Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062

Conference List

Quarterly Journal of Econometrics Research

June 2015, Volume 1, 2, pp 32-44

Benefit-Cost Analysis of Alternative Insect Pests Management in Cashew and Mango Orchards in Tanzania

J.G. William


J. Hella


E. Lars


J. Offenberg


M. Mwatawala


G. Rwegasira

J.G. William 1 ,

J. Hella 1 

E. Lars 3 J. Offenberg 3 

M. Mwatawala 5 G. Rwegasira 5 

  1. Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania 1

  2. Aarhus University, Denmark 3

  3. Department of Crop Science and Production, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania 5

Pages: 32-44

DOI: 10.18488/journal.88/2015.1.2/

Share :


This study was conducted to determine the financial feasibility of African weaver ants (Oecophylla longinoda) as biological control agents in cashew and mango orchards. It was compared to chemical insecticides and control based on the experimental data in 2012/13 and 2013/14 cropping seasons. Three important discounted financial indicators were used in the study; they are the Net Present Value (NPV), Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR). Three scenarios concerning the increase of costs and benefits were used. The results of the study showed that all indicators for financial feasibility analysis were positive and accepted in each treatment. In cashew, African weaver ant without feeding indicated highest NPV (TZS 32 640), BCR (2.5:1) and IRR (57%). In mango, conflicting results were observed in feasibility ranking. But African weaver ants without feeding gave highest acceptable NPV of TZS 66 926. The three scenarios showed that setting much higher costs and benefits at five percent the NPV for African weaver ant was highest than other treatments. The findings of this study suggest that African weaver ant without feeding are financially feasible to be adopted and was recommended.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the financial feasibility of using African weaver ants (Oecophylla longinoda) to provide information that help smallholder farmers making decision on appropriate alternative insect pest management in Tanzanian cashew and mango.




  1. Alene, A.D., P. Neuenschwander, V.M. Manyong, O. Coulibary and R. Hanna, 2007. The impact of IITA-led biological control of major pests in Sub-Saharan African agriculture: A synthesis of milestones and empirical results. Ibadan, Nigeria.
  2. Bokonon-Ganta, A.H., G. De and Neuenschwander, 2002. Socio-economic impact of biological control of mango mealybug in Benin. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 93: 367-378.
  3. Cellini, S.R. and J.E. Kee, 2010. Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis. Handbook of practical program evaluation, chapter twenty-one. 493–530.
  4. Christian, D.G., A.B. Richie and N.E. Yates, 2008. Growth, yield and mineral content of miscantus inganteus growth as a biofuel for 14 successive harvests. Industrial Crops and Products, 28: 320-327.
  5. Dwomoh, E.A., J.V.K. Afun, J.B. Ackonor and V.N. Agene, 2009. Investigations on oecophylla longinoda (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: 116 Formicidae) as a biocontrol agent in the protection of cashew plantations. Pest Management Science, 65: 41–46.
  6. Gittinger, J.P., 1982. Economic analysis of agricultural projects. 2nd Edn., Baltimore and London: A World Bank Publication, The John Hopkins University Press.
  7. ICRA, 2009. Leaning materials-cost benefit analysis 1-key concepts. Available from
