birth to 360 Days Old

Research Article
Author(s): Riyadh Mohammed, Asad Mohammed, Letetia Addison, Isaac Dialsingh, Kavita Kameela Sant, Gary Wayne Garcia
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
Thirty (30) offspring were weaned at 7 days old and 12 weights were taken every 30 days from the date of birth until 360 days old. The objectives of this study were: 1) to observe any dimorphism by live weight gain between agouti males and females at each 30 day interval, 2) to see if there was any difference in growth rate between litter sizes, and 3) to observe of there was a point where growth plateaued and to decide on an average age and weight for utilization (meat). Results suggested that: 1) Offspring can be weaned as early as 7 days, 2) Single born offspring grew faster than double or triple born initially in the earlier periods of life (< 6 months old) (18.89 g/d vs.17.61 g/d, 17.57 g/d) 3) Compensatory growth took place for offspring that came from larger litters in the latter stages of life (> 6 months old) (1.25 g/d, 1.21 g/d vs. 0.87 g/d) and had no major disadvantage by weight when compared to single born offspring (2750.8g 2770.0g and 2784.1g,), 4) Male and female offspring grew at the same rate from day 0 to 360, hence no sexual dimorphism by live weight was seen at day 360, 5) The average weight for optimum utilization (harvest) by live weight is no less than 2600g which can be achieved by 8 months of age, 6) The Gompertz growth model best describes the growth of Agouti offspring as compared to the Logistic and Von Bertalanffy models.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the growth and development of agouti offspring along a 360 day period and compared the growth rates of sexes and litter sizes to the Gompertz , Logistic and Von Bertalanffy growth models.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Social Studies Teachers' Performance in the Context of the Knowledge Society at Saudi Arabian Schools

Research Article
Author(s): Hoash Almelweth
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
This study investigated social studies teachers’ teaching practices in the knowledge society framework at Saudi Arabian schools as viewed by educational supervisors and teachers using the descriptive analytical approach. The study used a questionnaire. The study’s sample consisted of 33 randomly selected educational supervisors and 62 social studies teachers. Only 95 questionnaires were complete and statistically analyzed Results revealed that the means of the social studies teachers’ performance were viewed as being above average. The study recommends training teachers on the modern educational experiences imposed by the knowledge society.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing literature by investigating social studies teachers’ teaching practices in the light of knowledge society at Saudi Arabian schools as viewed by educational supervisors and teachers.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 04-2019 Issue: 4

Evaluation of Selected Botanical Extracts against Mendi Termite Macrotermes subhyalinus (Isoptera: Termitidae), under Laboratory Condition

Research Article
Author(s): Weldesenbet Beze Kassie
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
Termites are most pestiferous insects causing damage to crop and buildings. Their control still relies mainly on harmful chemical pesticides to the detriment of eco-friendly pesticides. The main objective of the study was evaluate seed extracts of Brassica nigra and leaves extracts of Acokantra schimperi, Croton macrostachyus and Rhamnus prinoides against Macrotermes subhyalinus, known to cause damage to crops, vegetation and buildings in Ethiopia. Treatments were consisted of three concentrations levels (5, 10 and 15 weight of botanical powder (g) per 100 ml volume of water) by three replications. Mortality of termite was counted after 24, 48 and 72 hours exposure for both conditions. The results of all botanical extracts at all concentration levels showed that caused mortality of M. subhyalinus workers. Complete mortality (100%) of M. subhyalinus was observed after treatment with 15 w/v B. nigra extract at three time intervals. Moreover, A. schimperi at 15 w/v concentration also resulted 100% mortality after 48-72 hours of exposure. Brassica nigra extract showed least LC50 (5.63g/100ml) value than other botanical extracts after 24 hours exposure. Based on their toxicity status extracts of B. nigra > A. schmperi > R. prinoides > C. macrostachyus leaf extracts.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by giving important information for farmers, government and Non-governmental developmental sectors to control Mendi Termite Macrotermes subhyalinus by using of these locally available botanical extracts alternatives rather than using synthetic pesticides because, botanical extracts have minimum mammalian toxicity and environmental influences.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Development of Health Tourism in Turkey: SWOT Analysis of Antalya Province

