Contact Us

2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062
Tel. +15184073707
Fax: +1-877-881-2035

Conference List

48th International Scientific Conference on Sport, Medical and Health Sciences
Vennue: Holiday Inn Bangkok Silom 981 Silom Road, Bangrak, Bangkok 10500, Thailand
Date: 28-Mar-2018
More Details

4th International Academic Conference on Medical and Health Sciences
Vennue: Hotel Grand Flora Dubai, UAE Al- Rigga Road Deira , Near Al-Rigga Metro station , Deira Dubai UAE
Date: 09-Apr-2018
More Details

5th International Academic Conference on Medical and Health Sciences
Vennue: Patra Jasa Bali Resort & Villas Jl.Ir. H Juanda, South Kuta Beach, Kuta 80361, Bali-Indonesia
Date: 07-Jul-2018
More Details

Journal of Nutrients

June 2015, Volume 2, 2, pp 39-53

The Effect of Regular Hazelnut Consumption on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Acceptance in Māori and European

Siew Ling Tey, Terryn Robinson, Heniti Davis, Andrew R Gray, Alexandra W Chisholm, Rachel C Brown

Siew Ling Tey 1

Terryn Robinson 2 Heniti Davis 2 Andrew R Gray 4
Alexandra W Chisholm 2 Rachel C Brown 2 ,

  1. Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Singapore 1

  2. Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand 2

  3. Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand 4

Pages: 39-53

DOI: 10.18488/journal.87/2015.2.2/

Share :


Aims Studies reporting reductions in heart disease risk with regular nut consumption comprise populations largely of European descent. Whether the healthful effects of nuts extend to other ethnic groups is largely unknown. This study compared the effects of consuming 30 g/d of hazelnuts on risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and acceptance amongst Māori and Europeans. 
Methods Twenty Māori and 19 European participants consumed 30 g/d of hazelnuts for 28 days. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins, apolipoproteins (apo), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), blood pressure, dietary intake, and body weight were measured at baseline and at the end of the intervention. ‘Desire to consume’ and ‘overall liking’ for hazelnuts were assessed daily. Results There were no significant differences in the changes of any of the outcome measurements between Māori and Europeans (P≥0.145). Further, there were no significant changes among participants overall in biochemical indices, blood pressure, body weight, BMI, or body composition (P≥0.114) aside from systolic blood pressure which decreased by 3% (P=0.031) and hs-CRP which increased by 0.21 mg/dl (P=0.047) during the study. However, the hazelnut-enriched diet significantly increased energy, total fat, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat intake in study participants (all P≤0.006), with no changes for other nutrients (all P≥0.116) or difference between groups (all P≥0.513). ‘Desire to consume’ and ‘overall liking’ remained relatively stable over the 28-day intervention period. Conclusions There was no evidence of difference in effects on CVD risk factors between Māori and European following regular consumption of nuts. It appears both ethnic groups continued to like nuts and wished to consume them daily after consuming nuts for 28-days, suggesting adherence to guidelines to consume nuts regularly is achievable in both populations.

Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies, which have investigated the effects of nuts on different ethnic groups. Our results suggest that the health benefits and acceptability of nuts seen in predominantly Caucasian populations can be extended to Māori, the indigenous population within New Zealand.




