Citations


Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062
USA

Conference List

Perceived Environmental and Health Impacts of Gas Flaring on Residents in Kwale Communities, Southern Nigeria

Gabriel C. C. Ndinwa

,

Solomon A. Akpafun

,

Charity O. Chukumah

Gabriel C. C. Ndinwa 1 ,

Solomon A. Akpafun 2
Charity O. Chukumah 1 
  1. Department of Industrial Safety & Environmental Management Technology, School of Environmental Studies, Delta State School of Marine Technology, Burutu, Nigeria. 1

  2. Department of Urban & Regional Planning, School of Environmental Studies, Delta State School of Marine Technology, Burutu, Nigeria. 2

Pages: 1-21

DOI: 10.18488/journal.81.2020.41.1.21

Share :

Article History:

Received: 14 November, 2019
Revised: 16 December, 2019
Accepted: 13 January, 2020
Published: 03 February, 2020


Abstract:

This study was designed to examine the perceived environmental effects of gas flaring and its associated health impact on residents in Kwale communities, Southern Nigeria. Three research objectives guided the study. Descriptive survey design and purposive sampling technique was adopted for the study. 750 household respondents from five different communities in Kwale axis were used for the study and an 18 item self-structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from the respondents. The instrument for data collection was administered to the respondents in the communities. The study revealed that gas flaring impact on the social, economic and environmental quality of the communities as 79.6% of the respondents positively affirmed the finding. A reasonable percentage (89.6%) of the sampled household respondents consent that gas flaring impact on the environmental activities as well as health of residents in the study area. Furthermore, 68% of the respondents confirm that gas flaring has a devastating effects on the vegetation and agricultural activities of the residents as some of them reported cases of stunted growth of crops, withered crop leaves, defoliation of plant and wrinkling of plant leaves. A higher percentage of respondents confirmed cases of critical gas flaring health related sick suffered by either themselves or family members and some of the respondents as well complained of excessive heat radiation and increase in temperature. Based on the findings, sustainable strategy for natural gas utilization was recommended in order to curtail the negative impacts and convert the excessive gas for economic and environmental benefits.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by examining the perceived environmental effects of gas flaring and its associated health impact on residents in Kwale communities, Southern Nigeria.

Keywords:

Environmental impact, Kwale communities, Respondents, Vegetation, Agricultural activities.

Video:

Reference:

Abdulkareem, A. and J. Odigure, 2006. Deterministic model for noise dispersion from gas flaring: A case study of Niger–Delta area of Nigeria. Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Quarterly, 20(2): 157-164.

Abdulkareem, A.S., 2006. Evaluation of ground level concentration of pollutant due to gas flaring by computer simulation: A case study of Niger-Delta Area of Nigeria.

Adati, A.K., 2012. Oil exploration and spillage in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Civil and Environmental Research, 2(3): 38-51.

Adewale, O.O. and U. Mustapha, 2015. The impact of gas flaring in Nigeria. International Journal of Science, Technology and Society, 3(2): 40-50.Available at: https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijsts.20150302.12.

Ajugwo, A.O., 2013. Negative effects of gas flaring: The Nigerian experience. Journal of Environmental Pollution Human Health, 1(1): 6-8.

AK-BASES, 2005. Akwa Ibom State socio-economic study report. Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria: A Publication by the Ministry of Economic Development. pp: 86-92.

Akankali, J.A. and J.A.O. Oronsaye, 1997. Socio-economic assessment of the impact of crude oil pollution on artisanal fisheries in selected local government areas of Delta State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 3(2): 64-87.

Akpafun, A.S., C.C.G. Ndinwa and O.C. Chukumah, 2019. Evaluation of environmental awareness level among stakeholders in rural and urban communities, Southern Nigeria. International Journal of Climate Research.

Akpojwi, R.E. and P.E. Akumagha, 2008. Impact of gas flaring on soil fertility. In: Proceedings of the 18th Shell Petroleum Corporation International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment. Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria. pp: 7-12

Akuirene, O.A., J.O. Adjene, N.I. Obi and E.U. Nwose, 2019. Impact of gas flaring in Ubeji metropolis of Delta State Nigeria: A comparative survey of environment health effects. International Journal of Scientific Reports, 5(10): 283-290.Available at: https://doi.org/10.18203/issn.2454-2156.intjscirep20194249.

Bassey, N., 2008. Gas flaring: Assaulting communities and jeopardizing the world. In: Proceedings of 11th Environmental Rights Actions Conference in Conjunction with the Federal Ministry of Environment, Abuja, 2008. pp: 18-22.

Bhopal, R., S. Moffatt, T. Pless-Mulloli, P. Phillimore, C. Foy, C. Dunn and J. Tate, 1988. Does living near a constellation of petrochemical, steel and other industries impair health? Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 55(3): 812-822.