Research Article
Author(s): Akin Aksu, Kerem BAYAR
Journal: Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Abstract
Health tourism is one of the most important types of alternative tourism that provides sustainable tourism. When examining the coordination among current developments in health tourism in the world, technological innovations, and health tourism providers, it is clear to see that Turkey and Antalya have not yet reached the desired level. This study attempts to evaluate and explain the position of Antalya, which wants to attain a share in health tourism. In this context, a SWOT analysis of Antalya in the development of health tourism was carried out. Antalya is primarily a cheap destination, and this is a very attractive feature for foreign tourists. Health services in Antalya, doctors and other health care personnel, applied treatments, and technological devices are at a very high standard. Tourists who prefer autumn and spring seasons will solve the seasonality problem of Antalya especially during off-peak times. For this purpose, Antalya should additionally be promoted and marketed as a destination for health tourism. In this context, public and private sectors need to cooperate. Within the scope of the responses obtained from the participants, Antalya is required to conduct studies on being easily accessible and reliable for patients. Promotional information in brochures or posters should also be reviewed.
Contribution/ Originality
This study tries to give valuable input to the development of health tourism in Antalya Province of Turkey benefiting from SWOT analysis method. In the written literature there are few researches conducting SWOT analysis of destinations in the development of health tourism. In this context, this study can be evaluated as a starting point at least for Antalya province.
Business & Management » Journal of Tourism Management Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Breeding Objective, Breeding Practices and Selection Criteria of Indigenous Sheep in Western Amhara, Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Esubalew Adimasu, Kefyalew Almayehu, Tesfaye Getachew
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
The purpose of this research was to generate organized information on breeding objectives, breeding practices and choice criteria of farmers in Farta, Lay Gayint and Sekela districts. A sum of 180 households was selected to survey questionnaires in selected districts, Semi structured questioner and group discussions were used as information sources. The average separation of the Statistical Analysis System was used to analyze the flock size and structure in the three districts. An index was calculated to supply an overall ranking of categorical variables. The average flock per house holding the study districts was 8.8±0.05 heads. For source of income (0.45), home use (0.28), saving (0.20), and manure (0.04) were the reasons of sheep keeping. The uncontrolled mating system was practiced by most (72.6 %) of households. In the study districts 37.7 % of farmers received their own breeding rams while the rest farmers shared with their neighbors. Appearance (0.38), growth rate (0.34), color (0.13), pedigree (0.10) and tail type and size (0.10) were the sheep owner’s standards for breeding ram, while the appearance (0.29), coat color (0.18), lamb growth (0.17), lambing interval (0.12), age at first lambing (0.09) and lamb survival (0.08) where the farmers' selection criteria for breeding ewes. Going through a breed improvement program considering the farmers’ production objectives and existing breeding practices is important. Nevertheless, designing alternative breeding strategies to key out the optimal number of traits to be considered and size of flocks to be mixed is crucial before setting up a breeding plan.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few works which have investigated to evaluate the existing breeding practice and choice criteria of sheep farmers’ in Ethiopia. This inquiry is important to design breeding strategies for improvement breeding practices and choice of traits chosen by farmers in the study districts.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 12-2019 Issue: 4

