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Listing 19 - 20 of 2005 results.

Temporal and Spatial Trend of Climate Variability in Vietnam

Research Article
Author(s): Duc Luong Nguyen
Journal: Review of Environment and Earth Sciences

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Abstract
Vietnam’s long coastline, geographic location, and diverse topography and climates contribute to its being one of the most hazard-prone countries of the Asia-Pacific region. Given that a high proportion of the country’s population and economic assets are located in coastal lowlands and deltas, Vietnam has been ranked among the five countries likely to be most affected by global climate change. This paper aims at providing a short overview on the temporal and spatial trends of climate variability in Vietnam which affected by global climate change.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the temporal and spatial trends of climate variability in Vietnam which affected by global climate change. 
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Environment and Earth Sciences » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

Energy Education as a Necessary Condition to Transition to a Robust Future Energy Security in Suriname

Research Article
Author(s): Daniël A. Lachman
Journal: Asian Journal of Energy Transformation and Conservation

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Abstract
There is significant uncertainty when it concerns future energy security. One way to deal with this is the so-called Scenario Planning methodology. Energy scenarios for Suriname have been made which indicate that climate change will have the greatest impact on the energy sector, thereby threatening energy security. The exact nature of this impact is however too uncertain to determine. To overcome this uncertainty there is a growing consensus with respect to the main ingredients for a sustainable energy system that can deal with this uncertain impact. However, current developments stray away from this system and rather lock Suriname in centralized, large-scale thermal and hydro power systems. The reasons behind this must be found in the Government’s lack of capacity of making energy policy and the influence of public companies, EBS and the State Oil Company, who are heavily vested into the existing energy system. It is therefore of paramount importance to address and intensify education in the field of energy engineering, policy, scenarios, networks, strategy, etc. This impacts the likelihood of transition pathways actually occurring. This notion might be applicable to other (small) (developing) countries, and adds to the growing literature on the difference in transitions across geographical regions.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated how education in the field of sustainable energy systems (transitions) can turnaround the momentum given to the proliferation of an energy system which is doomed to crack energy security is all future energy scenarios for Suriname.  
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Asian Journal of Energy Transformation and Conservation » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

Value Creation in the Multi-Project Environment

Research Article
Author(s): Mariusz Hofman
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
In this study, the author assumes that the value created by multi-project structures significantly affects the financial performance of an organisation. Currently available studies focus on the creation of the expected outputs of project portfolios, the author assumes, however, that the construct of other multi-project structures that is similar in conceptual terms (i.e. project chains and networks) justifies the generalisation of conclusions included in such studies. An analysis of the available literature on the subject in the context of requirements of a knowledge-based economy (KBE) makes it possible to distinguish some key factors affecting the value created by multi-project structures. These include: appropriate allocation and balancing of resources, transfer of knowledge within such structures, as well as development and maintenance of positive relationships with stakeholders. In the opinion of the author, these factors create value within the framework of multi-project structures, as they generate and accumulate the added value and intangible assets. The second assumption made in this paper is that the level of value created by multi-project structures has a significant impact on the financial performance of an organisation. This approach is different from the few previously employed, as it assumes that the added value and intangible assets generated within multi-project structures significantly contribute to such performance.
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 9

Access to HIV Prevention Services for Injecting Drug Users in Hai Phong, Vietnam: Qualitative Results

Research Article
Author(s): Tanvir Ahmed, Donald Edwin Stewart
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
Background: To attain a deeper understanding of risk behaviour and service engagement among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in Hai Phong, Vietnam, we conducted a qualitative follow-up series of in-depth interviews. This paper presents the barriers and facilitative factors relating to prevention services. Methods: Fifteen semi-structured face-to-face interview with IDUs were conducted. Results: The participants are often satisfied with their current access to the HIV prevention services; however, they highlighted the issues for better engagement in the future. The qualitative findings document barriers as well as facilitative factors in accessing the services. Humane approach, pleasant experience, and free treatment facility are commonly cited facilitative factors. The frequently occurring barriers to accessing HIV prevention service include long distances between place of delivery and home, unavailability in local neighbourhoods and mismatched delivery time. Conclusion: Access to HIV prevention services needs to be strengthened according to the need of IDUs to limit the further spread of HIV epidemic.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which qualitatively analyzed access to HIV prevention services by injecting drug users in Hai Phong, Vietnam and highlighted interesting findings relating to their service engagement. The discussions provide a crucial insight for improving HIV prevention efforts in Vietnam. 
Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 6

