Citations


Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062
USA

Conference List

Journal of Diseases

June 2019, Volume 6, 2, pp 34-53

The Efficacy of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) and Insecticide Treated Nets against Anopheles Mosquitoes

Aye Mya Thandar

,

Phyo Wai Win

,

Soe Soe Htwe

,

Maung Maung Mya

Aye Mya Thandar 1 Phyo Wai Win 1 Soe Soe Htwe 1 Maung Maung Mya 4


  1. WEST Yangon University Ministry of Education, Myanmar 1

  2. Department of Medical Research, WEST Yangon University Ministry of Education, Myanmar. 4

Pages: 34-53

DOI: 10.18488/journal.99.2019.62.34.53

Share :

Article History:

Received: 14 March, 2019
Revised: 17 April, 2019
Accepted: 24 May, 2019
Published: 27 August, 2019


Abstract:

Field bio-efficacy of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 times washed PermaNet 2.0, Icon LLIN, Deltamethrin and Icon treated cotton and Nylon nets (ITN) against wild caught Anopheles mosquitoes were tested with WHO cone test Kit method in Myaebinthar village Myothit Township, Magwe Region. Mosquitoes were exposed in cones for 5min and 15min fixed exposure period under room temperature in raining and cold season. Knockdown effect was measured after 60 min of exposure. In raining and cold season, a total of 221 and 196 mosquitoes, consist of 8 and 6 species of Anopheles adults were collected. Maximum number of An. culicifacies was caught followed by An vagus in cattle bate k net, human bait and lowest was collected in morning resting collection. In both season maximum number of main vector An. minimus was caught on human and cattle bait collection between 21:00 and 24:00hours. The bio efficacy of 0 and 5 washed all PermaNet 2.0, Icon and deltamethrin LLINs and ITNs found 100% knockdown ability with all caught mosquitoes. An.minimus and An.culicifacies found to be 80-100% knockdown effect against 10washes with PermaNet 2.0 and Icon LLINs in both season. Knockdown efficacy was significantly declined between 5 and 20washes,100-60% knockdown on LLINs and 90-20% for Deltamethrin and Icon treated nets in both season. PermaNet 2.0, Icon LLINs were found higher wash resistance ability till 15 washes than deltamethrin and Icon treated cotton net but nylon net was found lowest wash resistance needs repeated treatment.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing literature to develop a testing method for investigation the bioefficacy of ITN nets and LLINs nets.

Keywords:

Mosquitoes, PermaNet 2.0, Icon LLIN, Deltamethrin Icon, Cotton, Nylon, Net, Washes.

Reference:

[1]          World Health Organization, Informal consultation on malaria elimination: Setting up the WHO agenda. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2009.

[2]          WHO, "Report of the twrlfth WHOPES Working Group meeting WHO/HQ, Geneva. Review of bioflash GR, PermaNet 2.0, PermaNet 3.0, Perma Net 2.5, Lambda-cyhalothrin. Control of neglected tropical diseases. WHO/ HTM/NTD/WHOPES/2009.1. Available: wholibdoc.who.int/hq2009/who_HTM_ntd_whoPES_2009_1_eng.pdf," 2008.

[3]          Ministry of Health, "Annual public health statistics, Ministry of Health 2006," 2006.

[4]          WHO, "Fourth update on long lasting insecticide nets. Current stastus and programmatic issue. Available: who/int/malaria/publications/atoz/updatellin_4.pdf," 2003.

[5]          J. O. Yukich, C. Lengeler, F. Tediosi, N. Brown, J.-A. Mulligan, D. Chavasse, W. Stevens, J. Justino, L. Conteh, and R. Maharaj, "Costs and consequences of large-scale vector control for malaria," Malaria Journal, vol. 7, p. 258, 2008.

[6]          K. A. Lindblade, E. Dotson, W. A. Hawley, N. Bayoh, J. Williamson, D. Mount, G. Olang, J. Vulule, L. Slutsker, and J. Gimnig, "Evaluation of long-lasting insecticidal nets after 2 years of household use," Tropical Medicine & International Health, vol. 10, pp. 1141-1150, 2005. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2005.01501.x.

[7]          Z. Li, Z. Mancheng, W. Yuguang, Z. Binglin, L. Guangyu, and H. Hui, "Trial of deltamethrin impregnated bed nets for the control of malaria transmitted by Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles anthropophagus," The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 40, pp. 356-359, 1989. Available at: https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.1989.40.356.

[8]          S. M. Magesa, T. J. Wilkes, A. E. P. Mnzava, K. J. Njunwa, J. Myamba, M. D. P. Kivuyo, N. Hill, J. D. Lines, and C. F. Curtis, "Trial of pyrethroid impregnated bednets in an area of Tanzania holoendemic for malaria Part 2. Effects on the malaria vector population," Acta Tropica, vol. 49, pp. 97-108, 1991. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-706x(91)90057-q.

[9]          W. Gu and R. J. Novak, "Predicting the impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on malaria transmission: The devil is in the detail," Malaria Journal, vol. 8, pp. 1-10, 2009. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-8-256.

[10]        WHO, "Guide line for laboratory and field testing of long lasting insecticidal mosquito nets," 2005.