Effect of Integrated Application of Poultry Manure and Chemical NP Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Yield Components of Highland Maize Variety on Vertisol at Ambo University on Station, Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Tulu Kusse, Tesfaye Balemi, Tolera Abera
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
A decline in soil nutrient and organic matter content as a consequence of removal of crop residues from crop fields, repeated suboptimal fertilization resulting in periodic nutrient mining, is a major constraint to increasing maize productivity in a sustainable manner in tropical soils. A field experiment was conducted at Ambo University research farm, Ethiopia with the objectives to investigate: the effect of combining different levels of poultry manure (PM) and NP chemical fertilizer rates on growth, yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L.). The experiment consisted of eight treatments: control, 15 t ha-1 PM alone, 30 t ha-1 PM alone, 15 t ha-1 PM + 25% rec. NP, 15 t ha-1 PM + 50% rec. NP, 30 t ha-1 PM + 25% rec.NP, 30 t ha-1 PM + 50% rec.NP and 100% recommended dose of NP fertilizer rates, which were laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Results showed that plant height, number of leaves per plant, leaf area, leaf area index, number of cobs per plant, cob girth, cob length, number of grains per cob, 1000-grain weight, biomass yield, harvest index and grain yield were significantly higher for the treatment in which 30 t ha-1 PM plus 50% recommended NP fertilizer was applied compared to both the absolute and standard controls. The highest maize grain yield (132.7q ha-1) was recorded for the treatment in which 30 t ha-1 PM along with 50% recommended NP fertilizer was applied. The lowest values of growth, yield and yield components parameters were recorded for the negative control where no PM and chemical NP fertilizer were applied. Results of the correlation analysis revealed the presence of significant positive relationship between grain yields and all growth and yield component parameters. Integrating poultry manure with chemical fertilizers can considerable reduce the quantity of the later required for optimum maize production.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature that reports the positive contribution of co-application of poultry manure and inorganic fertilizer as part of integrated nutrient management in enhancing growth, yields and yield components in crop plants in general and in maize in particular.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 12-2019 Issue: 4

Supernumerary Teats in Kalahari Red Goats in the Humid Tropics

Research Article
Author(s): Famakinde, S.A., Okwelum N., Leigh, O.O.
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
Supernumerary teats (SNT) are additional to the usual number of teats found on a cow (four), goat or sheep (two). Information has been provided on the occurrence of teat abnormalities in the indigenous goat breeds in Nigeria but there remains a dearth of information on the incidence of teat abnormalities in the Kalahari red goats (KRG). Fifty two female lactating KRG aged between 2-5 years were classified on the basis of the number of SNT by visual appraisal. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and independent sample T-test. 76.1% of the population possesses SNT, 10.9% had one, 43.5% had two, 10.9% had three while 10.9% had four SNT. 60% of the population of KRG with SNT had none of such teats functional/patent. 11.4% had one patent SNT, 25.7% had two patent SNT, 2.9% had four patent SNT. The location of the SNT in relation to the primary teat reveals that 86.3% of the SNT are cranial, 1.3% of the SNT are caudal, 10.0% of the SNT are medial while 2.5% of the SNT are lateral. 74.36% of KRG studied had symmetrical udders while 25.45% had asymmetrical udder. The study concluded that possible reproductive implications of high percentage of SNT in KRG may include neonatal death of kids especially in multiple births and higher risk of mastitis in does. Reproductive Veterinarians and breeders should watch out for goats with SNT when carrying out breeding soundness examination.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies which have investigated the occurrence of Supernumerary teats in the Kalahari red goats with its reproductive implications. The study also provides one of the earliest reports of Supernumerary teats that are positioned lateral and medial to the primary teat in the goat.
Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Ambient Particulate Matter (PM) Evaluation in Gasabo District, Rwanda

Research Article
Author(s): Irankunda Elisephane
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
Industries, and Vehicles emit air pollutants; all among these pollutants Particulate Matter (PM) has the greatest effects on human health like respiratory diseases and effects on environment like global warming and climate change. To find the levels of ambient PM air pollutants in commercial and bus-stations areas of Gasabo-district, one of the three districts of Kigali the capital city Rwanda was the main purpose of this research. The Air Visual Nodes instruments were used to measure values of PM concentration in microgram per cubic-meter (µg/m3). Questionnaire method was used where the total of 125 respondents for all sites was randomly selected to respond some questions before starting sampling activity in July, 2018. Sampling showed that; In both Batsinda and Kinamba commercial areas, level of PM is between (20-60)µg/m3 for PM2.5 and (80-130)µg/m3 for PM10. While in both Kagugu and Gakinjiro (Gisozi) commercial areas level of PM is between (15-45)µg/m3 for PM2.5 and (50-110)µg/m3 for PM10. In Batsinda bus-station level of PM is between (25-60) µg/m3 for PM2.5 and (80-130)µg/m3 for PM10. While in Kakiru bus-station, level of PM is between (15-40)µg/m3 for PM2.5 and (80-120)µg/m3 for PM10. Interview showed vehicle and decomposition of waste materials emissions as source of air pollutants. World Health Organization Guideline indicate that 10µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 20µg/m3 for PM10 are adequate, these above findings are high compared to these guidelines that is why education for all toward good air quality would be the best option in reducing air pollutants in Kigali city.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the level of ambient particulate matter (PM) in Kigali. As result, it will help to reduce air pollutants concentration in Kigali for better human health and environmental protection in general.
Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Microscopic Detection of Haemoparasites in Muscovy Ducks (Anas Platyrynchos) in Gombe State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Jallailudeen Rabana Lawal, Abdullahi Abubakar Biu, Umar Isa Ibrahim
Journal: International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research

