Aims: To examine the effects of the administration of CD on lipid metabolism and liver enzymes in hyperlipidemic subjects. Study design: 20 subjects were divided into two groups, each containing ten subjects. Each subject in the 1st group ingested 1g, while the subject in the 2nd group ingested 2g of CD powder as a broth suspension in a single daily dose before lunch during the follow up period of one month. Patients kept their individual diet relatively constant. Methodology: We included 20 hyperlipidemic volunteers (men; age range 20-50 years) of a total of 80 subjects. Blood samples were taken and analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), atherogenic index (AI), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Results: The results of the present study show a significant decrease in the levels of TC, LDL-C and TG in 1g and 2g of CD administration groups by 12.6, 24.1, 17.1% and 19.9, 25.5 23.4% respectively while the level of HDL-C was significantly increased by 45.6 and 32.5% in 1g and 2g respectively. The atherogenic index (AI) was significantly decreased in 1g and 2g groups by and 47.4% and 45.5% respectively. Our results also show that, CD administration in 1g and 2g subjects causes a significant decrease in ALT and AST by 39.2, 32% and 48.5, 33.3% respectively while the level of ALP was non-significantly decreased. Conclusion: dietary supplementation with CD administration decreased serum lipid profile and liver enzymes in hyperlipidemic subjects. Therefore, it may be regarded as a useful therapy for hyperlipidemia and liver disease. However, further studies are required to compare it with other medicinal plants and with lipid lowering drugs.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Ibb University, Yemen, between February to June 2012.
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Cyphostemma Digitatum on Serum Lipid Profile and Liver Enzymes in Hyperlipidemic Subjects (human) and we found that, dietary supplementation with CD administration decreased serum lipid profile and liver enzymes in hyperlipidemic subjects.
K. Berra, B. Fletcher, L. Hayman, and N. Miller, "Global cardiovascular disease prevention: A call to action for nursing: The global burden of cardiovascular disease," J. Cardiovasc Nurs., vol. 26, pp. S1-2, 2011.
D. Labarthe and S. Dunbar, "Global cardiovascular health promotion and disease prevention: 2011 and beyond," Circulation, vol. 125, pp. 2667-2676, 2012.
L. Hayman and S. Hughes, "The global burden of cardiovascular disease: Opportunities for nurses and nursing," J Cardiovasc Nurs., vol. 20, pp. 374-5, 2005.
P. Dandona, A. Aljada, A. Chaudhuri, P. Mohanty, and R. Garg, "Metabolic syndrome: A comprehensive perspective based on interactions between obesity, diabetes, and inflammation," Circulation, vol. 111, pp. 1448-1454, 2005.
F. Verdier and L. Fourcade, "Changes in cardiovascular risk factors in developing countries," Med Trop (Mars), vol. 67, pp. 552-8, 2007.
B. Ghule, M. Ghante, A. Saoji, and P. Yeole, "Antihyperlipidemic effect of the methanolic extract from lagenaria siceraria stand. Fruit in hyperlipidemic rats," J Ethnopharmacol., vol. 124, pp. 333–37, 2009.
K. Prasad, "Hypocholesterolemic and antiatherosclerotic effect of flax lignan complex isolated from flaxseed," Atherosclerosis, vol. 179, pp. 269–275, 2005.
H. Harnafi, H. Bouanani Nel, M. Aziz, H. Serghini Caid, N. Ghalim, and S. J. Amrani, "The hypolipidaemic activity of aqueous erica multiflora flowers extract in Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidaemic rats: A comparison with fenofibrate," J Ethnopharmacol., vol. 109, pp. 156-160, 2007.
X. Chen, E. Serag, K. Sneed, and S. Zhou, "Herbal bioactivation, molecular targets and the toxicity relevance," Chem Biol Interact, vol. 192, pp. 161-76, 2011.
P. Kylli, L. Nohynek, R. Puupponen-Pimiä, B. Westerlund-Wikström, G. McDougall, D. Stewart, and M. Heinonen, "Rowanberry phenolics: Compositional analysis and bioactivities," J Agric Food Chem., vol. 58, pp. 11985-11992, 2010.