[11]        M. Zaim, A. Aitio, and N. Nakashima, "Safety of pyrethroid-treated mosquito nets," Medical and Veterinary Entomology, vol. 14, pp. 1-5, 2000. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2915.2000.00211.x.

[12]        J. A. Najera and M. Zim, "Anti-vector control for the control of the pallidismo: Criteria to guide the taking of dicisiones and procedures for the sensible use of insecticides. WHO/CDS/WHOPES/2002.5 Rev. 1. Available: whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2004/WHO_CDS_ WHOPES_2002.5_Rev.1_spa.pdf," 2004.

[13]        I. J. Gloria, C. R. Paulo, J. M. Neila, A. M. Jazmin, and B. O. Clara, "PermaNet 2.0 and Olyset against Anopheles albimanus under laboratory conditions," Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, vol. 160, pp. 606-612, 2011.

[14]        WHO, "WHO recommended long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets. Available: who.int/whopes/Long_lasting_insecticidal_nets_Sep_2010.pdf," 2010.

[15]        P. Barraud, The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma, Diptera V, family culicidae. London: Tribas Megarhini and Culicini Taylor and Francis, 1994.

[16]        J. Raid, "The anopheline mosquitoes of Malaya and Borneo, studies of the Institute for Medical Research," Malaya, vol. 31, pp. 1-520, 1967.

[17]        B. Harrison and J. Scanlon, "Medical entomology studies II. The subgenus Anopheles in Thailand," Contribution of American Entomological Institute, vol. 12, pp. 305-317, 1975.

[18]        B. Harrison, "Medical entomology studies XIII. Myzomyia series of Anopheles (Cillia) in Thailand with emphasis on intraspecific variations (Diptera: culicidae)," American Entomological Institute, vol. 17, pp. 1-195, 1980.

[19]        P. Myo, T. N. Thi, M. Sein, and M. Zaw, "Anopheline mosquitoes of Myanmar III. Anopheles (Cellia) Philippines Ludlow 1902 and Anopheles (Cellia) nivipes. Theobald 1903 on Myanmar and their differentiating character," Myanmar Health Science Research Journal, vol. 2, pp. 37-43, 1990.

[20]        V. L. Salgado, S. N. Irving, and T. Miller, "The importance of nerve terminal depolarization in pyrethroid poisoning of insects," Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, vol. 20, pp. 169-182, 1983. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-3575(83)90021-4.

[21]        T. A. Miller and V. L. Salgado, The mode of action of pyrethroids on insects. In “The Pyrethroid insecticides” Edited by: Leahey JP. Londan: Taylor & Francis LTD, 1985.

[22]        W. Tun-Lin, M. Thu, S. Than, and M. Mya, "Hyperendemic malaria in a forested, hilly Myanmar village," Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, vol. 11, pp. 401-407, 1995.

[23]        A. Prakash, D. R. Bhattacharyya, P. K. Mohapatra, P. Gogoi, D. K. Sarma, K. Bhattacharjee, and J. Mahanta, "Evaluation of PermaNet® 2.0 mosquito bednets against mosquitoes, including Anopheles minimus SL, in India," Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, vol. 40, pp. 449-457, 2009.

[24]        G. I. Jaramillo, P. C. Robledo, N. J. Mina, J. A. Munoz, and C. B. Ocampo, "Comparison of the efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets PermaNet 2.0 and Olyset against Anopheles albimanus under laboratory conditions," Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, vol. 5, pp. 606-612, 2011.

[25]        K. Graham, M. Kayedi, C. Maxwell, H. Kaur, H. Rehman, R. Malima, C. Curtis, J. Lines, and M. Rowland, "Multi-country field trials comparing wash-resistance of PermaNet™ and conventional insecticide-treated nets against anopheline and culicine mosquitoes," Medical and Veterinary Entomology, vol. 19, pp. 72-83, 2005. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0269-283x.2005.00543.x.

[26]        A. Kroeger, O. Skovmand, Q. Phan, and D. Boewono, "Combined field and laboratory evaluation of a long-term impregnated bednet, PermaNet®," Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 98, pp. 152-155, 2004. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0035-9203(03)00038-5.

[27]        J. E. Gimnig, K. A. Lindblade, D. L. Mount, F. K. Atieli, S. Crawford, A. Wolkon, W. A. Hawley, and E. M. Dotson, "Laboratory wash resistance of long-lasting insecticidal nets," Tropical Medicine & International Health, vol. 10, pp. 1022-1029, 2005. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2005.01481.x.

[28]        U. Sreehari, K. Raghavendra, M. Rizvi, and A. Dash, "Wash resistance and efficacy of three long-lasting insecticidal nets assessed from bioassays on Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles stephensi," Tropical Medicine & International Health, vol. 14, pp. 597-602, 2009. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2009.02252.x.

[29]        F. Atieli, S. Munga, A. Ofulla, and J. Vivule, "Wash durability and optimal drying regimen of four brands of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets after repeated washing under tropical conditions," Malaria Journal vol. 9, pp. 1-10, 2010. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-9-248.

Statistics:

Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor

Funding:

This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Acknowledgement:

All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

Related Article