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Abstract
This present study aimed to detect haemosporidians from the blood of Muscovy ducks in Gombe State Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 880 apparently healthy ducks of both sexes from the month of April, 2015 to February, 2016. Microscopic examination of Giemsa stained thin blood films revealed 16.14% overall prevalent rate of haemoparasites. The prevalence was found to be highest in Yamaltu/Deba LGA (23.08%) and least in Funakaye LGA (7.83%). Among the four genera of haemoparasites detected, Aegyptinella species (7.73%) was most prevalent followed by Leucocytozoon species (5.57%) and Haemoproteus species (2.16%) while Plasmodium specie (0.68%) was the least. Prevalence rate was found to be significantly higher (p<0.0001) in the young (22.68%) compared to the adults (10.43%) ducks. The female (18.54%) were found to be more infected than the male (13.58%) ducks, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.0565). The prevalence of haemoparasites was found to be significantly (p<0.0001) higher during the rainy (24.55%) compared to the dry (7.27%) season. This present study represents the first to provide evidence of haemoparasites in Muscovy ducks in Gombe State, Nigeria. There is need for further researches on the epidemiology of haemoparasites in Muscovy ducks reared under extensive management system in Nigeria. Strategic control of arthropods and maintenance of strict biosecurity in and around poultry houses will curb transmission of arthropod borne haemoparasites among village poultry species.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the occurrence of avian haemoparasites in free range Muscovy ducks in developing countries including Nigeria. The study has also contributed to the existing literatures concerning haemoparasites infections in domesticated ducks in the world.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Determination of Heavy Metals in Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) and Water Samples from Lake Hayq, South Wollo, Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Dessie Tibebe, Dereje Lemma, Gizachew Teshome
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of heavy metals in Lake Hayq water and fish muscles samples during dry and wet seasons. Samples of fish organs and water were collected from four sampling sites of Lake Hayq. An optimal procedure required 8 mL of (69%) HNO3 and 6 mL of (30%) H2O2 to mineralize powdered samples in open refluxed digestion vessels: 0.5 g of the fish body for 2:30 hrs at temperature of 130oc.Concentrations of six metals (Pb, Ni, Zn, Cd, Cu and Cr) in water and their accumulation in the edible tissue of Nile Tilapia were determined by FAAS. The results revealed that the average heavy metal concentrations in water samples were; Pb (0.006), Ni (0.018), Zn (0.083), Cd (0.004), Cu (0.1) and Cr (0.003) mg/L in the lake. The average concentration of heavy metals in fish samples were; Pb (2.02), Ni (2.29), Zn (55.52), Cd (1.57), Cu (11.18) and Cr (0.745) mg/Kg. Among the detected metals, zinc (Zn) showed a maximum accumulation in the edible muscle of Nile Tilapia fish from Lake Hayq. The concentrations of the metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu) were below the recommended limit by WHO, USEPA and FAO. For fish the highest accumulations of nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) concentration were observed above the recommended limit by FAO/ WHO. Application of the statistical t-test on heavy metal analysis has shown that there was no significant difference between fish as well as water samples of the lake for all sites.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contributions is finding the pollution of the aquatic environment of heavy metals water and fish muscles samples during dry and wet seasons and produce an information of edible fish quality by standards of WHO/FAO, especially concern in South Wollo, Lake Hayq.
Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 01-2019 Issue: 1

Purchasing Power Parity Hold in Major SAARC Countries? Panel Cointegration Analysis

Research Article
Author(s): Rashid Mehmood, Muhammad Zeeshan Younas
Journal: Quarterly Journal of Econometrics Research