Management of Difficult Airway Due To Chop Wound In Posterior Neck

Research Article
Author(s): Rajdip Hazra, Sisir Chakraborty, Rajarshi Bose, Manjunatha SM, Kaushik Ghosh, Md. Babrak Manuar, Md. Nurejjaman, Saswati Pal
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
A 35 years old male patient presented with a chop wound in posterior neck between C2 and C3 interspace. After initial resuscitation this patient was put for surgery and general anesthesia was induced in left lateral position. Our experience suggested that a proper size ILMA (intubating laryngeal mask airway) is useful in managing difficult airway in left lateral position. Blind intubation attempt via ILMA is generally successful. We recommend routine use of ILMA as a backup plan in managing anticipated difficult intubation in nonconventional position.
Contribution/ Originality
A systemic approach with appropriate alternatives is the key behind successful management of anticipated difficult airway. Often this scenario is further complicated by emergence nature of surgery and nonconventional positioning. This paper documents successful use of ILMA in these cases as a suitable alternative. 
Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 07-2014 Issue: 7

An Assessment of the Level of Awareness of Climate Change and Variability among Rural Farmers in Taraba State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): E. D. Oruonye
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
Previous studies on climate change in Taraba State concentrated on the evidence of climate change in the state, awareness of climate change among students of tertiary institutions in the state and farmers perception and adaptation to climate change in northern Taraba. There is need to have a state wide research that examines climate change awareness and perception among rural farmers in Taraba State. This will greatly reduce the failures in measures to develop a state wide effective monitoring, adaptation and mitigation measures to climate change in the study state. Questionnaires were used to solicit for information from the famers in twelve LGAs of the state. The question ranges from the farmers knowledge of climate change, and how this has affected them over the years. The farmers were asked what they think about the trend of rainfall variables such as total rainfall, onset, cessation, length of rainy season and changes in temperature in the last 10 – 20 years in their area. The farmers were also asked what they think about the trend of incidence of flooding and dry spell in their areas and how this has affected them. Despite the farmers’ awareness and adaptation to climate change in the state, lack of information and capital hinders them from getting the necessary resources and technologies that facilitate adapting to climate change. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study provides recent information on the level of awareness of climate change and variability among rural farmers in Taraba state and current adaption measures employed by the farmers. This will help policy makers to integrate the local knowledge into scientific knowledge in fashioning out effective and sustainable policies on climate change adaptation.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 3

The Effect of Synchronous and Asynchronous Peer Feedback on Translation Students’ Vocabulary

Research Article
Author(s): Bahman Gorjian, Shahram Payman
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
This paper examined an experimental study of (a) synchronous peer feedback in reading comprehension classes among Translation students developing their vocabulary knowledge at Islamic Azad University, Abadan Branch. Two classes were treated under the control and experimental conditions. Participants included 90 English as foreign language (EFL) students who were selected among 120 learners based on a researcher-made vocabulary achievement test. Then they were divided into two equal experimental and control groups. To the experimental group, synchronous peer feedback techniques via internet was started in which the students learnt how to submit their own vocabulary exercises and check their classmates’ feedback in asynchronous mode. For the control group, the feedback mode was offline through which they evaluating the same synchronous photocopied passages and sharing with their classmates within the class. After 10 consecutive sessions in a full semester, the students were tested on their post-test on vocabulary achievement on ten units covered throughout the treatment period. The performance of the two groups was compared through using an Independent Samples t-test statistical analysis. The control group who worked on peer feedback asynchronously outperformed the experimental group who dealt with group peer feedback synchronously (p<0.05).
Contribution/ Originality


Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 08-2014 Issue: 8

Management in Public Utility Companies in Ghana: An Appraisal of Ghana Water Company Limited