M. Faudale, F. Viladomat, J. Bastida, F. Poli, and C. Codina, "Antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of wild, edible, and medicinal fennel from different Mediterranean countries," J Agric Food Chem., vol. 56, pp. 1912-1920, 2008.
M. Al-Duais, L. Muller, V. Bohm, and G. Jetschke, "Antioxidant capacity and total phenolics of cyphostemma digitatum before and after processing," Eur Food Res Technol., vol. 228, pp. 813–821, 2009.
M. Al-Duais, J. Hohbein, S. Werner, V. Bohm, and G. Jetschke, "Contents of vitamin C, carotenoids, tocopherols, and tocotrienols in the subtropical plant species cyphostemma digitatum as affected by processing," J Agric Food Chem., vol. 57, pp. 5420-5427, 2009.
M. Al-Duais, Y. Al-Awthan, A. Al-Mashad, and M. Shamsan, "Prevention of carbon tetrachloride - induced liver damage in guinea pigs by cyphostemma digitatum," J Life Sci., vol. 6, pp. 131-137, 2012.
K. Kotseva, D. Wood, G. De Backer, D. De Bacquer, K. Pyorala, and U. Keil, "Cardiovascular prevention guidelines in daily practice: A comparison of EUROASPIRE I, II, and III surveys in eight European countries," Lancet, vol. 373, pp. 929–940, 2009.
J. Perk, G. De Backer, and H. Gohlke, "European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice," Eur Heart J., vol. 33, pp. 1635–1701, 2012.
C. Allain, L. Poon, C. Chan, W. Richmond, and P. Fu, "Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol," Clin Chem., vol. 20, pp. 470–475, 1974.
V. Sardesai and J. Mannig, "The determination of triglycerides in plasma and tissues," Clin Chem., vol. 14, pp. 156–8, 1968.
M. Lopes-Virella, "Cholesterol determination in high density lipoproteins separated by three different methods," Clin Chem., vol. 28, pp. 882–884, 1982.
W. Friedwald, R. Levy, and D. Fredrickson, "Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge," Clin Chem., vol. 18, pp. 499-502, 1972.
T. Suanarunsawat, W. Ayutthaya, T. Songsak, and J. Rattanamahaphoom, "Anti-lipidemic actions of essential oil extracted from ocimum sanctum L. Leaves in rats fed with high cholesterol diet," J Appl Biomed., vol. 7, pp. 45–53, 2009.
N. Tietz, Fundamental of clinical chemistry. W.B.: Saunders Co, 1982.
J. King, The hydrolases-acid and alkalaine phosphotases. In: Practical clinical enzymology. London: Nostrand Company Limited, 1965.
P. Tsai, T. Ke, C. Huang, J. Tsai, P. Chen, S. Wang, and Y. Shyu, "Prevalence and determinants of prehypertension status in the Taiwanese general population," J Hypertens., vol. 23, pp. 1355-1360, 2005.
M. Daviglus, D. Lloyd-Jones, and A. Pirzada, "Preventing cardiovascular disease in the 21st century: Therapeutic and preventive implications of current evidence," Am J Cardiovasc Drugs, vol. 6, pp. 87-101, 2006.
K. Prasad, "Regression of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis in rabbits by secoisolariciresinol diglucoside isolated from flaxseed," Atherosclerosis, vol. 197, pp. 34-42, 2008.
K. Chang-Nam, P. Seong-Uk, C. Gyu-Tae, J. Woo-Sang, M. Sang-Kwan, P. Jung-Mi, and C. Ki-Ho, "Antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of the mixture of ginseng radix and crataegi fructus: Experimental study and preliminary clinical results," J Ginseng Res., vol. 35, pp. 162–169, 2011.
Y. Hata and K. Nakajima, "Life- style and serum lipids and lipoproteins," J Atheroscler Thromb., vol. 7, pp. 177-97, 2000.
