Empty fruit bunches (EFB) are treated with distilled water at different washing medium temperature. The effects on the yield distribution of pyrolysis products and its particulate emission released are studied via feedstock behaviours analysis and the effectiveness of washing pre-treatment. Room temperature washing medium is considered as the optimum washing medium condition of pre-treatment in order to provide better qualities of feedstock for pyrolysis work. The feedstock are possessed with minimal weight percentage of ash content, and acquired great amount of volatiles matter and energy value of 87.63 wt% and 18.04 MJ/kg, respectively. Furthermore, yield distribution of EFB pyrolysis products are enhanced to around 40.98 wt% of bio-char, 55.08 wt% of pyrolysis liquid and 3.93 wt% of gas. Particulate emissions of EFB feedstock are described accordingly by three combustion phases of pyrolysis process. The raw/untreated EFB was revealed to release higher amount of particulate emission along the pyrolysis activity as compared to the treated EFB feedstock.
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that the properties of empty fruit bunches are improved by the employment of water washing pre-treatment. Better feedstock behaviours will promoting positive influence towards the yield distribution of pyrolysis products at minimal release of the particulate emission during burning activity.
N. Abdullah and F. Sulaiman, "The properties of the washed empty fruit bunches of oil palm," J. Phys. Sci., vol. 24, pp. 117–137, 2013.
K. O. Davidsson, J. G. Korsgren, J. B. C. Pettersson, and U. Jäglid, "The effects of fuel washing techniques on alkali release from biomass," Fuel, vol. 81, pp. 137–142, 2002.
D. Mohan, C. U. Pittman, and P. H. Steele, "Pyrolysis of wood/biomass for bio-oil: A critical review," Energy & Fuesl, vol. 20, pp. 848–889, 2006.
A. Abdul Rahman, F. Sulaiman, and N. Abdullah, "Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches," in AIP Conference Proceedings, 2015, p. 040011.
K. H. Khor, K. O. Lim, and Z. A. Zainal, "Characterization of bio-oil?: A by-product from slow pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches," Am. J. Appl. Sci., vol. 6, pp. 1647–1652, 2009.
F. Sulaiman and N. Abdullah, "Pyrolytic product of washed and unwashed oil palm wastes by slow thermal conversion process," J. Phys. Sci., vol. 25, pp. 73–84, 2014.
P. Das, A. Ganesh, and P. Wangikar, "Influence of pretreatment for deashing of sugarcane bagasse on pyrolysis products," Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 27, pp. 445–457, 2004.
K. O. Davidsson, B. J. Stojkova, and J. B. C. Pettersson, "Alkali emission from birchwood particles during rapid pyrolysis," Energy and Fuels, vol. 16, pp. 1033-1039, 2002.
L. Deng, T. Zhang, and D. Che, "Effect of water washing on fuel properties, pyrolysis and combustion characteristics, and ash fusibility of biomass," Fuel Process. Technol., vol. 106, pp. 712–720, 2013.
F. Sulaiman and N. Abdullah, "Optimum conditions for maximising pyrolysis liquids of oil palm empty fruit bunches," Energy, vol. 36, pp. 2352–2359, 2011.
M. K. A. Abdul Razab, M. S. Jaafar, and A. Abdul Rahman, "A study of particulate matter concentration released during laser paint removal process on car coated substrate," IOSR J. Appl. Phys., vol. 6, pp. 40–48, 2014.
J. S. Lim, Z. Abdul Manan, S. R. Wan Alwi, and H. Hashim, "A review on utilisation of biomass from rice industry as a source of renewable energy," Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 16, pp. 3084–3094, 2012.
A. M. Omer, "Energy, environment and sustainable development," Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 12, pp. 2265–2300, 2008.
N. Abdullah, H. Gerhauser, and A. V. Bridgwater, "Bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches," J. Phys. Sci., vol. 18, pp. 57–74, 2007.
L. S. Ba, B. Leckner, C. Tullin, and M. Berntsen, "Particle emissions from pellets stoves and modern and old-type wood stoves," Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 35, pp. 3648–3655, 2011.
L. S. Johansson, C. Tullin, B. Leckner, and P. Sjovall, "Particle emissions from biomass combustion in small combustors," Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 25, pp. 435–446, 2003.
L. Jiang, S. Hu, J. Xiang, S. Su, L. Sun, K. Xu, and Y. Yao, "Release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during biomass pyrolysis and steam gasification process," Bioresour. Technol., vol. 116, pp. 278–284, 2012.