Research Article
Author(s): Kwaku D. Kessey, Irene Ampaabeng
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
Urban water provision system in Ghana covers 70 percent of the resident population but it is estimated that only 40 per cent of residents connected to the supply system have regular supplies. The Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL) which is responsible for production, distribution of potable water, billing and revenue collection from consumers is beset with many challenges. It faces several management challenges manifested in poor service delivery in terms of quantity and quality, poor cost recovery, weak capacity for operation and maintenance and poor financial management. This state of affairs has compelled the Government of Ghana to initiate reforms of the water sector including reengineering of the systems and possible Private Sector Participation in urban water provision. Presently, government has started physical expansion works in the water sector of many cities in Ghana. But not much has been done on the management system and its effect on water provision. The contention is that without effective management the expansion and reengineering works will not have sustainable effect on urban water provision. Given this scenario, Cape Coast, capital of Central region was chosen as case study on the management dimension of urban water provision. The institutional management assessment revealed that the GWCL as a quasi-state institution has limited autonomy for effective operation. This has culminated in poor performance and negative public image. The staff of the company admitted its poor service delivery and financial management. They are of the opinion that public-private partnership investment would improve the situation. However, consumers are unwilling to accept private investors’ participation in water provision due to the general perception that partnership will increase water tariffs. 
Contribution/ Originality


Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 08-2014 Issue: 8

Characterization and Association among Yield and Yield Related Traits in Sunflower (Helianthus Annus L) Genotypes

Research Article
Author(s): Zenebe Mekonnen Adare
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
Development of genetically improved high yielding genotypes urges the knowledge on nature and magnitude of variability present in the available germplasm. Characterization and association among yield components and their direct and indirect effects on the seed yield of 100 sunflower germplasm introduced from U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) were investigated using a simple lattice design during 2012/13 cropping season. The ANOVA results showed significant differences (P<0.05) in all the traits studied among the sunflower germplasm. Out of 100 genotype, 38 were found to be distinctive on the basis of studied traits, two genotypes (PI265499, PI650655) were classed individually while the remaining genotypes were distributed into five clusters. The phenotypic and genotypic variances, correlation, heritability and genetic advances were estimated for grain yield and yield related traits.  The highest genotypic and phenotypic variances were observed for plant height (PH), seed yield (YLD), and days to flower (DF) while the lowest were observed for hundred seed weight (HSW), head diameter (HD) and oil content % (OC %). The highest genotypic coefficient of variance was recorded for YLD (31.03) followed by PH (26.20) and OC % (23.74). Broad sense heritability ranged from 63.71 (HSW) to 90.98 (PH). High genetic advance were observed for PH (10013.01), YLD (2227.01), DF (1853.00), and days to mature (DM) (1560.47) indicating the prevalence of additive gene action for inheritance of these traits. Spearman’s coefficient of rank correlation analysis revealed that HD (0.57121**), HSW (0.49039**), DM (0.53312**), DF (0.24103*) and PH (0.5491**) had maximum direct effect resulted positively and significantly (P<0.01) correlated with YLD. These traits can be used to improve the grain yield of sunflower. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the genetic, phenotypic and environmental variances of sunflower germplasm collection from various sources of origin. The outputs of this study help breeders for easy selection and promotion of germplasms for further study and extrapolation of genes of superior characters in yield improvement.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 3

Effect of Disc and Tilt Angles of Disc Plough on Tractor Performance under Clay Soil

Research Article
Author(s): Omer A. Abdalla, Eman A. Mohamed, Ahmed M. El Naim, Mohammed A. El Shiekh, Moayad B. Zaied
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
The three- bottom, fully mounted disc plough (DP) is widely used as a primary tillage implement in the irrigated sector in Middle and Northern Sudan. In the DP, two angles (tilt and disc) affect tractor performance and ploughing quality. This research was conducted at the Demonstration Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum to study the effect of two disc angles (43o and 45o) and three tilt angles (15 o, 20o and 25o) on tractor effective field capacity, rear wheel slippage, fuel consumption, ploughing depth and width of cut. Soil of experimental area was clay loam. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot design and replicated three times. Disc angles were assigned to the main plots whereas tilt angles were distributed in the subplots. Tractor forward speed was maintained at the most commonly used ploughing speed (9 km/h). Effective field capacity was increased by 16% with the decrease of disc angle, while the width of cut, was decreased by 15%. The decrease of tilt angle improved penetration of discs into the soil, the highest ploughing depth was recorded for the tilt angle o15 with the disc angle o45, which consequently led to an increase of both rear wheel slippage and fuel consumption rate.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes in the existing literature by providing data and information concern with field capacities, field efficiency and fuel consumption using different disc and tilt angles on tractor performance in the clay soils of Shambat in Sudan
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 3

