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Journal of Diagnostics

December 2016, Volume 3, 2, pp 31-37

Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) Infection Among HIV Patients Accessing Healthcare at Federal Medical Centre, Keffi, Nigeria

Pennap, G. R. I., Oti, V. B.

Pennap, G. R. I. 1 ,

Oti, V. B. 1 
  1. Department of Microbiology, Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria 1

Pages: 31-37

DOI: 10.18488/journal.98/2016.3.2/98.2.31.37

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Article History:

Received: 20 April, 2016
Revised: 20 May, 2016
Accepted: 17 October, 2016
Published: 07 December, 2016


Abstract:

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections is a sexually transmitted infection worldwide, which has a public health implications especially as a driving force behind the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic. It is known to cause genital ulcer as well as lesions. It is a lifelong recurrent disease with no cure. Due to the lack of documented HSV-2 studies among HIV patients in this study area with an estimated HIV prevalence of 38.7%, there was a need for estimating the seroprevalence of HSV-2 infection in the study population. The sera of 223 consenting HIV positive patients were screened for HSV-2 specific IgG using an ELISA test kit (Cortez Diagnostic, Inc, USA). The chi-square test was performed to identify possible risk factors associated with the viral seropositivity. The overall seroprevalence of the viral infection was 77.6%. Females recorded a prevalence of 84.5% and males 51.0% (p > 0.05). Participants aged ≤ 20 and ≥ 61 years recorded a prevalence of 100%, while the lowest prevalence (66.7%) was observed in those aged 51-60 years (p > 0.05). There was a statistically significant association between the seroprevalence of HSV-2 in HIV patients in relation to locality. Patients from the rural setting had a higher prevalence (85.2%) of the infection than those from the urban setting (72.6%) (p ≤ 0.05). However, in this study, marital status, occupation, level of education, antiretroviral therapy (ART) status and CD4 counts, had no statistically significant association with HSV-2 infection (p > 0.05). Awareness campaigns that will promote behavioral change might be the most important strategy to mitigate transmission as most of the infected persons usually show no clinical symptoms. The role of vaccination and condom use among high risk groups may help in combating the transmission.
Contribution/ Originality
This study has contributed in documenting the prevalence of the infection in Keffi using the ELISA test kit and has used the Chi square statistical test. This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the prevalence of HSV-2 infection in North central, Nigeria. The paper has contributed in logical analysis and in estimating the prevalence and risk factors of the infection in Keffi. The study documented a very high overall prevalence of the infection. It is associated with gender, age and locality and not associated with marital status, occupation, level of education, ART and CD4 counts.

Keywords:

HSV-2, HIV, ELISA, Seroprevalence, Keffi

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Reference:

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Funding:

This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Acknowledgement:

All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

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