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Unprotected Sex among Sexually Active Unmarried Young Adults: A Pariah or Preemptive Incidence

Pages: 61-80
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Unprotected Sex among Sexually Active Unmarried Young Adults: A Pariah or Preemptive Incidence

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.99.2019.62.61.80

Taofik Olatunji Bankole , Rasheed Adebayo Yinusa , Muazu Alhaji Shamaki

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Taofik Olatunji Bankole , Rasheed Adebayo Yinusa , Muazu Alhaji Shamaki (2019). Unprotected Sex among Sexually Active Unmarried Young Adults: A Pariah or Preemptive Incidence. Journal of Diseases, 6(2): 61-80. DOI: 10.18488/journal.99.2019.62.61.80
Globally, HIV endemic has been linked to several but preventable predictors, amongst these, is the practice of unprotected sex. In spite of the burdens of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria, there is a dearth of studies with focus outside the conventional approach to predicting the incidence of unprotected sex among sexually active unmarried young adults in Nigeria. This study addresses this limitation. The study adopted a cross-sectional and multistage sampling technique. A total sample size of 384 respondents was systematically and randomly selected among young adults aged 20-29 in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Unprotected sex was the study’s response variable and was categorised into respondents who had unprotected sex in at least the last three months prior the survey with single sex partner and those who had with multiple sex partners over the same period. The key explanatory variables were a pariah and preemptive factors while the confounding variable was knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Rank-ordered logistic regression was employed using Stata 14. Results showed that pariah and preemptive factors were significantly associated with unprotected sex (p<0.05). The study concluded that the incidence of unprotected sex among unmarried young adults across Ile-Ife communities was predisposed to pariah and preemptive factors.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by reconnoitering risky sexual behaviour outside the conventional recognized approach; it documents joint influence of pariah and preemptive factors on incidence of unprotected sex; as such document provides insights to inhibiting the spread of HIV and avoidance of unwanted pregnancy outside wedlock.

Self-Esteem, Optimism and Burden of Care among Relatives of Cardiovascular Disease Patients in Selected Tertiary Hospitals in Southwest, Nigeria

Pages: 23-33
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Self-Esteem, Optimism and Burden of Care among Relatives of Cardiovascular Disease Patients in Selected Tertiary Hospitals in Southwest, Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.99.2019.62.23.33

Stephen Ishola Babatunde , Taofik Olatunji Bankole , Rasheed Adebayo Yinusa

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Stephen Ishola Babatunde , Taofik Olatunji Bankole , Rasheed Adebayo Yinusa (2019). Self-Esteem, Optimism and Burden of Care among Relatives of Cardiovascular Disease Patients in Selected Tertiary Hospitals in Southwest, Nigeria. Journal of Diseases, 6(2): 23-33. DOI: 10.18488/journal.99.2019.62.23.33
Providing informal care, particularly for a person needing assistance for daily activities as a result of chronic illness such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), is a demanding task which requires time, dedication and preservation. In spite of burdens that caregivers of CDV patients are faced with, there are dearth of studies that have explored the level of the burden of care among relatives of CVD in Nigeria. This study addresses this gap by raising the question: to what extent does care for CVD patients affect caregiver’s psychological, behavioral and physiological daily lives. The study was a cross-sectional survey and it adopted the purposive sampling technique. Primary data were sourced from 200 caregivers/relatives from three tertiary hospital: Federal Teaching Hospital Ido-Ekiti, Federal Medical Centre Owo and Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospital Complex Ile-Ife. The outcome variable is caregiver’s burden, and the key explanatory variables are self-esteem and optimism. The Zarit (ZBIS), Rosenburg Self Esteem and Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R) standardised psychological scales were employed to measure caregiver’s burden, self-esteem and optimism. Pearson r was applied using Stata version 13. Results showed that a significant proportion of the caregivers experienced moderate to severe levels of burden. Also, results showed that caregivers’ burden was not significantly associated with Self-esteem (r200 = 0.04, p >.025) and optimism (r200 = 0.07, p >.025). It was imperative to provide professional help and supportive counselling to caregivers of CVD patients, in order to reduce their burden, strengthen the coping skill and thus improve their quality of life.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is that it documents empirical findings that are useful for research, clinical practice and counselling; as such document provides insights on the experience of these informal caregivers are strategies for valuable intervention programmes to reduce the burden among relatives of cardiovascular disease patients.

The Efficacy of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) and Insecticide Treated Nets against Anopheles Mosquitoes

Pages: 34-53
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The Efficacy of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) and Insecticide Treated Nets against Anopheles Mosquitoes

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.99.2019.62.34.53

Aye Mya Thandar , Phyo Wai Win , Soe Soe Htwe , Maung Maung Mya

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Aye Mya Thandar , Phyo Wai Win , Soe Soe Htwe , Maung Maung Mya (2019). The Efficacy of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) and Insecticide Treated Nets against Anopheles Mosquitoes. Journal of Diseases, 6(2): 34-53. DOI: 10.18488/journal.99.2019.62.34.53
Field bio-efficacy of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 times washed PermaNet 2.0, Icon LLIN, Deltamethrin and Icon treated cotton and Nylon nets (ITN) against wild caught Anopheles mosquitoes were tested with WHO cone test Kit method in Myaebinthar village Myothit Township, Magwe Region. Mosquitoes were exposed in cones for 5min and 15min fixed exposure period under room temperature in raining and cold season. Knockdown effect was measured after 60 min of exposure. In raining and cold season, a total of 221 and 196 mosquitoes, consist of 8 and 6 species of Anopheles adults were collected. Maximum number of An. culicifacies was caught followed by An vagus in cattle bate k net, human bait and lowest was collected in morning resting collection. In both season maximum number of main vector An. minimus was caught on human and cattle bait collection between 21:00 and 24:00hours. The bio efficacy of 0 and 5 washed all PermaNet 2.0, Icon and deltamethrin LLINs and ITNs found 100% knockdown ability with all caught mosquitoes. An.minimus and An.culicifacies found to be 80-100% knockdown effect against 10washes with PermaNet 2.0 and Icon LLINs in both season. Knockdown efficacy was significantly declined between 5 and 20washes,100-60% knockdown on LLINs and 90-20% for Deltamethrin and Icon treated nets in both season. PermaNet 2.0, Icon LLINs were found higher wash resistance ability till 15 washes than deltamethrin and Icon treated cotton net but nylon net was found lowest wash resistance needs repeated treatment.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing literature to develop a testing method for investigation the bioefficacy of ITN nets and LLINs nets.