  1. J. L. Browne and D. E. Grobbee, "Cardiovascular prevention and international health: Time for action," Eur. J. Cardiovasc. Prev. Rehabil., vol. 18, pp. 547-549, 2011.
  2. B. Robson and R. Harris, Hauora: M?ori standards of health IV. A study of the years 2000-2005. Wellington: Te R?p? Rangahau Hauora a Eru P?mare, 2007.
  3. New Zealand Ministry of Health, Tatau Kahukura: Maori health chart book 2010, 2nd ed. Wellington: Ministry of Health, 2010.
  4. E. Ros, "Health benefits of nut consumption," Nutrients, vol. 2, pp. 652-682, 2010.
  5. J. Sabate and Y. Ang, "Nuts and health outcomes: New epidemiologic evidence," Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 89, pp. S1643-S1648, 2009.
  6. A. Afshin, R. Micha, S. Khatibzadeh, and D. Mozaffarian, "Consumption of nuts and legumes and risk of incident ischemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis," Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 100, pp. 278-288, 2014.
  7. D. K. Banel and F. B. Hu, "Effects of walnut consumption on blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors: A meta-analysis and systematic review," Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 90, pp. 56-63, 2009.
  8. A. Chisholm, K. McAuley, J. Mann, S. Williams, and M. Skeaff, "Cholesterol lowering effects of nuts compared with a canola oil enriched cereal of similar fat composition," Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis., vol. 15, pp. 284-292, 2005.
  9. S. K. Gebauer, S. G. West, C. D. Kay, P. Alaupovic, D. Bagshaw, and P. M. Kris-Etherton, "Effects of pistachios on cardiovascular disease risk factors and potential mechanisms of action: A dose-response study," Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 88, pp. 651-659, 2008.
  10. G. A. Spiller, A. Miller, K. Olivera, J. Reynolds, B. Miller, S. J. Morse, A. Dewell, and J. W. Farquhar, "Effects of plant-based diets high in raw or roasted almonds, or roasted almond butter on serum lipoproteins in humans," J. Am. Coll. Nutr., vol. 22, pp. 195-200, 2003.
  11. S. L. Tey, R. C. Brown, A. W. Chisholm, C. M. Delahunty, R. Gray, and S. M. Williams, "Effects of different forms of hazelnuts on blood lipids and ?-tocopherol concentrations in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals," Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 65, pp. 117-124, 2011.
  12. P. Casas-Agustench, M. Bullo, and J. Salas-Salvado, "Nuts, inflammation and insulin resistance," Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 19, pp. 124-30, 2010.
  13. E. Ros, "Nuts and novel biomarkers of cardiovascular disease," Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 89, pp. S1649-S1656, 2009.
  14. C. M. Alper and R. D. Mattes, "Effects of chronic peanut consumption on energy balance and hedonics," Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord., vol. 26, pp. 1129-1137, 2002.
  15. G. E. Fraser, H. W. Bennett, K. B. Jaceldo, and J. Sabate, "Effect on body weight of a free 76 kilojoule (320 Calorie) daily supplement of almonds for six months," J. Am. Coll. Nutr., vol. 21, pp. 275-283, 2002.
  16. J. Hollis and R. Mattes, "Effect of chronic consumption of almonds on body weight in healthy humans," Br. J. Nutr., vol. 98, pp. 651-656, 2007.
  17. J. Sabate, Z. Cordero-MacIntyre, G. Siapco, S. Torabian, and E. Haddad, "Does regular walnut consumption lead to weight gain?," Br. J. Nutr., vol. 94, pp. 859-864, 2005.
  18. S. L. Tey, R. Brown, A. Gray, A. Chisholm, and C. Delahunty, "Nuts improve diet quality compared to other energy-dense snacks while maintaining body weight," J. Nutr. Metab., vol. 2011, p. 357350, 2011.
  19. National Heart Foundation of Australia and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand, "National heart foundation of Australia and the cardiac society of Australia and New Zealand: Position statement on lipid management - 2005," Heart Lung Circ., vol. 144, pp. 275-291, 2005.
  20. F. McKiernan, P. Lokko, A. Kuevi, R. L. Sales, N. M. Costa, J. Bressan, R. C. Alfenas, and R. D. Mattes, "Effects of peanut processing on body weight and fasting plasma lipids," Br. J. Nutr., vol. 104, pp. 418-26, 2010.
  21. S. L. Tey, R. Brown, A. Chisholm, A. Gray, S. Williams, and C. Delahunty, "Current guidelines for nut consumption are achievable and sustainable: A hazelnut intervention," Br. J. Nutr., vol. 105, pp. 1503-1511, 2011.
  22. S. L. Tey, R. C. Brown, A. R. Gray, A. W. Chisholm, and C. M. Delahunty, "Long-term consumption of high energy-dense snack foods on sensory-specific satiety and intake," Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 95, pp. 1038-1047, 2012.
  23. S. L. Tey, C. Delahunty, A. Gray, A. Chisholm, and R. C. Brown, "Effects of regular consumption of different forms of almonds and hazelnuts on acceptance and blood lipids," Eur. J. Nutr. Doi: 10.1007/s00394-014-0808-7, 2014.
  24. S. L. Tey, A. R. Gray, A. W. Chisholm, C. M. Delahunty, and R. C. Brown, "The dose of hazelnuts influences acceptance and diet quality but not inflammatory markers and body composition in overweight and obese individuals," J. Nutr., vol. 143, pp. 1254-1262, 2013.
  25. S. Tey, R. Brown, and A. Chisholm, Nuts and heart health. National heart foundation of New Zealand evidence-based position statement on the relationship of nuts to heart health. Auckland, New Zealand: National Heart Foundation of New Zealand, 2012.
  26. R. Marshall, Diet entry and storage, diet cruncher. In a batch processing diet analysis system for the PC. Nutricomp: Dunedin, 2003.
  27. N. Athar, J. McLaughlin, G. Taylor, and S. Mishra, The concise New Zealand food composition tables. Palmerston North: Plant and food research, 7th ed. Wellington: Ministry of Health, 2006.
  28. G. Assmann, H. Schriewer, G. Schmitz, and E. O. Hagele, "Quantification of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol by precipitation with phosphotungstic acid/MgCl2," Clin. Chem., vol. 29, pp. 2026-2030, 1983.
  29. W. T. Friedewald, R. I. Levy, and D. S. Fredrickson, "Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge," Clin. Chem., vol. 18, pp. 499-502, 1972.
