Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062

Conference List

Evaluation of the Relative Viability of Anthropometric Parameters, Aerobic Capacity, Spinal Mobility, Abdominal Muscular Endurance, Back and Lower Limb Muscle Strength in Predicting the Balance Performance of Young Adult Males

Joseph A. Balogun


Felix O. Odusaga


Adesola O. Ojoawo

Joseph A. Balogun 1

Felix O. Odusaga 2
Adesola O. Ojoawo 3

  1. Distinguished University Professor in the Department of Health Studies, College of Health Sciences, Chicago State University, U.S.A 1

  2. Consulting Physical Therapist, Crown Point, Indiana, USA 2

  3. Senior Lecturer at the Department of Medical Rehabilitation at Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria 3

Pages: 28-37

DOI: 10.18488/journal.9.2017.42.28.37

Share :

Article History:

Received: 31 December, 2016
Revised: 18 January, 2017
Accepted: 03 March, 2017
Published: 10 April, 2017


Background: The physical-and-physiological factors that modulate balance performance are currently not well elucidated in the extant literature. Objectives: This study investigated the viability of using demographic factors, physical and physiological variables to predict balance performance. Methods: 150 adult males consented and completed all the 17 tests required. Their anthropometric indices (leg length, thigh and calf circumferences, height, body weight, quotelet index, body surface area), dominant leg isometric muscle strength (quadriceps femoris, hamstrings, plantar flexors and dorsiflexors), spinal mobility (back extension and forward flexion), aerobic capacity, isometric back extensor strength, abdominal muscular endurance and the non-timed criterion unipedal stance performance with eyes opened and eyes closed were measured using standard protocols. Results: Significant positive correlations were obtained between several of the independent variables. Thigh circumference was significantly related to quadriceps femoris strength (r = 0.545, p<0.001), hamstrings strength (r = 0.4.57, p<0.001), plantar flexor strength (r = 0.249, p<0.002), and dorsiflexors strength (r = 0.2496, p<0.002).  The 17 independent variables combined contributed significantly (F = 2.051, p<0.05) to the prediction of balance performance with eyes opened. Unexpectedly, only 20.9% of the variance in balance performance was accounted for by the 17 independent variables. Stature and the plantar flexor muscle strength were the two viable predictors of balance performance when the eyes is opened; stature contributed 5.5% and the plantar flexor muscle strength contributed 3.8%. Abdominal muscular endurance contributed 3.1% out of the combined 14.4% variance in balance performance when the eyes are closed. Conclusions: From a practical perspective, the contribution of the 17 physical-and-physiological variables monitored in this study to the prediction of balance performance is dreary; therefore, follow-up studies should explore other independent variables.

Contribution/ Originality
This study is the first to evaluate the viability of using multiple combinations of physical-and-physiological variables to predict balance performance. The regression equations derived in this study can be used to estimate the balance performance of young adult males.


Balance performance, Unipedal stance test time, Prediction, Muscle strength, Muscular endurance, Anthropometry, Aerobic capacity, Spinal mobility.