The Effectiveness of Repeated Shoot Tip Culture on Pathogens Load Reduction in Different Local Potato Genotypes in Malawi

Research Article
Author(s): Nyaika J A, Njoloma J P, Zimba S, Mwase W F, Maliro M F, Bokosi J M, Kwapata M B
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
Potato production in Malawi still remains low, estimated at 11t/ha as compared to the potential 40t/ha due to disease infection resulting from seed recycling. Shoot tip culture in vitro is one of the tissue culture techniques that can potentially eliminate pathogens from infected plantlets. A study was therefore carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of repeated shoot tip culture on pathogen load reduction of some selected local potato genotypes grown in Malawi. A factorial experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) in which five genotypes including Magalabada, Rosita, Simoki, Usiwawatha and Violet were evaluated. Results showed that the mother stock tubers for all genotypes were infected with multiple pathogens at different incidences and intensities. PVY had an incidence of 100% with a low intensity in all genotypes. PVX had an incidence of 100% in Rosita and Magalabada, 80% in Usiwawatha and Violet and 60% in Simoki and their intensity was very high. The incidence for PVM was 80% in Usiwawatha, 60% in Violet, 10% in Rosita and Magalabada and 3% in Simoki; and their intensity was high. The incidence for PVS was 60% for Rosita, Magalabada and Usiwawatha, 18% for Violet and 10% for simoki; with a very high intensity. PVA incidence was 100% for Usiwawatha, 60% for Violet, 18% for Rosita and Simoki, and 5% for Magalabada; with a very low intensity. PLRV incidence was 10% for all genotypes and had a very low intensity. Traces of Bacterial wilt in low intensities were detected. Potato plantlets obtained after repeated sub-culturing of over six times resulted in reduced pathogen load at (P?0.05) for the different pathogens. The chance of reducing the pathogen load in the different genotypes was relatively high at (P?0.05). 
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of tissue culture technique by providing a less expensive tool for the developing nations’ attainment of food security; since repeated sub-culturing can reduce and/eliminate pathogens load in potato (Solanum tuberosum L) due to the cells undifferentiation principle, for enhanced yield and quality.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 07-2014 Issue: 7

A Socio-Economical Perspective for a Holistic Management of Temporary Watersheds in Central Mexico Based on a Simple Mathematical Model for Decision-Makers

Research Article
Author(s): Pedro Joaquin Gutierrez-Yurrita
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
This paper deals with the development of a new holistic math model to manage watersheds in Central Mexico. Hydrological resources in this medium-dry North-American region supply water to more than 49 million people. In addition, this region is considered as one of the most eco-diverse regions in the world. However, the high population density exerts great pressure on water resources in the area, leading to the edge of extinction to most of its biodiversity. Many mathematical models for estimating environmental flows have been developed, yet no model is truly holistic, even integrated, by not taking into account a variable of extreme importance to the ecological functioning of the watershed, its marked seasonal nature (temporality). Due to this lack of information on how to manage temporary rivers, most managers use conventional indices to estimate environmental flows or at best, use the standard Integrated River Basin Management model developed by http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/about_freshwater/rivers/irbm/ [1] though it is only for rivers with permanent flow. The aim of this paper is to present a reflection on the management of temporary flows, presenting a mathematical model that helps decision makers in their operation programs. The holism of the third culture is taken as the paradigm framework to build the model. It should be noted that an important aspect of the model is its simplicity, since it is to be used by people with little knowledge in mathematics and thus easy to take, and common to all the rivers of the region data.
Contribution/ Originality
Seasonality of watersheds is an important factor as a source of biodiversity.
Regulated rivers can be modeled as seasonal rivers.
The proposed model presents diagnostic and control indicators easy to measure.
This is the first model that really promotes a holistic management for seasonal basins.


Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 10-2014 Issue: 10

Association between Yield Components of Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor L. (Moench) Under Different Watering Intervals

Research Article
Author(s): Elsadig B. Ibrahim, Abdel Wahab H. Abdalla, Elshiekh A. Ibrahim, Ahmed M. El Naim
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
A field experiment was conducted in the Sudan to study the extent of variability in grain yield and yield components of ten sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. ( Moench) genotypesat three environments: Shendi (season, 2005/06), Shambat (season, 2005/06)  and Shambat (season, 2006/07). A split- plot design with four replications was used. Two levels of water treatments were used, namely, irrigation every 10 days and every 21 days (drought stress condition). The main plots were allocated for water treatments and the sub plots for genotypes. Data on five characters, namely seed yield/plant, number of seeds/head, 1000-seed weight, seed yield (kg/ha) and harvest index, were collected. Genotypic and phenotypic correlations between different traits were determined. Grain yield exhibited strong positive phenotypic and genotypic correlations with its components. Significant positive associations were detected between performance of the evaluated genotypes under normal irrigation at Shendi and under water stress at Shamba tseasons (2005/06-2006/07) for number of seeds/head and 1000-seed weight. On the other hand, negative correlations were obtained between the performances at Shendi and Shambat (2006/07) under normal irrigation for seed yield/plant. Generally, these relations influenced the degree of associations between these traits and with the other traits in these environments.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by providing data and information concern with interrelationships among grain yield and some of its components in ten grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench) genotypes under normal irrigation and water stress conditions in three different environments of Sudan
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 3

Understanding Stakeholder’s Perceptions on Practice of Nature-Based Sports in A Portuguese Natural Park

Research Article
Author(s): Paulo Filipe Rosa, Maria do Ceu de Sousa Teixeira de Almeida, Luis Alberto Dias Carvalhinho
Journal: Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Abstract
Nature recreation and tourism in protected areas (PA) can play an important role in the development of local communities and in regional or national economies. This effect depends on sound management and, facing limited resources, collaboration between different interested parties. This study was developed in a Portuguese Natural Park and focuses on the Nature Based Sport activities developed within the scope of recreation and tourism. Perceptions and opinions of five stakeholders were taken into account, as baseline information on the components of the PA management. A qualitative approach based on semi structured interviews has been used. Results allowed improving the understanding on some existing problems in the studied PA as well as to define important actions and changes to be taken into account in short to medium term.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the literature in that it addresses issues associated with management of nature-based sports, under the viewpoint of institutions, a less common aspect in the investigative panorama which usually focuses on visitors perceptions. This seems to be an important approach if we are trying to begin a new recreation management approach (e.g. collaborative).
Business & Management » Journal of Tourism Management Research » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Mechanisms of the Decline in Reproductive Fitness with Age in the Moth Spodoptera Litura

Research Article
Author(s): Jin-Feng Yu, Qin Lu, Yan-Ying Li, Jin Xu, Hui Ye
Journal: International Research Journal of Insect Sciences

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Abstract
 Although several hypotheses have been proposed, the mechanisms underlying the decline in reproduction of insects with age remain unclear. In this study, the effect of aging on the reproductive performance of both sexes was studied in Spodoptera litura. Aging in both sexes significantly reduced reproductive fitness. Female aging had a significantly stronger effect than male aging on fecundity and fertility. This study clearly demonstrates that oviposition by virgin females is an important contributor to the decline in female fecundity with delayed mating. However, the reduction in fecundity in females mated late relative to females mated early was much greater than (almost three times) the number of eggs laid by virgin females before mating. What accounts for this additional loss in fecundity? To answer this question, egg production, oosorption, mating frequency and longevity in both sexes were analysed. The results suggest that S. litura females may emerge with extra nutrient reserves that can be allocated to adult survival and egg production; delayed mating may cause females to allocate more resources towards survival, leaving less for egg production after mating relative to females mated young. This mechanism is likely the key cause of the decline in fecundity due to aging. In addition, the fertility rate was significantly influenced by female, but not male, age at mating, suggesting that senescence degraded egg quality but not sperm quality. The results of this study also showed that the mating frequency of moth pairs was negatively correlated with male age at mating, which is likely the primary mechanism underlying the negative effects of male aging on female reproductive success.
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » International Research Journal of Insect Sciences » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