  30. P. M. Kris-Etherton, S. Yu-Poth, J. Sabate, H. E. Ratcliffe, G. Zhao, and T. D. Etherton, "Nuts and their bioactive constituents: Effects on serum lipids and other factors that affect disease risk," Am J Clin Nutr., vol. 70, pp. S504-S511, 1999b.
  31. R. Segura, C. Javierre, M. A. Lizarraga, and E. Ros, "Other relevant components of nuts: Phytosterols, folate and minerals," Br. J. Nutr., vol. 96, pp. S36-S44, 2006.
  32. S. Torabian, E. Haddad, Z. Cordero-MacIntyre, J. Tanzman, M. L. Fernandez, and J. Sabate, "Long-term walnut supplementation without dietary advice induces favorable serum lipid changes in free-living individuals," Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 64, pp. 274-9, 2010.
  33. J. Sabate, K. Oda, and E. Ros, "Nut consumption and blood lipid levels: A pooled analysis of 25 intervention trials," Arch. Intern. Med., vol. 170, pp. 821-827, 2010.
  34. L. Djousse, T. Rudich, and J. M. Gaziano, "Nut consumption and risk of hypertension in US male physicians," Clin. Nutr., vol. 28, pp. 10-14, 2009.
  35. S. Blanco Mejia, C. W. Kendall, E. Viguiliouk, L. S. Augustin, V. Ha, A. I. Cozma, A. Mirrahimi, A. Maroleanu, L. Chiavaroli, L. A. Leiter, R. J. De Souza, D. J. Jenkins, and J. L. Sievenpiper, "Effect of tree nuts on metabolic syndrome criteria: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials," BMJ Open, vol. 4, p. e004660, 2014.
  36. P. Casas-Agustench, P. Lopez-Uriarte, E. Ros, M. Bullo, and J. Salas-Salvado, "Nuts, hypertension and endothelial function," Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis., vol. 21, pp. S21-S33, 2011.
  37. P. Casas-Agustench, P. López-Uriarte, M. Bulló, E. Ros, J. J. Cabré-Vila, and J. Salas-Salvadó, "Effects of one serving of mixed nuts on serum lipids, insulin resistance and inflammatory markers in patients with the metabolic syndrome," Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis., vol. 21, pp. 126-135, 2011.
  38. N. R. T. Damasceno, A. Perez-Heras, M. Serra, M. Cofan, A. Sala-Vila, J. Salas-Salvado, and E. Ros, "Crossover study of diets enriched with virgin olive oil, walnuts or almonds. Effects on lipids and other cardiovascular risk markers," Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis., vol. 21, pp. S14-S20, 2011.
  39. D. J. A. Jenkins, C. W. C. Kendall, A. Marchie, T. L. Parker, P. W. Connelly, W. Qian, J. S. Haight, D. Faulkner, E. Vidgen, K. G. Lapsley, and G. A. Spiller, "Dose response of almonds on coronary heart disease risk factors: Blood lipids, oxidized low-density lipoproteins, lipoprotein (A), homocysteine, and pulmonary nitric oxide: A randomized, controlled, crossover trial," Circulation, vol. 106, pp. 1327-1332, 2002.
  40. S. Kalgaonkar, R. U. Almario, D. Gurusinghe, E. M. Garamendi, W. Buchan, K. Kim, and S. E. Karakas, "Differential effects of walnuts vs almonds on improving metabolic and endocrine parameters in PCOS," Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 65, pp. 386-393, 2011.
  41. S. B. Kurlandsky and K. S. Stote, "Cardioprotective effects of chocolate and almond consumption in healthy women," Nutr. Res., vol. 26, pp. 509-516, 2006.
  42. I. Ros, E. Nunez, A. Perez-Heras, M. Serra, R. Gilabert, E. Casals, and R. Deulofeu, "A walnut diet improves endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic subjects: A randomized crossover trial," Circulation, vol. 109, pp. 1609-1614, 2004.
  43. I. Sari, Y. Baltaci, C. Bagci, V. Davutoglu, O. Erel, H. Celik, O. Ozer, N. Aksoy, and M. Aksoy, "Effect of pistachio diet on lipid parameters, endothelial function, inflammation, and oxidative status: A prospective study," Nutrition, vol. 26, pp. 399-404, 2010.
  44. A. E. Schutte, J. M. Van Rooyen, H. W. Huisman, J. Mukuddem-Petersen, W. Oosthuizen, S. M. Hanekom, and J. C. Jerling, "Modulation of baroreflex sensitivity by walnuts versus cashew nuts in subjects with metabolic syndrome," Am. J. Hypertens, vol. 19, pp. 629-636, 2006.
  45. F. B. Yucesan, A. Orem, B. V. Kural, C. Orem, and I. Turan, "Hazelnut consumption decreases the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation, plasma oxidized LDL level and increases the ratio of large/small LDL in normolipidemic healthy subjects," Anadolu Kardiyol Derg., vol. 10, pp. 28-35, 2010.
  46. J. Mukuddem-Petersen, W. Stonehouse, J. C. Jerling, S. M. Hanekom, and Z. White, "Effects of a high walnut and high cashew nut diet on selected markers of the metabolic syndrome: A controlled feeding trial," Br. J. Nutr., vol. 97, pp. 1144-1153, 2007.
  47. P. R. Ellis, C. W. C. Kendall, Y. Ren, C. Parker, J. F. Pacy, K. W. Waldron, and D. J. A. Jenkins, "Role of cell walls in the bioaccessibility of lipids in almond seeds," Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 80, pp. 604-613, 2004.
  48. M. Grundy, T. Grassby, G. Mandalari, K. Waldron, B. PJ, S. Berry, and P. Ellis, "Effect of masticationon lipid bioaccessibility of almonds in a randomized human study and its implications for digestion kinetics, metabolizable energy, and postprandial lipemia," Am. J. Clin. Nutr. Doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.088328, 2015.
  49. C. L. Jackson and F. B. Hu, "Long-term associations of nut consumption with body weight and obesity," Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 100, pp. 408S-411S, 2014.
  50. J. A. Novotny, S. K. Gebauer, and D. J. Baer, "Discrepancy between the atwater factor predicted and empirically measured energy values of almonds in human diets," Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 96, pp. 296-301, 2012.
  51. H. R. Moskowitz, "Engineering out food boredom: A product development approach that combines home use tests and time-preference analysis," Food Qual Prefer., vol. 11, pp. 445-456, 2000.
  52. Hodson, C.M. S. and J. E. McKenzie, "Maximal response to a plasma cholesterol- lowering diet is achieved within two weeks," Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis., vol. 12, pp. 291-295, 2002.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