  8. Jacobs, J.F., 2007. Capital budgeting: NPV vs. IRR controversy, unmasking common assertions. Social Science Research Network Electronic Paper Collection. Available from [Accessed 02-10-2014].
  9. Marketing Marker Associates, 2011. Reshfruits and vegetables sub-sector/valuechain analysis in Tanzania. Small and medium enterprises competitive facility: 33.
  10. McConnachie, A.J., P. Hill, J. Byrne and M.P. De Wit, 2003. Economic evaluation of the successful biological control of Azolla filiculoides in South Africa. Biological Control, 28: 25-32.
  11. Mwatawala, M.W., S. Loth Mulungu and MakalaMpinga, 2009. Effect of mango weevil (Coleoptera Curculionidae) damage on mango seed viability in Tanzania. Journal of Economic Entomology, 101(1): 114-117.
  12. NARI, 2010. Annual cashew research Report. Naliendele Agricultural Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives Tanzania: pp: 23.
  13. Norgaard, R.B., 1988. The biological control of cassava mealy bug in Africa. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 72: 366-371.
  14. Offenberg, J., T.B. Nguyen and D. Wiwatwitaya, 2013. The effectiveness of using weaver ant biocontrol in Southern Asian citrus and mango. Journal of Asian Myrmecology, 5: 139-149.
  15. Peng, R.K. and K. Christian, 2005. Integrated pest management in mango orchards in the Northern territory Australia, using the weaver ant, oecophylla smaragdina, (Hymenoptera Formicidae) as a key element. Journal of Pest Management, 51: 149 –155.
  16. Peng, R.K., K. Christian and K. Gibb, 2004. Implementing weaver ant technology in commercial cashew plantations. RIRDC Publication No. W04/088.
  17. Peng, R.K., K. Christian, L.P. Lan and N.T. Binh, 2010. Integrated cashew improvement program using weaver ants as a major component–photo book for cashew growers in Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Agriculture Publisher. pp: 69.
  18. Poudel, K.L., A.P. Nepal, B. Dhungana, Y. Sugimoto, N. Yamamoto and A. Nishiwaki, 2009. Capital budgeting analysis of organic coffee production in Gulmi district of Nepal. In International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference, Beijing, China, pp: 1-13.
  19. Seguni, Z.S.K., M.J. Ways and P. Van Melle, 2011. The effect of ground vegetations on competition between the ants oecophylla longinoda and pheidole megacephala and implications for conservations biological control. Crop Protection, 30(6): 713-717.
  20. Shively, G., 2000. An overview of benefit-cost analysis. department of agricultural economics, Purdue University: 1–10.
  21. UNIDO, 2011. Tanzania’s cashew value chain: A diagnostic. Vienna, Austria: United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO).
  22. United Republic of Tanzania (URT), 2012. Country review report. Tanzania agricultural food security investment plan (TAFSIP). Government Printer DSM: 12.
  23. USITC, 2007. US trade and investment with Sub-Saharan Africa. Available from [Accessed 11/11/2013].
  24. Van den Berg, E.C., 2010. Detection, quantification and monitoring prosopis spp. In the Northern Cape Province of South Africa using remote sensing and GIS. Masters Dissertation, Potchefstroom: North-West University.
  25. Van Melle, P. and N.T.T. Cuc, 2000. Evolution and status of oecophylla smaragdina (Fabricius) as a pest control agent in citrus in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. International Journal of Pest Management, 46(4): 295-301.
  26. Zeddies, J., R.P. Schaab, P. Neuenschwander and H.R. Herren, 2000. Economics of biological control of cassava mealybug in Africa. Agricultural Economics, 24: 209-219.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