A Systematic Review to Explore the Scope of Global Interventions to Reduce the Incidence of Gastric Cancer

Research Article
Author(s): Saurabh Ram Bihari Lal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
Journal: Cancers Review

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Abstract
Globally, gastric cancer has been acknowledged as a disease of public health concern because of its related morbidity, deaths and influence on multiple dimensions of the quality of life of the patient and their family members. The objective of this article is to systematically review the published literature on the potential risk factors of gastric cancer, and eventually suggest range of interventions to eventually minimize the prevalence of gastric cancer. An extensive search of all materials related to the topic was made using library sources including Pubmed, Medline, World Health Organization website and Google scholar searches for one month. Keywords used in the search include Gastric cancer, health, and Helicobacter pylori. Multiple ranges of factors have been attributed to the causation of gastric cancer in heterogeneous settings. To counter the consequences of gastric cancer, there is a crucial need to develop and implement a public health strategy to enable early detection of the cancer. In conclusion, in the global aim to reduce the burden of gastric cancer, the need of the hour is to formulate comprehensive & cost-effective strategies well supported by intensified awareness campaigns and strengthening of the health care delivery system.
Contribution/ Originality
This study explores the potential risk factors of gastric cancer, and suggests multiple interventions to minimize the prevalence of gastric cancer on a global scale.
Medical Sciences » Cancers Review » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

Olfactory Response of an Assassin Bug, Rhynocoris Longifrons (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae) To the Hexane Extracts of Different Agricultural Insect Pests

Research Article
Author(s): A. Ganesh Kumar, Dunston P. Ambrose
Journal: International Research Journal of Insect Sciences

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Abstract
The predator-prey interaction of five prey species with the assassin bug, Rhynocoris longifrons (Stål) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) was assessed in a Y-shaped olfactometer and the prey preference was assessed in six-arm olfactometer provided with the bodyextracts in hexane. Although R. longifrons responded to all the hexane extracts of testedinsect pests, R. longifrons showed maximum response to the lepidopterans Spodoptera litura (F.) (6.67±1.18 min), Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (5.17±0.89 min) and Achaea janata (L.) (4.42±1.04 min) followed by the coleopteran Mylabris indica (Thunberg) (3.00±0.82 min) and the least response to the hemipteran Dysdercus cingulatus (F.) (2.42±0.76 min).Thus, the present study clearly reveals the order of the host preference of R. longifrons to the tested hexane extracts of the taxonomically diverse insect pests.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes the first hand information on the allelochemical interaction of Rhynocoris longifrons with its prey species Spodoptera litura, Helicoverpa armigera, Achea janata, Dysdercus cingulatus and Mylabris indica and reveals its prey preference. It also enables one to employ R. longifrons as a biocontrol agent against these insect pests.
Agricultural Sciences » International Research Journal of Insect Sciences » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

Study on Adaptability of Released Midland Maize Varieties around South Ari Woreda, South Omo Zone, Southern Nation Nationality Peoples Region, Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Wedajo Gebre, Tekle Yoseph
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
Ten released maize varieties were tasted at two sites in randomized complete block design with three replication during 2013 cropping season. The experiment was carried out to test the adaptability of improved mid-altitude maize varieties and identify and select the best high yielding   variety/ies for the target area. ANOVA revealed significant differences (p<0.05 and 0.01) between varieties for grain yield at both sites and six characters studied (biomass, plant height, ear length, tassel length and northern corn leaf blight). The significance of varieties difference indicates the presence of variability for each of the characters among the tested entries. The mean grain yield at both sites ranged from 71.7 qt/ha for BH545 to 108.71qt/ha for BH670. Shapi (84.38qt/ha) site was low yielding location than Gumter site (92.31qt/ha). Varieties BH660, BH540, BH140, Gibe -2 and BH670 had high mean grain yield and had good mean performance for yield related traits (biomass, ear length and tassel size), except BH540 that sowed high  susceptible to northern corn leaf blight. Variety Gibe-2 is open pollinated; possible for farmers to recycle seed up to five year and also it had relatively high mean grain yield, moderate tolerant to northern corn leaf blight and it was the shortest one. Therefore; Gibe -2 would be  highly recommended to growing farmers in the studied area and its vicinity, next the two hybrids; BH540 and BH140 would be recommended from yield point of view with great care of disease especially northern corn leaf blight. Further study should be carried out with disease management and improved varieties to improve maize production with increased yield and biomass production.
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 4