J. Park, C. Chiang, M. Munawar, G. Pham, A. Sukonthasarn, A. Aquino, K. Khoo, and H. Chan, "Lipid-lowering treatment in hypercholesterolaemic patients: The CEPHEUS Pan-Asian survey," Eur J Prev Cardiol., vol. 19, pp. 781-794, 2012.
N. Sarwar, J. Danesh, G. Eiriksdottir, G. Sigurdsson, N. Wareham, S. Bingham, S. Boekholdt, K. Khaw, and V. Gudnason, "Triglycerides and the risk of coronary heart disease: 10,158 incident cases among 262,525 participants in 29 Western prospective studies," Circulation, vol. 115, pp. 450–458, 2007.
I. Coca-Prieto, P. Valdivielso, G. Olivecrona, M. Ariza, J. Rioja, P. Font-Ugalde, C. García-Arias, and P. González-Santos, "Lipoprotein lipase activity and mass, apolipoprotein C-II mass and polymorphisms of apolipoproteins E and A5 in subjects with prior acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis," BMC Gastroenterol., vol. 9, p. 46, 2009.
N. Venkatesan, S. Devaraj, and H. Devaraj, "Increased binding of LDL and VLDL to apo B, E receptors of hepatic plasma membrane of rats treated with fibernat," Euro J Nutr., vol. 42, pp. 262–271, 2003.
J. Seo, K. Lee, J. Jang, Z. Quan, K. Yang, and B. Burri, "The effect of dietary supplementation of ?-carotene on lipid metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats," Nutrition Research, vol. 24, pp. 1011-1021, 2004.
K. Chyu, A. Peter, and P. Shah, "Progress in HDL-based therapies for atherosclerosis," Curr Atheroscler Rep., vol. 13, pp. 405-412, 2011.
I. Young, "Lipids for psychiatrists – an overview," J Psychopharm., vol. 19, pp. 66–75, 2005.
R. Choudhury, J. Rong, E. Trogan, V. Elmalem, H. Dansky, J. Breslow, J. Witztum, J. Fallon, and E. Fisher, "High-density lipoproteins retard the progression of atherosclerosis and favorably remodel lesions without suppressing indices of inflammation or oxidation," Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol., vol. 24, pp. 1904-1909, 2004.
H. Brewer, "Focus on high density lipoproteins in reducing cardiovascular risk," Am Heart J., vol. 148, pp. S14-S18, 2004.
G. Assmann and J. Nofer, "Atheroprotective effects of high-density lipoproteins," Annu Rev Med., vol. 54, pp. 321–341, 2003.
S. Qureshi, E. Couto, M. Hilsen, S. Hofvind, A. Wu, and G. Ursin, "Mammographic density and intake of selected nutrients and vitamins in Norwegian women," Nutr Cancer, vol. 63, pp. 1011-1020, 2011.
R. Verma, A. Mehta, and N. Srivastava, "In vivo chlorpyriofos induced oxidative kstress: Attenuation by antioxidant vitamins," Pestic Biochem Phys., vol. 88, pp. 191-196, 2007.
A. Saremi and R. Arora, "Vitamin E and cardiovascular disease," Am J Ther., vol. 17, pp. e56-65, 2010.
M. Aviram, M. Kaplan, M. Rosenblat, and B. Fuhrman, "Dietary antioxidants and paraoxonases against LDL oxidation and atherosclerosis development," Handb Exp Pharmacol.,vol.170, pp. 263-300, 2005.
M. McRae, "Is vitamin C an effective antihypertensive supplement? A review and analysis of the literature," J Chiropr Med., vol. 5, pp. 60-64, 2006.
S. Rizvi, S. Raza, F. Ahmed, A. Ahmad, S. Abbas, and F. Mahdi, "The role of vitamin e in human health and some diseases," Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J., vol. 14, pp. e157-165, 2014.
J. Cook-Mills, M. Marchese, and H. Abdala-Valencia, "Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression and signaling during disease: Regulation by reactive oxygen species and antioxidants," Antioxid Redox Signal, vol. 15, pp. 1607-1638, 2011.