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Abstract
In an effort to provide a better understanding of the large variation in price levels between countries, this paper examines the validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP) hypothesis using monthly data of SAARC countries over the period of 2000-2017. We utilized four econometric tests to examine the existence of this hypothesis in the understudy region. Panel results show that PPP seems to be moderately held in a panel of SAARC, while in the country by country analysis we find partial support of PPP for all economies. We also find that the price and exchange rate have a long-run relationship while ECM analysis shows that the exchange rate and price differential are correlated in the short run, and price and exchange rate have bidirectional causality relationship. In addition, the dummy variable analysis shows that the Global Financial Crisis 2007-08 significantly affect the SAARC countries exchange rate in terms of depreciation. However, these types of external shocks do not have any permanent effect on the real exchange rate and other things remaining the same, no active policy intervention is warranted for the sustainability of external balance.
Contribution/ Originality
This contributes to the existing literature by estimating the long-run parameters and short-run dynamics to check the speed of adjustments towards the long-run equilibrium.
Economics » Quarterly Journal of Econometrics Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 1

Investigation of Usability of Fatty Acids as Copper Extractant from Leached Copper Ore

Research Article
Author(s): Moses T. Adejumo, Olayinka Sanda
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Abstract
This paper presents an experimental study on leaching and solvent extraction of copper from low-grade copper ore mined from Nasarawa (Nigeria) by fatty acids in petroleum-based diluents - methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), styrene, and kerosene. The leaching investigation showed that the optimum temperature, contact time, and H2SO4 concentration are 91.5oC, 39 minutes, and 2.9 M, respectively. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was adopted for the optimization of the leaching conditions. The aqueous solution obtained from leaching of copper ore in sulfuric acid was used for the solvent extraction. The extraction studies showed that fatty acids in a petroleum-based organic solvent is an effective extractant for solvent extraction of copper. The fatty acids used in the studies were obtained by acidifying the soap that was produced when vegetable oil was treated with sodium hydroxide. It was also observed that diluents affect the percentage extraction of copper. Styrene achieved the highest percentage extraction, followed by kerosene and MIBK at 80 % and 90 % v/v diluents in fatty acids.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated and ascertained the fact that fatty acids obtained from vegetable oil can be effectively used as a copper extractant in place of di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid which is commonly used during solvent extraction.
Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 01-2019 Issue: 1

Structural Breaks, Electricity Generation and Economic Growth in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Iyabo Adeola Olanrele
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
Instability and low electricity generation in Nigeria has continued to raise concerns. The power sector reforms aimed at enhancing increased and stable electricity generation over the decades have not been economic growth oriented. Among other factors, obsolete and poor infrastructural equipment as well as inadequate investment has continued to impede the optimal impact of the power sector. This paper used full sample VAR and structural breaks approach-rolling impulse response(RIR) model-to obtain evidence for changes in the impact of electricity generation on Nigerian economic growth based on quarterly data from 1970 to 2016. Findings revealed that electricity generation does not Granger-cause real GDP growth rate and gross fixed capital formation, while a short-run relationship exist for labour force. No strong dynamic relationship exists between electricity generation and real GDP growth over the lag period. Lastly, result from RIR technique also showed that real GDP growth rate does not respond to impulses from electricity generation over the years, but for weak impact in the early 1980s.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by examining the relationship between electricity production and economic growth in Nigeria using a recent innovative structural break approach (Rolling impulse response). The approach was used to capture the variations in economic growth that arises from structural changes relating to electricity generation overtime.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Assets Pricing and Equity Duration Paradox

Research Article
Author(s): Raja Rehan, Imran Umer Chhapra, Ali Zain
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
We used the co-integration approach and panel unit root test to estimate banks’ equity duration in Pakistan, India, China, Australia, the UK and the US from 1992 to 2017. The results showed that the highest duration is in the UK and Chinese banks then the US and Indian banks followed by the banks in Pakistan and Australia. These results have important implications for policymakers particularly because banks act as channels for monetary policy. Since duration is a measure of sensitivity to interest rates, these results imply that the UK and Chinese banks would be the most affected by monetary policy changes while those in Pakistan and Australia would be the least affected. Since duration also measures the speed by which cash flows come back, these results indicate that investors in Pakistan and Australia banks recover their investments faster than investors in the Indian, US, Chinese and UK banks. Therefore, banks in Australia and Pakistan are the most profitable while those in the UK and China are the least profitable.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of few studies to have investigated the asset pricing and equity duration paradox by estimating banks’ equity duration in Pakistan, India, China, Australia, the UK and the US. These results have important implications for policymakers particularly because banks act as channels for monetary policy.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 09-2019 Issue: 3

