Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common malignancy, which usually develops on top of cirrhosis of viral origin; it is responsible for more than one million deaths worldwide per year. Aim: This study was conducted to identify the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of HCC patients attended Menofia oncology unit in the duration from 2003-2012, Egypt. Methodology: A retrospective analysis of records of 1500 HCC patients attended the Menofia oncology unit .The results: Of the 1500 studied HCC patients, 74.4% (1116) were male, and mean age was 54.98 years. HCV, HBV infection was reported to be 69.8 %, 17.2%, respectively, and 18.6 % were positive for Bilharziasis. Cirrhosis was present in (58.93%) of patients and was classified as Child-A (64.47%), Child-B (26.53 %) and Child-C (9 %). Hepatocellular carcinoma was multifocal/ diffuse in (51.26 %) of patients. 59.8% of patients were presented with metastatic disease. As regard to therapy; (59.6 %) of patients received palliative treatment, meanwhile about 28.1%, 12.3 % underwent other lines of treatment, no treatment, respectively. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, we concluded that most of HCC patients presented at Menofia oncology unit were of advanced stage and poor survival. More effort is needed to discover early HCC cases with high risk factors.
This study contributes in the existing literature, Egyptian Patients with HCC. This study uses a new estimation methodology.
H. El-Serag, "Hepatocellular carcinoma: An epidemiologic view," J. Clin. Gastroenterol, vol. 35, pp. S72-78, 2002.
J. Crawford, The liver and the biliary tract. In: Cotran RS, Kumar V, Collins T (Ed). Pathological basis of disease, 6th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1999.
F. Bosch, J. Ribes, R. Cleries, and M. Diaz, "Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma," Clin. Liver Dis., vol. 9, pp. 191-211, 2005.
M. C. Kew, "Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma," Toxicology, vol. 181- 182, pp. 35-38, 2002.
D. Bartlett, B. Carr, and J. Marsh, Cancers of the gastrointestinal tract: Section 4: Cancer of the liver. In: DeVita VJ, Hellman S, Rosenberg S, Editors. Principles and practice of oncology, 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005.
World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research, Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: A global perspective. Washington DC: AICR, 2007.
J. Amin, G. Dore, D. O’Connell, M. Bartlett, E. Tracey, and J. Kaldor, "Cancer incidence in people with hepatitis B or C infection: A large community-based linkage study," J. Hepatol, vol. 45, pp. 197-203, 2006.
C. Chu, "Natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in adults with emphasis on the occurrence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma," J. Gastroenterol Hepatol, vol. 15, pp. E25–E30, 2000.
D. Lavanchy, "Hepatitis B virus epidemiology, disease burden, treatment, and current and emerging prevention and control measures," J Viral Hepat, vol. 11, pp. 97-107, 2004.
R. Simonetti, C. Camma, and F. Fiorella, "Hepatocellular carcinoma: A worldwide problem and the major factors," Dig. Dis. Sci., vol. 36, pp. 962 – 972, 1991.
F. Bosch, J. Ribes, M. Diaz, and R. Cleries, "Primary liver cancer worldwide incidence and trends," Gastroenterology, vol. 127, pp. S5-S16, 2004.
F. El-Zanaty and A. Way, Egypt demographic and health survey 2008. Cairo, Egypt: Ministry of Health, El-Zanaty and Associates, and Macro International, 2009.
A. El-Zayadi, "Hepatitis B virus infection the Egyptian situation," Arab J. Gastroenterol, vol. 8, pp. 94-98, 2007.
A. Rahman El-Zayadi, H. Abaza, S. Shawky, M. Mohamed, O. Selim, and H. Badran, "Prevalence and epidemiological features of hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt-a single center experience," Hepatol Res., vol. 19, pp. 170–179, 2001.
A. Ibrahim, I. Seifeldin, K. Ismail, A. Hablas, H. Hussein, and H. Elhamzawy, Cancer in Egypt, Gharbiah: Triennial report of 2000–2002, Gharbiah population-based cancer registry. Cairo: Middle East Cancer Consortium, 2007.
E. Lehman, A. Soliman, and K. Ismail, "Patterns of hepatocellular carcinoma incidence in Egypt from a population-based cancer registry," Hepatol Res., vol. 38, pp. 465–473, 2008.