C. Ko, U. Park, G. Chang, W. Jung, S. Moon, J. Park, and K. Cho, "Antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of the mixture of ginseng radix and crataegi fructus: Experimental study and preliminary clinical results," J Ginseng Res., vol. 35, pp. 162-169, 2011.
A. Ladurner, C. Schmitt, D. Schachner, A. Atanasov, E. Werner, V. Dirsch, and E. Heiss, "Ascorbate stimulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme activity by rapid modulation of its phosphorylation status," Free Radic Biol Med., vol. 52, pp. 2082-2090, 2012.
S. Shariat, S. Mostafavi, and F. Khakpour, "Antioxidant effects of vitamins C and E on the low-density lipoprotein oxidation mediated by myeloperoxidase," Iran Biomed J., vol. 17, pp. 22-28, 2013.
M. Oarada, T. Tsuzuki, T. Gonoi, M. Igarashi, K. Kamei, T. Nikawa, K. Hirasaka, T. Ogawa, T. Miyazawa, K. Nakagawa, and N. Kurita, "Effects of dietary fish oil on lipid peroxidation and serum triacylglycerol levels in psychologically stressed mice," Nutrition, vol. 24, pp. 67-75, 2008.
H. Vasanthi, R. Parameswari, and D. Das, "Multifaceted role of tocotrienols in cardioprotection supports their structure: Function relation," Genes Nutr., vol. 7, pp. 19-28, 2012.
J. Karppi, S. Kurl, K. Ronkainen, J. Kauhanen, and J. Laukkanen, "Serum carotenoids reduce progression of early atherosclerosis in the carotid artery wall among Eastern finnish men," PLoS One, vol. 8, p. e64107, 2013.
A. Hozawa, D. J. Jacobs, and M. Steffes, "Relationships of circulating carotenoid concentrations with several markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction: The coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA)/ young adult longitudinal trends in antioxidants (YALTA) study," Clin Chem., vol. 53, pp. 447–455, 2007.
Y. Ito, M. Kurata, and K. Suzuki, "Cardiovascular disease mortality and serum carotenoid levels: A Japanese population- based follow-up study," J Epidemiol., vol. 16, pp. 154–160, 2006.
A. Wawrzyniak, M. Górnicka, J. Hamu?ka, M. Gajewska, M. Drywie?, J. Pierzynowska, and A. Gronowska-Senger, "?-Tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and ?-carotene protect against oxidative stress but reveal no direct influence on p53 expression in rats subjected to stress," Nutr Res., vol. 33, pp. 868-875, 2013.
C. Chen, P. Milbury, K. Lapsley, and B. JB., "Flavonoids from almond skins are bioavailable and act synergistically with vitamins C and E to enhance hamster and human LDL resistance to oxidation," J Nutr., vol. 135, pp. 1366-1373, 2005.
Y. Al-Awthan, M. Al-Douis, G. El-Sokkary, and E. Aqlan, "Dimethoate-induced odidative stress and morphological changes in the liver of guinea pig and the protective effect of vitamin C and E," Asian J Biol Sci., vol. 5, pp. 9-19, 2012.
C. Parameswari, B. Vijayageetha, and R. Vijayakumar, "Effect of supplementation of vitamin E, vitamin C and reduced glutathione on copper ion induced lipoproteinoxidation in renal diseased patients-anin vitro study," Indian J Clin Biochem., vol. 21, pp. 131-136, 2006.
E. Limberaki, P. Eleftheriou, E. Vagdatli, V. Kostoglou, and C. Petrou, "Serum antioxidant status among young, middle-aged and elderly people before and after antioxidant rich diet," Hippokratia, vol. 16, pp. 118-123, 2012.
C. Zhao, X. Cui, Y. Chen, and Q. Liang, "Key enzymes of triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis and the induction of their activities and gene expressions in plants," Nat Prod Commun., vol. 5, pp. 1147-1158, 2010.