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Quarterly Journal of Econometrics Research

June 2020, Volume 6, 1, pp 1-11

Panel Data Estimators in the Presence of Serial and Spatial Correlation with Panel Heteroscedasticity: A Simulation Study

Nwakuya Maureen Tobechukwu


Ijomah Maxwell Azubuike

Nwakuya Maureen Tobechukwu 1 ,

Ijomah Maxwell Azubuike 1 
  1. Department of Mathematics/Statistics University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria. 1

Pages: 1-11

DOI: 10.18488/journal.88.2020.61.1.11

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Article History:

Received: 03 August, 2020
Revised: 07 September, 2020
Accepted: 21 September, 2020
Published: 05 October, 2020


Panel data analysis is often faced with the issue of errors having arbitrary correlation across time for a particular individual “I” (serial correlation) and/or errors having arbitrary correlation across individuals at a moment in time (spatial correlation) with error disturbances having non constant variance. This study examined some panel data estimators in the presence of serial and spatial autocorrelation with panel heteroscedasticity. The study was done using two different sets of data simulated separately with ?=0.95 & 0.50. For each set of simulations short and long panels were considered for different sample sizes. The analysis considered two settings were rho is considered to be panel-specific (?i) and where rho is considered to be common for all panels (?). The estimators were examined based on bias, overconfidence and relative efficiency. The results produced evidence that the size of the autocorrelation coefficient ? affects the general performance of an estimator. Comparison of the estimators showed that Panel Corrected Standard Error Estimator (PCSE) produced better results than the other estimators considered in this work. But it was seen not to do very well in small samples and short panels. In terms of relative efficiency Park-Kmenta estimator was found to be more efficient that PCSE and PWLS (Panel Weighted Least Square Estimator). This paper has been able to show that the size of rho at the long run has an impact on the performance of the estimators, it showed that a small size of rho tends to increase overconfidence. The paper also revealed that Park-Kmenta estimator even with its flaws is still the most efficient estimator compared to the PCSE and PWLS. and it also substantiated the fact that PCSE performs badly in samples especially when N>T.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies which have investigated the effect of the size of autocorrelation coefficient on the estimators based on the flaws of Parks-Kmenta estimator, which has mislead most researchers into becoming more inclined to use PCSE without considering others credits of Parks-kmenta estimator.


Panel heteroscedasticity, Panel corrected standard errors, Park-Kmenta estimator, Autocorrelation coefficient, Overconfidence.


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This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

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