Competing Interests:


Related Article

( 1 ) Benefit-Cost Analysis of Alternative Insect Pests Management in Cashew and Mango Orchards in Tanzania
( 2 ) Multivariate Analysis in Formulation of the Benefit-Cost Index Related to the Sugarcane Production System in the Quirinopolis Municipality Productive Center, Goias, Brazil
( 3 ) New Evidence on the Link Between Income Inequality and Misery Index: A Nonlinear Time Series Analysis
( 4 ) Geographical Starting Points the Analysis of Current Rural Problems in Montenegro: Case Study of Rural Local Community Kralje
( 5 ) Institutionalising and Mainstreaming Policy Analysis Culture in African Environments
( 6 ) Profit And Loss Sharing As an Offshoot for Bank Stability: A Comparative Analysis
( 7 ) The Effect of Selected Financial Ratios on Profitability: An Empirical Analysis of Listed Firms of Cement Sector in Saudi Arabia
( 9 ) Comparative Analysis of Technical Efficiency of Milk Production Systems in Uasin Gishu County of Kenya
( 10 ) An Analysis of Purchase Behavior of Generation Y in Kenya
( 11 ) Dynamic Analysis of Competitive Technology Innovation Diffusion Model
( 12 ) Causal Relationship between Imports and Economic Growth in Zimbabwe: An Empirical Analysis 1975 – 2013
( 13 ) Measuring Efficiency in Banks: A Brief Survey on Non – Parametric Technique (Data Envelopment Analysis)
( 14 ) A Theoretical Analysis Upon the Environmental Health and Justice Issue: A Case Study for a Comparison Between G20s Unitary and Federal Members
( 15 ) Decoupling Analysis of Bulgaria’s Agriculture
( 16 ) A Factor Analysis Approach Towards a Study of the Factors Affecting Students’ Choice of Higher Education Institution: A Case Study of a Private Institution (Twintech International University College of Technology)
( 17 ) Panel Data Analysis of the Impact of Economic Freedom as Well as Economic Conditions, The Quality of Life, and Public Education Spending on U.S. Undocumented Immigrant Settlement Patterns
( 18 ) Dynamics of Inflation, Economic Growth, Money Supply and Exchange Rate in India: Evidence from Multivariate Analysis
( 19 ) Purchasing Power Parity Hold in Major SAARC Countries? Panel Cointegration Analysis
( 20 ) Specifying Quality of Governance in Transition Economies with Cluster Analysis
( 21 ) Effect of Budget Defict on Private Investment in East African Community for the Period 1981-2015: A Panel Data Analysis
( 22 ) Comparative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Coub-Douglas, Real Business Cycle, and Keynsian Growth Models in Determining Economic Growth in Nigeria
( 23 ) China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC): Analysis of Internal and External Challenges
( 24 ) The Effects of Exchange Rate Variability on Trade Flows in Nigeria: A Cointegration Analysis
( 25 ) Social Protection Programmes, Agricultural Production and Youth Employment in Nigeria: Analysis from LSMS-ISA
( 26 ) Scenario Economic Impact Analysis of Offshore Fishing Tournaments in Ocean City
( 27 ) An Analysis of Chinas Poverty Research Based on CiteSpace
( 28 ) Dutch Disease: Myth or Reality? An Analysis of the ARDL Model
( 29 ) Analysis of the Effects of Pull and Push Factors on Brain Drain: An Example of Turkey
( 30 ) Analysis of Environmental Factors Affecting Manufacturing Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in Kogi State Nigeria
( 31 ) Estimating the Economic Determinants of Technical Efficiency of Bioenergy in EU-28: An Application of Tobit Analysis
( 32 ) Problems of Bilateral Trade Deficit between Bangladesh and India: A 2SLS Regression Analysis
( 33 ) Analysis of Effect of Profitability, Capital, Risk Financing, the Sharia Supervisory Board and Capabilities Zakat in Islamic Perspective with Circular Approach Causastion on Islamic Banks in Indonesia
( 34 ) Incidence of Short Term Private Capital Outflow: Empirical Analysis in Nigeria
( 35 ) The Trajectory and Diaspora of Women Imprisonment: An Analysis
( 36 ) German Exports, Economic Growth and Foreign Demand: An Analysis of the Period 2000–2017
( 38 ) Determinant Analysis of Productivity on Rice Management in Indonesia
( 39 ) An Agnostic Analysis of Exchange Rate Movement in Ghana
( 40 ) Analysis of Traffic Accident Occurrence at Hazardous Road Locations: A Case Study in Tunisia
( 41 ) Analysis of Causal Nexus between Defense Spending and Economic Growth in Nigeria: A Toda-Yamamoto Approach
( 42 ) Determinant of Tax Revenue Effort in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis
( 43 ) Analysis of Credit Ratings Determinants: Evidences in Brazilian and American States
( 44 ) Export- Led Growth Hypothesis for Ghana: A TVAR & TVECM Analysis
( 45 ) The Dimensions of the Quality Perceived by Users in a Clinical Analysis Laboratory of A University Hospital
( 46 ) An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Decentralization on Poverty in Cameroon
( 47 ) Human Capital and Economic Growth in Latin America: A Cointegration and Causality Analysis
( 48 ) Exploring the Dimensions Using Exploratory Factor Analysis of Disruptive Factors and Inventory Control
( 52 ) The Development of Participated Environmental Education Model for Sustainable Mangrove Forest Management on Eastern Part of Thailand
( 53 ) Earnings Management and Stock Market Returns
( 54 ) Quality Management Practices towards Customer Satisfaction in Local Authority Public Services Website
( 55 ) The Influence of Information Technology and Communication Supply Chain Management Performance for Greater SME Manufacturing in Aguascalientes
( 57 ) Moderating Effects of Project Management Experience, Project Team Size, Project Duration and Project Value Size on the Relationship between Project Manager’s Leadership Roles and Project Team Effectiveness in Malaysia
( 58 ) The Role of Strategic Planning on the Management of Organizational Change
( 59 ) Determinants of Share Price Movement in Nigeria -The Management Perspective
( 60 ) Various International Experiences in Waste Management - Useful Lessons for Algeria
( 61 ) A Negative Rational Pigs Game and its Applications to Website Management
( 62 ) Decision-Making on Working Capital Management, Based on Industry Differences
( 63 ) Africa's Human Capital Development: Is Public Finance Management an Effective Strategy?
( 64 ) Activity Cost Management and its Effect on Enterprise Productivity
( 66 ) Management of The CFA Franc: What are the Fundamentals of the Real Exchange Rate in West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)?