Orientational Effects on Soiling Measurements at the Sheldonian Theatre in Central Oxford, UK

Research Article
Author(s): Mary J. Thornbush
Journal: Journal of Building Construction, Planning and Materials Research

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Abstract
A digital camera was used to photograph images around the Sheldonian Theatre, which is a semicircular building located in central Oxford, UK. Close-up images included a color chart for lightness and chromatic calibration across images taken between 10:00 and 13:00 in the spring in order to obtain comparative brightness levels for vertical limestone surfaces around this historical building. A digital light (Lux) meter was also employed in this study to capture variations in incoming sunlight onto building walls at ground-level. The outdoor integrated digital photography and image processing (O-IDIP) method was used, focusing on orientational effects on the lightness and coloration of surfaces. Images in Lab Color were calibrated based on a 3-point (black-white and green-red) procedure. The results convey the brightest surfaces on average to be west-facing. Conversely, the most variation in the means was evident on the east-facing side of the building and lowest on the west wall. These variances convey the effects of piecemeal maintenance of the building, so that on the same wall the lowest and greatest values of calibrated % Mean L appear. Soiling patterns are affected by microclimatic effects, with wind-driven rain in Oxford coming predominantly from the southwest, affecting buildings differently at the regional to local scale. This means that south- and west-facing walls may be relatively more rainwashed than north- and east-facing walls, which could complicate the results as a confounding variable acting on the degree of soiling and surface brightness. However, Lux meter readings helped to clarify this complication, showing the least illumination on west- and south-facing building walls. The study, hence, contributes to disentangling between and elucidating outdoor lighting conditions and soiling patterns imposed by microclimatic effects on vertical (limestone) surfaces, such as this historical building exterior, where the brightest illuminated surfaces are not west-and south-facing, but rather east- and north-facing. It thereby quantifies the extent of brightness ranges in soiling patterns created by rainwashing (exposure versus sheltering) effects. Finally, the 3-point calibration procedure now integrates chroma as well as brightness and contrast adjustments, allowing for the outdoor measurement of areal chromatic change on building exteriors. The building walls in this study are mainly Slightly Dark and only a minority are actually classifiable as Dark.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributions to the quantification of building soiling in polluted (urban) environments. Rather than using point-source measurements, the O-IDIP allows for the areal quantification of color. Its application allows for the differentiation of microclimatic effects on outdoor lighting (orientational effects) and surface brightness and coloration.
Engineering » Journal of Building Construction, Planning and Materials Research » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

Philosophical Texts on Travels: Chronicles and Testimonies of Travellers

Research Article
Author(s): Maximiliano E Korstanje, Lourdes Cisneros Mustellier
Journal: Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Abstract
The present essay review explores the role played by travels to form cultures as well as the use of travel writing in the social science. Over centuries, intellectuals rested their reflections on the testimonies of travels as they have been formulated by other travelers. Whether medieval or pre-industrial travel experiences were used to delineate the epistemology of the whole social sciences in Europe, the viewpoint of tourist is neglected as naïve or subject to the lack of objectivity. Why travels now are not taken into consideration for the epistemologists?. Are modern tourists more naïve or enrooted in a great variety of prejudices? Are ancient travellers very different to tourists?
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature adding a new point of entry in the history of travels, which have been employed by social sciences to construct their epistemological objects. Additionally, if the ancient traveler’s chronicles were used as historical sources today, why tourist-based experience is trivialized as liable source of research is an interesting issue which deserves to be discussed. 
Business & Management » Journal of Tourism Management Research » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2