  1. J. Richardson and J. Ashton-Miller, "Peripheral neuropathy: An often-overlooked cause of falls in the elderly," Postgraduate Medicine, vol. 99, pp. 161-172, 1996. View at Google Scholar 
  2. E. Hurvitz, J. Richardson, and R. Werner, "Unipedal stance testing in the assessment of peripheral neuropathy," Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 82, pp. 198-204, 2001. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  3. F. Black, C. Shurpert, F. Horak, and L. Nashner, "Abnormal postural control associated with peripheral vestibular disorders," Progress in Brain Research, vol. 76, pp. 263-275, 1988.View at Google Scholar 
  4. J. Sheldon, "The effect of age on the control of sway," Gerontologia Clinica, vol. 5, pp. 129-138, 1963. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  5. A. A. Tjon, S. Hen, P. Van’t Pad, R. Laan, and T. Mulder, "Postural control in rheumatoid arthritis patients scheduled for total knee arthroscopy," Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 81, pp. 1489- 1493, 2000. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  6. B. Vellas, S. Wayne, L. Romero, R. Baumgartner, L. Rubenstein, and P. Garry, "One-leg balance is an important predictor of injurious falls in older persons," Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 45, pp. 735-738, 1997. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  7. K. Hill, J. Schwarz, L. Flicker, and S. Carroll, "Falls among healthy, community-dwelling, older women: A prospective study of frequency, circumstances, consequences and prediction accuracy," Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, vol. 23, pp. 41-48, 1999. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  8. F. Jansen, R. R. Larsen, and B. M. Olesen, "Quantitative Romberg test: Measuremenst and computer calculation of postural stability," Acta Nwurol Scandinavia, vol. 66, pp. 93-99, 1982. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  9. P. W. Overstall, N. A. Exton-Smith, F. J. Imms, and A. L. Johnson, "Falls in elderly related to postural imbalance," Brit Med J. , vol. 1, pp. 261-264, 1977. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  10. D. P. Thomas and R. I. Whitney, "Postural movements during normal standing in man," Journal of Anatomy, vol. 93, pp. 524-539, 1969. View at Google Scholar 
  11. H. Trapp, J. Ekstrand, and J. Gillquist, "Stabilometry in functional instability of the ankle and its value predicting injury," Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 16, pp. 64-66, 1984. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  12. B. A. Springer, R. Marin, T. Cyhan, H. Roberts, and N. W. Gill, "Normative values for the unipedal stance test with eyes open and closed " Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, vol. 30, pp. 8-15, 2007. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  13. J. A. Balogun, L. O. Ajayi, and F. Alawale, "Determinants of single limb stance balance performance," African Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 26, pp. 153-157, 1997. View at Google Scholar 
  14. M. Kuno, T. Fukunaga, Y. Hirano, and M. Miyashita, "Anthropometric variables and muscle properties of Japanese female ballet dancers," International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 17, pp. 100–105, 1996. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  15. L. Guidetti, M. C. Gallotta, G. P. Emerenziani, and C. Baldari, "Exercise intensities during a ballet lesson in female adolescents with different technical ability," International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 28, pp. 736–42, 2007.View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  16. J. A. Balogun, K. A. Akindele, J. O. Nihinlola, and D. K. Marzouk, "Age related changes in balance performance," Disability and Rehabilitation, vol. 16, pp. 58-62, 1994. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  17. M. Shuttleworth, "Repeated measures design." Retrieved from: [ Accessed December 15, 2016], 2016.
  18. R. E. Behrman, R. M. Kliegman, and H. B. Jenson, Nelson textbook of pediatrics, 16th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 2000.
  19. >J. A. Balogun and A. T. Onigbinde, "Hand and leg dominance: Do they really affect limbs muscle strength?," Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, vol. 8, pp. 86-89, 1992.View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  20. K. H. Cooper, "A means of assessing maximal oxygen intake," Journal of American Medical Association, vol. 203, pp. 201-204, 1968. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  21. J. A. Balogun, A. G. Olawoye, and V. A. Oladipo, "Isometric back strength in different age groups," International Disability Studies, vol. 13, pp. 87-90, 1991. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  22. J. A. Balogun and S. O. Songonuga, "Spinal flexibility of male Nigerians: Some age-related normative data," Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, vol. 6, pp. 139-149, 1990. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  23. American Alliance for Health Physical Education Recreation and Dance, pp. 143-149, 1980.
  24. D. W. Stockburger, "Multivariate statistics: Concepts, models, and applications - Multiple regression with categorical variables." Retrieved from: . [ Accessed November 23, 2016], n.d.
  25. T. B. L. C. Cristiane Da Silva, L. F. Goldberg, R. S. Soares-Caldeira, R. S. P. Oliveira, and F. Y. Nakamura, "The effects of 17 weeks of ballet training on the autonomic modulation, hormonal and general biochemical profile of female adolescents," Journal of Human Kinetics, vol. 47, pp. 61-71, 2015. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors report no conflict of interest in terms of commercial, political, academic, financial or personal relationship with any entities.


We would like to acknowledge the cooperation and dedication of the subjects who participated in this stress inducing and time consuming study.

Related Article