Choi, O. and A. Fisher, 2003. The impacts of socioeconomic development and climate change on severe weather catastrophe losses: Mid-Atlantic Region (MAR) and the US. Climatic Change, 58(1-2): 149-170.

Cutchin, M.P., K.R. Martin, S.V. Owen and J.S. Goodwin, 2008. Concern about petrochemical health risk before and after a refinery explosion. Risk Analysis: An International Journal, 28(3): 589-601.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2008.01050.x.

Delta State Ministry of Land Urban Development and Housing, 2016. Topographical details of Kwale. Scale 1:50.000 series. Department of Survey, Cartography and GIS. Issued by Delta State Ministry of Land, Urban Development and Housing.

Department of Petroleum Resources, 1999. Annual Report of the Department of Petroleum Resource (DPR), 1992, Lagos. pp: 29.

Dessel, J.B., P. Van and P.S. Onwuka, 1996. Environmental impact of oil exploration and production operations on the Niger Delta Mangrove. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference of Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration Production, Jakarta, 2:437-445.

Ebiyeghagha, G., 2010. Gas flaring and its impacts on socio-economic livelihoods. B.Sc Project, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Niger Delta University, Amasoma, Nigeria. Unpublished.

Efe, S., 2003. Effect of gas flaring on temperature and adjacent vegetation in Niger Delta environment. International Journal of Environmental Issues, 1(1): 91-101.

Ekpoh, I.J. and A.E. Obia, 2010. The role of gas flaring in the rapid corrosion of zinc roofs in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. The Environmentalist, 30(4): 347-352.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10669-010-9292-7.

Elenwo, E. and J. Akankali, 2014. Environmental policies and strategies in Nigeria oil and gas industry: Gains, challenges and prospects. Natural Resources, 5(14): 884-896.Available at: https://doi.org/10.4236/nr.2014.514076.

Environmental Rights Action/Friends of the Earth Nigeria, 2008. The environment, issues, cases and sustainability. In Knee deep in crude: Environmental field reports. N. Bassey (eds). Sango, Ibadan: Kraft Books Limited, 2: 57-69.

Esu, B. and O. Dominic, 2013. Perceived effects of gas flaring on socio-economic well-being of farming households in Ogbia Local Government Area, Bayelsa State. American Journal of Research Communication, 1(3): 27-34.

Facito, C. and T. Spurling, 1992. Developing agricultural extension for women farmers. Washington D.C: World Bank.

FOE (Friends of the Earth), 2004. Gas flaring in Nigeria: Human Rights environmental and economic monstrosity. Available from http://www.foe.co.uk [Accessed June 5, 2010].

FOEN, 2008. Fact sheet: Harmful gas flaring in Nigeria, 2008.

Friends of the Earth Nigeria, 2008. Where vultures feast: 40 years of Shell in the Niger Delta. Reversed ed., Sierra Club Books in conjunction with Random House 2008. pp: 39-62.

Idris, R.O., 2010. Impacts of oil spillage and gas flaring on the population and distribution of birds in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. A Brief Interim Report Prepared for ABC Conservation Fund, United Kingdom.

Ilori, O.O., 1999. Gas flaring and its effects on the environment. B.Sc Thesis, University of Lagos. Lagos.

Kamalu, O.J. and C.C. Wokocha, 2010. Land resource inventory and ecological vulnerability; assessment of Onne Area in Rivers State, Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Science, 3(5): 438-447.

Kponee, K.Z., A. Chiger, I.I. Kakulu, D. Vorhees and W. Heiger-Bernays, 2015. Petroleum contaminated water and health symptoms: A cross-sectional pilot study in a rural Nigerian community. Environmental Health, 14(1): 1-8.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12940-015-0073-0.

Luginaah, I.N., S.M. Taylor, S.J. Elliott and J.D. Eyles, 2000. A longitudinal study of the health impacts of a petroleum refinery. Social Science & Medicine, 50(7-8): 1155-1166.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0277-9536(99)00362-7.

Luginaah, I.N., S.M. Taylor, S.J. Elliott and J.D. Eyles, 2002. Community responses and coping strategies in the vicinity of a petroleum refinery in Oakville, Ontario. Health & Place, 8(3): 177-190.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/s1353-8292(01)00041-7.

Meinzan-Dick, R.S. and A.R. Quniscunbing, 2011. Empowering women to achieve food security: Overview. Washington D. C: International Food Policy Research Institute.

National Bureau of Statistics, 2006. Nigerian population census results. National Bureau of Statistics, Annual abstract of statistics. Abuja: Federal Republic of Nigeria. pp: 33.

