Citations


Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062
USA

Conference List

Journal of Diseases

June 2019, Volume 6, 2, pp 81-89

Determinant Factors and Spatial Distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis in North Gondar in Selected Hospitals

Berhanehiwot Melesse

,

Salie Ayalew

,

Mandefro Abere

Berhanehiwot Melesse 1 Salie Ayalew 1 Mandefro Abere 1 ,
;

  1. Department of Statistics, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia. 1

Pages: 81-89

DOI: 10.18488/journal.99.2019.62.81.89

Share :

Article History:

Received: 18 July, 2019
Revised: 21 August, 2019
Accepted: 24 September, 2019
Published: 12 November, 2019


Abstract:

Introduction: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmaniasis protozoa, and transmitted by a sand fly vector. Leishmaniasis is distributed in worldwide and affects millions of peoples. Objective: The objective was to assess the prevalence and spatial distribution of VL in North Gondar. Methodology: 369 patients were selected from records or medical charts retrospectively using stratified and systematic sampling techniques. The study used spatial autocorrelation measures and auto logistic regression model. Result: From 369 patients, 313 (84.8%) were infected by VL. The proportion of VL incidence for those who traveled to endemic areas was (70.2%). Male patients accounted a larger proportion (93.2%) compared to female patients (6.8%). Moran’s scatter plot test revealed there is regional clustering on the VL incidence. Local Moron’s Index value of Gondar Zuria, Dembeya, Quara, Metemma, Tach Armachiho, Gondar Town, West Belesa and Adarakay was positive, this showed places that shared boundaries have similar VL incidence (i.e high-high or low-low). From result of local Getis and Ord statistic, positive standardized Z-values of Adarkay, Gondar Town, Metema, Quara, West Belesa and Dembiya showed the places were hot spot. Similarly negative standardized Z values of Gondar Zuria and Tach Armachiho revealed that places were cold spot. The spatial auto logistic regression result revealed that sex, travel history, BMI, rainfall and elevation were the significant factors of VL at 95% confidence level. Conclusion: The prevalence of VL is still very high (84.8%) in North Gondar Zone. VL clustered on endemic districts that shared common boundaries.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature, spatial distribution and determinant factors of visceral leishmaniasis in North Gondar. Spatial auto logistic regression model is the new approach which helps to determine the prevalence and correlates of visceral leishmaniasis on the study area. VL is clustered on shared boundaries.

Keywords:

VL, Morans I Ord and GetisGi., Cluster, Prevalence, Hot spot, Cold spot.

Reference:

[1]          M. Saroufim, K. Charafeddine, G. Issa, H. Khalifeh, R. Habib, A. Berry, N. Ghosn, A. Rady, Khalifeh, and Ibrahim, "Ongoing Epidemic of cuntaneous leishmaniasis among Syrian refugees," Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 20, pp. 1712-1715, 2014. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.140288.

[2]          W. Adriaensen, T. P. Dorlo, G. Vanham, L. Kestens, P. M. Kaye, and J. van Griensven, "Immunomodulatory therapy of visceral leishmaniasis in human immunodeficiency virus-coinfected patients," Frontiers in Immunology, vol. 8, pp. 1-15, 2018. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.01943.

[3]          E. Gadisa, T. Tsegaw, A. Abera, D.-e. Elnaiem, M. den Boer, A. Aseffa, and A. Jorge, "Eco-epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia," Parasites & Vectors, vol. 8, pp. 1-10, 2015. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-0987-y.

[4]          Y. Wondimeneh, Y. Takele, A. Atnafu, G. Ferede, and D. Muluye, "Trend analysis of visceral leishmaniasis at Addis Zemen health center, Northwest Ethiopia," BioMed Research International, pp. 1-5, 2014. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/545393.

[5]          Y. Terefe, B. Afera, A. Bsrat, and Z. Syoum, "Distribution of human leishmaniasis (VL) and its associated risk factors, in Metemma, Ethiopia," Epidemiology Research International, pp. 1-5, 2015. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/630812.