An Example of Non-Wood Forest Products in Turkey: Production of Pine Nuts

Research Article
Author(s): Mucahit COSKUN, Mesut GOK, Sevda COSKUN
Journal: Journal of Forests

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Abstract
Turkey is an important country in terms of forestry and biodiversity. In the world, it is one of the places with the highest plant diversity after the equatorial region. There are nearly 4000 endemic plant species. Local conditions have a significant share in the formation of this property. Turkey holds a good position as a wood producer in the production of forest products, which are among forest assets. However, despite its high potential for production of non-wood forest products, which are also among forest assets, it cannot take due advantage of this potential in resource management. Production and marketing problems are the main factors underlying its failure to use this potential. This study aims to draw attention to the production and marketing of pine nuts, which are non-wood forest products, and to put forward suggestions for the use of the above-mentioned potential. Systematic approach was used as a research method. In some cases, regional approaches were also utilized. The data of the Turkish Statistical Institute was used as research material. ArcGIS 10.3 package was utilized in the preparation of cartographic materials. The seed obtained from the cones of Pinus pinea (Stone pine) is a product which is traded both in Turkey’s domestic market and exported abroad. The seeds, which are commercially important, are important sources of income for rural areas. Turkey is suitable for the ecological conditions of Pinus pinea, which is among the industrial wood and non-wood forest products. For this reason, Pinus pinea fields should be made widespread in order to retain population in rural areas and increase their income.
Contribution/ Originality
This research explores the different characteristics of Stone Pine, one of the non-wood forest products, in Turkey and rest of world. This makes the present study more exclusive among other research works.

Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Forests » Month: 12-2016 Issue: 2

A New Activity in Turkey's Agricultural Forestry: Truffle Mushroom Cultivation

Research Article
Author(s): Mucahit COSKUN, Sevda COSKUN, Mesut GOK
Journal: Journal of Forests

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Abstract
Forest ecosystems, which are among the important components of the natural environment, stand as one of the significant sources of life. In addition to the natural, cultural, and economic functions of forest products and services, wild foods such as fruits, mushrooms, and leaves that are obtained from forests generate significant amounts of additional food for the poor rural population. Countries have to come up with serious policies to prevent rural populations settling around forest areas from moving to urban areas and to increase their income sources. This study deals with the cultivation of truffle mushroom in Turkey and its potential. In line with the aim of the study, suggestions are made on its cultivation by calling attention to its ecology and potential. In this study,as a method, descriptive survey model has been used. In this method, existing situation on a subject is interpreted by searching. Research material consists of data obtained from the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs. ArcGIS 10.3 package was utilized in the preparation of cartographic materials.  Turkey is a country in the middle belt where four seasons are experienced and different climates prevail because geographical features change at short distances. The different ecological environment Turkey incorporates increases biological diversity there. The presence of various plant and fungi species in Turkish forests is about different ecological environments. Among the forested areas spreading in Turkey, Mediterranean, Aegean, Marmara, and Black Sea forests provide more suitable ecological environments for truffle species. Tuber aestivum, Tuber borchii, Tuber brumale, Tuber candidum, Terfezia arenaria, Terfezia leptoderma, Choiromyces meandriformis, and Terfezia boudieri naturally exist in Turkey. Truffle mushrooms, which naturally maintain their lives in Turkish forests and have high economic value in the world, will bring high income to forest villagers and interested producers by providing agricultural forestry activities in outdoor open areas in addition to natural areas of propagation.
Contribution/ Originality
The research is very first and foremost work on Truffle in the area of Physical Geography in Turkey making it significant one. As for as, other disciplines are concerned the research on Truffle Fungus is too limited to be considered.

Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Forests » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1