Competing Interests:


Related Article

( 1 ) Protective Effect of L-Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) On Mercury Detoxication and Physiological Aspects of Albino Rats
( 2 ) Effect of Different Chronotype on Comorbidity and Resistance to Psycho-Emotional Stress in Hypertension Associated With Hepato-Biliary Pathology in the North
( 3 ) Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Cyphostemma Digitatum on Serum Lipid Profile and Liver Enzymes in Hyperlipidemic Subjects
( 4 ) Effectiveness of Treatment of Water Surface with Ferric Chloride and Aluminium Sulphate
( 5 ) Evidence of A Pharmacological Dissociation Between The Robust Effects of Methylphenidate on Adhd Symptoms and Weaker Effects on Working Memory
( 6 ) The Effect of Regular Hazelnut Consumption on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Acceptance in Māori and European
( 7 ) Anti-Proliferative Effect of Asiatic Acid on Hep-G2 Cell Line
( 8 ) The Effect of Phacoemulsification Surgery on Corneal Endothelium
( 9 ) Gender as Determinant of the Effect of Yeast Selenium on CD4 T Cells Count Among HIV 1 Positive Children
( 13 ) Contribution of Meat towards Nutritional Security - An Analysis through Consumption of Different Food Items among Meat and Non-Meat Consumers in Karnataka
( 16 ) Reliability of the Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (Lrinec) Score for Early Diagnosis of Necrotizing Fasciitis
( 17 ) Lifetime Cancer Risk of Gamma Radioactivity Results from Smoking
( 18 ) Risk-Based Disease Management in the Fight Against to Bovine Tuberculosis; Area Prioritization
( 19 ) The Risk of Ovarian Cancer in Women Fed with Milk Obtained from Goats Having Different Birth Type and Kid Sex
( 20 ) Determination of the Seasonality of Bovine Tuberculosis Disease from the Risk Based Disease Management
( 21 ) Prevalence of Prediabetes and the Associated Risk of Kidney Disease in Apparently Healthy Subjects in Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria
( 22 ) Food Safety Knowledge, Attitude and Associated Factors of Food Handlers Working in Substandard Food Establishments in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia, 2013/14
( 23 ) Prognostic Factors in Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tongue Treated With Adjuvant Therapy Following Surgery
( 24 ) Prevalence and Factors Associated With Refractive Error among Primary School Children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
( 25 ) The Level and Associated Factors Of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Blood Donation among Health Science Students of Addis Ababa University