Ndinwa, C.C.G., A.S. Akpafun and O.-n.N. P., 2012. Waste disposal methods and participation among residents of Abraka, Southern Nigeria. Journal of Social and Management Science, 7(1): 123-133.

Ndinwa, G.C.C. and S. Akpafun, 2012. Environmental impacts of oil exploration and exploitation in Niger Delta region of Nigeria. In In Five decades of oil production in Nigeria Edited A. S. Akpotor, S.H. Egboh, A. I. Ohwona, C. O. Orubu, S. B. Olabaniyi and R. O. Oloma, 2012. pp: 333-360.

Nkwocha, E.E. and E.C. Pat-Mbano, 2010. Effect of gas flaring on buildings in the oil producing rural communities of River State, Nigeria. African Research Review, 4(2): 90-102.Available at: https://doi.org/10.4314/afrrev.v4i2.58293.

Nriagu, J., E.A. Udofia, I. Ekong and G. Ebuk, 2016. Health risks associated with oil pollution in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(346): 2-23.Available at: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13030346.

Nwanya, S.C., 2011. Climate change and energy implications of gas flaring for Nigeria. International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies, 6(3): 193-199.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1093/ijlct/ctr007.

Obia, A.E., H.E. Okon, S.A. Ekum, E.E. Eyo-Ita and E.A. Ekpeni, 2011. The influence of gas flare particulates and rainfall on the corrosion of galvanized steel roofs in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Protection, 2: 1341-1346.Available at: https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2011.210154.

Odigure, J., A. Abdulkareem and O. Adeniyi, 2003. Computer simulation of soil temperature due to heat radiation from gas flaring. Journal of Association Advancement of Modelling and Simulation Enterprises, 72(1): 1-10.

Oghenejobh, K.M., 2005. The impact of acid rain deposition resulting from natural gas flaring on the socio-economic life of the people of Afieser community in Nigeria’s Niger Delta. Journal of Industrial Pollution and Control, 21(1): 83-90.

Oghenejoboh, K., A. Babatunde and C. Nwaukwa, 2007. Effects of air pollution arising from associated gas flaring on the economic life of the people of oil producing communities in Nigeria. I Control Pollution, 23(1): 1-9.

Ogunfiditimi, I.A., 2005. Socio-economic analysis of poverty level among rural dwellers in gas flaring communities, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. M. Phil, PhD Agric-Econs Dept. Theses U. I. Ibadan.

Olaniyi, O.A., O.D. Adebayo, A.R. Ayoade and M.A. Okoma, 2008. Women perception on effect of oil spillage on farming activities in South Eastern Nigeria. Implication for Household Food Security. Agricultural Formal, 3(5): 357-361.

Oniero, S.B.R. and I. Abroibo, 2000. Environmental pollution: The hidden hand of death in Warri Milieu. In: Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Petroleum and Environmental Degradation. Department of Economic, Delta State University, Abraka: 14-26, October 2000.

Opafunso, Z.O., 2005. Environmental impacts of gas flaring in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Pollution and Health, 4(1): 52-61.

Orimoogunje, O., A. Ayanlade, T. Akinkuolie and A. Odiong, 2010. Perception on effect of gas flaring on the environment. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences, 2(4): 188-193.

Oseh, J.O., I.A. Oguamah, O.O. Oluwagbenga and A.A. Adeyi, 2015. The environmental implication of gas flaring in sapele community of Delta State, Nigeria. International Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Engineering, 3(5): 55-61.Available at: https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ogce.20150305.11.

Ovadia, J.S., 2013. The Nigerian “one percent” and the management of national oil wealth through Nigerian content. Science & Society, 77(3): 315-341.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1521/siso.2013.77.3.315.

Shultz, J.M., L. Walsh, D.R. Garfin, F.E. Wilson and Y. Neria, 2015. The 2010 deepwater horizon oil spill: The trauma signature of an ecological disaster. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 42(1): 58-76.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11414-014-9398-7.

Tolulope, A.O., 2004. Oil exploration and environmental degradation: The Nigerian experience. Environmental Informatics Archives, 2(3): 387-393.

Tzimas, E., A. Mercier, C.-C. Cormos and S.D. Peteves, 2007. Trade-off in emissions of acid gas pollutants and of carbon dioxide in fossil fuel power plants with carbon capture. Energy Policy, 35(8): 3991-3998.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2007.01.027.

Udofia, O., 2005. Effects of oil spillage on small scale fisheries farmers in Akwa Ibom State. M.Sc Thesis Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Uyo, Nigeria. Unpublished.

Ugonna, E.A., 2014. Air pollution, noise pollution and control laws: Nigeria as a case study. A Term Paper for Environmental law (LPI 402), Department of Law, Ambrose Ali University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria: 6.