[6]          S. Hamylton and R. Barnes, "The effect of sampling effort on spatial autocorrelation in macrobenthic intertidal invertebrates," Hydrobiologia, vol. 811, pp. 239-250, 2018. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-017-3491-x.

[7]          J. Sarah, C. Chapman, A. Lloyd, D. Shweta, K. Morchan, D. Aritra, L. R. E. A., C. Orin, M. F. Graham, B. Indranath, M. Tanmay, C. Indrajit, S. Srindhar, and H. T. Deirdre, "Variations in visceral leishmaniasis burden, mortality and the pathway to care within Bihar, India," Parasites & Vectors, vol. 10, pp. 1-17, 2017. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2530-9.

[8]          D. Perry, K. Dixon, R. Garlapati, A. Gendernalik, D. Poché, and R. Poché, "Visceral leishmaniasis prevalence and associated risk factors in the saran district of Bihar, India, from 2009 to July of 2011," The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 88, pp. 778-784, 2013. Available at: https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0442.

[9]          G. Bugssa, A. Hailu, and B. Demtsu, "The current status of cutaneous leishmaniasis and the pattern of lesions in Ochollo primary school students, Ochollo, Southwestern Ethiopia," Science Journal of Clinical Medicine, vol. 3, pp. 111-116, 2014. Available at: https://doi.org/10.11648/j.sjcm.20140306.13.

[10]        R. Tamalee, B. Joel, S. Indy, L. Rogan, H. John, M. Deborah, John, and S. Damien, "Molecular epidemiology of imported cases of leishmaniasis in Australia from 2008 to 2014," PloS One, vol. 10, p. e0119212, 2015. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119212.

[11]        T. Tsegaw, E. Gadisa, A. Seid, A. Abera, A. Teshome, A. Mulugeta, M. Herrero, D. Argaw, A. Jorge, and A. Aseffa, "Identification of environmental parameters and risk mapping of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia by using geographical information systems and a statistical approach," Geospatial Health, vol. 7, pp. 299-308, 2013. Available at: https://doi.org/10.4081/gh.2013.88.

Statistics:

Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor

Funding:

This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Acknowledgement:

All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

Related Article

( 1 ) Determinants of Non-Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and Modeling Progression of Adherence Level: At Yirgalem Regional Hospital, Ethiopia; January, 2012
( 2 ) Gender as Determinant of the Effect of Yeast Selenium on CD4 T Cells Count Among HIV 1 Positive Children
( 3 ) Determinant Factors and Spatial Distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis in North Gondar in Selected Hospitals
( 4 ) Food Safety Knowledge, Attitude and Associated Factors of Food Handlers Working in Substandard Food Establishments in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia, 2013/14
( 5 ) Prognostic Factors in Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tongue Treated With Adjuvant Therapy Following Surgery
( 6 ) Prevalence and Factors Associated With Refractive Error among Primary School Children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
( 7 ) The Level and Associated Factors Of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Blood Donation among Health Science Students of Addis Ababa University
( 8 ) Cause, Magnitude and Contributing Factors for Maternal Death in Selected Hospitals in Snnpr between 2007/2008 and 2009/2010
( 9 ) Prevalence of Stunting and Associated Factors among Under Five Children in Wondo Genet Woreda, Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia
( 10 ) Suicides and Factors Associated With Suicides-A Study in a Rural Setup of Pondicherry in South India
( 11 ) The Effect of Regular Hazelnut Consumption on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Acceptance in Māori and European
( 12 ) Influence of Parity and Index Child Factors on Adoption of Exclusive Breastfeeding by Nursing-Mothers in Imo State Nigeria
( 14 ) Descriptive Assessment of Medical Outreach Services, Benefits and Factors Influencing Success of Outreach Program in Rural Communities of Enugu State