A Retrospective Assessment of Syphilis Seroprevalence among Pregnant Women, Cape Coast, Ghana

Pages: 54-60
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A Retrospective Assessment of Syphilis Seroprevalence among Pregnant Women, Cape Coast, Ghana

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.99.2019.62.54.60

Ato Kwamena Tetteh , Sadick Arthur , Prince Bram , Charles Baffe , Godsway Aglagoh , Gifty Rhodalyn Tetteh , Edward Agyarko

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Ato Kwamena Tetteh , Sadick Arthur , Prince Bram , Charles Baffe , Godsway Aglagoh , Gifty Rhodalyn Tetteh , Edward Agyarko (2019). A Retrospective Assessment of Syphilis Seroprevalence among Pregnant Women, Cape Coast, Ghana. Journal of Diseases, 6(2): 54-60. DOI: 10.18488/journal.99.2019.62.54.60
This is a hospital-based cohort study, which aimed at assessing the seroprevalence of syphilis among pregnant women who sought antenatal care at the Cape Coast Metropolitan Hospital (CCMH). We retrospectively analyzed secondary data of 2,640 term pregnant women, who gave birth from January, 2016 to December, 2018. Data was compiled from the CCMH delivery register. Out of the 2,640 pregnant women who delivered from 2016 through 2018, 107 [4.1%, 95% CI: 3.3 – 4.8] tested reactive (2016, 1.5%, 40/2640; 2017, 1.0%, 26/2640; 2018, 1.6%, 41/2640). Seroprevalence among the primagravida (those with first pregnancy) was 0.8%, while that among the multigravida (? 2 pregnancies) was 3.3% (?2 = 37.562, p = 0.021). Pregnant women within the age group of 22-31 years were the most reactive, 2.3% (60/2640), followed by 32-41 years, 1.1% (30/2640). A prevalence of 1.9% (50/2640) was recorded among Junior High School holders, while 0.2% (5/2640) was found among those who have attained tertiary level education. A Relatively high prevalence of 3.0% (78/2640) was recorded among informal workers compared to the unemployed, 0.9% (23/2640). An appreciable proportion of 18.9% (499/2640) had no syphilis testing record indicated in the register. Early detection of syphilis and treatment of infected partners, rapid testing for ANC non-attendants at the maternity/obstetrics and gynecology departments is highly recommended either before or after delivery, as laboratory services may not be available in the nights when most deliveries occur.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing information, a three year socio-demographic trend of syphilis infection among pregnant women along coastal communities. It also reports for the first time, syphilis prevalence among women with different gravidity in Cape Coast, Ghana.

Determinant Factors and Spatial Distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis in North Gondar in Selected Hospitals

Pages: 81-89
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DOI: 10.18488/journal.99.2019.62.81.89

Berhanehiwot Melesse , Salie Ayalew , Mandefro Abere

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Berhanehiwot Melesse , Salie Ayalew , Mandefro Abere (2019). Determinant Factors and Spatial Distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis in North Gondar in Selected Hospitals. Journal of Diseases, 6(2): 81-89. DOI: 10.18488/journal.99.2019.62.81.89
Introduction: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmaniasis protozoa, and transmitted by a sand fly vector. Leishmaniasis is distributed in worldwide and affects millions of peoples. Objective: The objective was to assess the prevalence and spatial distribution of VL in North Gondar. Methodology: 369 patients were selected from records or medical charts retrospectively using stratified and systematic sampling techniques. The study used spatial autocorrelation measures and auto logistic regression model. Result: From 369 patients, 313 (84.8%) were infected by VL. The proportion of VL incidence for those who traveled to endemic areas was (70.2%). Male patients accounted a larger proportion (93.2%) compared to female patients (6.8%). Moran’s scatter plot test revealed there is regional clustering on the VL incidence. Local Moron’s Index value of Gondar Zuria, Dembeya, Quara, Metemma, Tach Armachiho, Gondar Town, West Belesa and Adarakay was positive, this showed places that shared boundaries have similar VL incidence (i.e high-high or low-low). From result of local Getis and Ord statistic, positive standardized Z-values of Adarkay, Gondar Town, Metema, Quara, West Belesa and Dembiya showed the places were hot spot. Similarly negative standardized Z values of Gondar Zuria and Tach Armachiho revealed that places were cold spot. The spatial auto logistic regression result revealed that sex, travel history, BMI, rainfall and elevation were the significant factors of VL at 95% confidence level. Conclusion: The prevalence of VL is still very high (84.8%) in North Gondar Zone. VL clustered on endemic districts that shared common boundaries.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature, spatial distribution and determinant factors of visceral leishmaniasis in North Gondar. Spatial auto logistic regression model is the new approach which helps to determine the prevalence and correlates of visceral leishmaniasis on the study area. VL is clustered on shared boundaries.