The current study aimed to demonstrate the hepatoprotective effect of chamomile extract and its role in relieving the ultrathin structure changes in liver tissue caused by 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D) using electron microscopy.This experiment was performed on 12 -14 weeks old male Wistar rats divided into six groups (six animals each). The first group was kept as control. The second and third groups received orally accumulative doses of 75 and 150 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.), of 2, 4- D respectively. The forth group received orally Chamomile extract (500 mg/kg b.wt.) alone. The last two groups received Chamomile extract with either doses of 2, 4-D (75 or 150 mg/kg b.wt). At the end of the experimental period (4 weeks), the liver was dissected and examined by electron microscope. Histopathological examination of liver sections of rats administered 2, 4-D75 mg/kg showed differences in nuclear shapes and size, envelope and increase in heterochromatin masses. Adminstration of 2, 4-D150mg/kg showed pyknosis and changes inmitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Kupffer cells, increases in lysosomes and lipid droplets. Chamomile group showed the normal control ultra structure of the liver. In group treated with chamomile and 2, 4-D75,there was improvements in all degenerative changes induced by 2, 4-D75. Chamomile and 2, 4-D150 groupshowed partial improvement in both nucleus and the mitochondria. Chamomile reduces the oxidative damage induced by 2, 4-D due to its antioxidant properties. It is recommended that Chamomile extract can be taken to ameliorate hepatotoxicity.
This study is one of very few studies which have demonstrated chamomile role in relieving hepatocytes ultrastructural changes caused by 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The paper's primary contribution is finding that chamomile has antioxidant effect against oxidative stress. This study documents the hepatoprotective effect of chamomile against 2,4- D toxicity.
M. S. Morgulis, G. H. Oliveira, M. L. Dagli, and J. Palermo-Neto, "Acute 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid intoxication in broiler chicks," Poult. Sci., vol. 77, pp. 509–515, 1998.
B. Bukowska, "Toxicity of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid– molecular mechanisms," Polish J. of Environ. Stud., vol. 15, pp. 365-374, 2006.
O. Fenaroli, Fenaroli’s handbook of flavour ingredients. London: CRC Press, 2005.
M. Ganzera, P. Schneider, and H. Stuppner, "Inhibitory effects of the essential oil of chamomile (Matricaria Recutita) and its major constituents on human cytochrome P450 enzymes," Life Sci., vol. 78, pp. 856–861, 2006.
J. Srivastava and S. Gupta, "Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of chamomile extract in various human cancer cells," J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 55, pp. 9470–9478, 2007.
K. S. Ramadan and M. A. Emam, "Biochemical evaluation of antihyperglycemic and antioxidative effects of matriceria chamomilla leave extract studied in streptozotocin-induced diabitic rats," I. J. R. M. T., vol. 2, pp. 2249-9563, 2012.
J. Barnes, L. Anderson, and D. Phillipson, Herbal medicines: A guide for healthcare professionals. London: Pharmaceutical Press, 2002.
W. Tayeb, A. Nakbi, M. Trabelsi, N. Attia, A. Miled, and M. Hammamia, "Hepatotoxicity induced by sub-acute exposure of rats to 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid based herbicide désormone lourd," J. Hazard Mater, vol. 180, pp. 225-233, 2010.
A. Kato, Y. Minoshima, J. Yamamoto, I. Adachi, A. Watson, and R. Nash, "Protective effects of dietary chamomile tea on diabetic complications," J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 56, pp. 8206–8211, 2008.
M. A. Hayat, Principles and techniques of electron microscopy. Florida: CRC Press, 1989.
A. Troudi, S. A. Mahjoubi, and N. Zeghal, "Hepatotoxicity induced by gibberellic acid in adult rats and their progeny," Exp. Toxicol. Pathol., vol. 18, pp. 127-133, 2009.
W. F. Hussein, F. Y. Farahat, M. A. Abass, and A. S. Shehata, "Hepatotoxic potential of gibberellic acid (GA3) in adult male albino rats," Life Sci., vol. 8, pp. 373-379, 2011.
V. Kumar, A. K. Abbas, and N. Fausto, Robbens and catron pathologic basis of disease. UK: Elsevier Saunders, 2005.
B. Mignotte and J. L. Vayssiere, "Mitochondria and apoptosis," Eur. J. Biochem., vol. 252, pp. 1-15, 1998.
H. Jaeschke, G. J. Gores, A. I. Cederbaum, J. A. Hinson, D. Pessayre, and J. J. Lemasters, "Mechanism of hepatoxicity," Toxicol. Sci., vol. 56, pp. 76-66, 2002.
J. J. Lemasters, "Mechanisms of hepatotoxicity," Toxicol. Sci., vol. 65, pp. 166-167, 2002.
D. Pessayre, A. Berson, B. Fromrnty, and A. Mansouri, "Mitochondria in steatohepatitis," Semin. Liver Dis., vol. 21, pp. 57-69, 2001.
S. Krahenbhul, "Mitochondria: Important target for drug toxicity," J. Hepatol., vol. 34, pp. 334-336, 2001.
A. El Daly, "The protective effect of green tea extract against enrofloxacin action on the rat liver; histological, histochemical and ultrastructural studies," J. Am. Sci., vol. 7, pp. 669-679, 2011.
S. A. Abd El Maksoud, N. Abd El Maksoud, and N. A. Abd El Hamid, "Chronic toxic effect of plant growth promoting hormone, gibberellic acid, on the liver cells of adult male albino rat," Assut. Med. J., vol. 20, pp. 87-103, 1996.
J. D. McGee, Alcoholic liver disease. In: Oxford textbook of pathology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
P. Hall, Alcoholic liver disease. In: Pathology of the liver. London: Churchill Livingstone, 1994.
P. P. De Piceis, C. Fenoglio, R. Nano, T. Coccini, V. Bertone, R. Vaccarone, and G. Gerzeli, "Styrene hepatotoxicity in rats treated by inhalation or intraperitoneally: A structural investigation," Histopathol., vol. 18, pp. 49-54, 2003.