B. Daniele, A. Beneivenga, A. Megna, and V. Tinessa, "Alpha fetoprotein and US screening for HCC," Gastroenterology, vol. 127, pp. S108 – S112, 2004.
J. Perz, G. Armstrong, L. Farrington, Y. Hutin, and B. Bell, "The contributions of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections to cirrhosis and primary liver cancer worldwide," J. Hepatol, vol. 45, pp. 529-538, 2006.
Y. Abdel-Gafar, H. Sleem, and M. Tawfik, "Percutaneous ethanol injection in large size and multiple HCC: Two years follow-up in 165 patients," Med. J. Cairo University, vol. 70, pp. 299–304, 2002.
A. El-Zayadi, H. Badran, and E. Barakat, "Hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt: A single center study over a decade," World J. of Gastroenterol, vol. 11, pp. 5193-5198, 2005.
J. Lopez, "Recent development in the first detection of hepatocellular carcinoma," Clin. Biochem. Rev., vol. 26, pp. 65-79, 2005.
B. Vauthey, G. Lauwers, and N. Esnaola, "Simplified staging for hepatocellular carcinoma," Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 20, pp. 1527-1536, 2002.
M. Kew, Hepatic tumours and cysts. Feldman: Sleisenger and Fordtran’s G.I. and Liver disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Sleisenger MH, Scharschmidt BF. Ed. Sleisenger and fordtran's gastrointestinal and liver disease: Pathophysiology/diagnosis/management, 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2002.
P. Anthony, "Hepatocellular carcinoma: An overview," Histopathology, vol. 39, pp. 109-118, 2001.
S. Sherlock and J. Dooley, "Diseases of the liver and biliary system. 11th ed., Blackwell Scientific Publications," Hepatology Research, vol. 19, pp. 170- 179, 2002.
K. McGlynn and W. London, "Epidemiology and natural history of hepatocellular carcinoma," Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 19, pp. 3-23, 2005.
M. Abdel-Wahab, A. El-Enein, and M. Abou-Zeid, "Hepatocellular carcinoma in Mansoura-Egypt: Experience of 386 patients at a single centre," Hepatogastroenterology, vol. 47, pp. 663-668, 2000.
H. Nelly, M. Heba, and S. Samir, "Review of epidemiologic and clinicopathologic features of 403 hepatocellular carcinoma patients," J. Egypt Nat. Cancer Inst., vol. 12, pp. 87-93, 2000.
J. Craig, Tumours of the liver. In: Hepatology: A textbook of liver disease. Zakim, D. and Boyer, T.D. (Ed), 4th ed. Philadelphia, London, New York, St. Louis, Sydney, Toronto: Saundsers, 2003.
N. Mohamed, H. El-Zawahry, and N. Mokhtar, "Review of epidemiologic and clinicopathologic features of 403 hepatocellular carcinoma," Journal of the Egyptian Cancer National Institute, vol. 12, pp. 87-93, 2000.
A. Di Bisceglie, "Epidemiology and clinical presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma," J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol., vol. 13, pp. s169-s171, 2002.
A. Badawi and M. Michael, "Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt: The role of hepatitis B viral infection and schistosomiasis," Anticancer Research, vol. 19, pp. 4563-4568, 1999.
M. Abdel-Wahab, N. El-Ghawalby, and M. Mostafa, "Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in lower Egypt, Mansoura gastroenterology centre," Hepato-Gastroenterology, vol. 54, pp. 157-162, 2007.
M. Hassan, A. Zaghloul, and H. El-Serag, "The role of hepatitis C in hepatocellular carcinoma: A case control study among Egyptian patients," J. Clin. Gastroenterology, vol. 33, pp. 123-126, 2001.
C. Rex, "Epidemiology and radiotherapy of hepatocellular Carcinoma," International Journal of Cancer and Clinical Research, vol. 1, p. 1-2, 2014.
C. Rosen and D. Nagorney, Fibrolamellar and less aggressive hepatocellular carcinomas. Hepatobiliary malignancy: Its multidisciplinary management, 5th ed. London: Edward Arnold, 1997.