Ukala, E., 2011. Gas flaring in Nigeria‘s Niger Delta: Failed promises and reviving community voices. Washington and Lee Journal of Energy, Climate and the Environment, 2(4): 97-122.

Ukegbu, O.D. and A.P. Okeke, 1987. Flaring of associated gas in oil industry: Impact on growth, productivity and yield of selected farm corps. In: Proceedings of International Seminar on Petroleum Industry and the Nigerian Environment, Lagos, Nigeria. pp: 81-109.

Uyigue, E. and M. Agho, 2007. Coping with climate change and environmental degradation in the Niger Delta of Southern Nigeria. Community research and development centre (CREDC) Benin, Nigeria. Benin: CREDC Press. pp: 45-62.

World Bank, 2008. Global gas flaring reduction (GGR) Report on consultations with stakeholders. World Bank Group in collaboration with the Government of Norway. Available from http://www.worldbank.org/ogmc/files/global_gas_flaring_initiative.pdf [Accessed 05.09.2015].

Statistics:

Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor

Funding:

This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Acknowledgement:

All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

Related Article

( 1 ) Perceived Environmental and Health Impacts of Gas Flaring on Residents in Kwale Communities, Southern Nigeria
( 2 ) Occupational Health Exposure and Perceived Effects of Portland Cement Dust Pollution on Cement Factory Workers
( 3 ) Environmental and Health Impact of Solid Mineral Exploration and Exploitation in South-Northern Nigeria: A Case Study of Igarra in Edo State
( 4 ) Environmental Conservation and Use of Economic Incentives to Conserve Biological Resources in Nigeria
( 5 ) Assessment of Environmental Effect of Abandoned Uranium Mine Site in Mika Village of Taraba State Nigeria
( 6 ) Using Rubber Aggregate Derived from Discarded Tires for Producing Cement Concrete towards Resource Recovery and Environmental Protection in Vietnam
( 7 ) Economic Contributions and Environmental Effects of Geothermal Energy: Çanakkale-Tuzla Geothermal Example
( 8 ) Effects of Municipal Abattoir Waste on Water Quality of Woji River in Trans-Amadi Industrial Area of Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Implication for Sustainable Urban Environmental Management
( 10 ) Evaluation of Environmental Awareness Level among Stakeholders in Rural and Urban Communities, Southern Nigeria
( 11 ) Phytoremediation: An Environmental Detoxification Technology using Plants
( 12 ) Non-Renewable Energy Consumption and Environmental Pollution in Nigeria
( 14 ) Eutrophication State Monitoring for Unhealthy Aquatic Ecosystem via Free-Floating Macrophytes Pattern and Behavioral
( 15 ) Is the Sosiani River Healthy? Investigating the Relationship between Water Quality Indicators and Macroinvertebrate Assemblages in the Sosiani River
( 16 ) Assessment of Drinking Water Quality in Different Water Sources and its Impact on Downstream Community Health around Woldia Town, Ethiopia
( 18 ) Rural Harvested Rainwater: Effect of Roof Types and its Design on Water Quality and Health: A Case for CBP Approach in Anambra State
( 20 ) Perception and Impacts to Climate Emergency in Maiduguri Urban, North-East Nigeria: A Case for Community Based Adaptation Approach
( 22 ) Problems of Mechanized Tunneling In Gassy Ground Conditions a Case Study: Nousoud Water Transmission Tunnel
( 23 ) Comparative Assessment of Co2 Emission Factors Estimated Using Stack Flue Gas Measurement Data for Two Types of Brick Kiln: A Case Study in Phu Tho Province, Vietnam
( 24 ) Lease of Noxious Gases During Burning of Mosquito Coils: A Pilot Study
( 25 ) Biogas Technology in South Africa, Problems, Challenges and Solutions
( 26 ) Gaseous Air Quality Indicators along Traffic Routes in Greater Freetown, Sierra Leone
( 27 ) Simulation of Solar Photovoltaic, Biomass Gas Turbine and District Heating Hybrid System
( 34 ) Comparison and Review of the Advantages of the Fractal Method (Variogram) With Respect To the Nettelton in Determining the Density of the Bouguer Plane in the Southern Hormozgan: Iran
( 35 ) Retracted: Pierced Salt Domes in the Persian Gulf and in the Zagros Mountain Ranges in Southern Iran and their Relationship to Hydrocarbon and Basement Tectonics
( 38 ) Trace Metal Distribution in Surface Water, Sediment, and Tissues of Freshwater Catfish (Clarias. Gariepinus), From Oke- Afa Canal, Lagos Nigeria
( 39 ) Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Nigeria: A Causality Analysis
( 40 ) Flood Hazard Assessment and Decisions Support Using Geographic Information System: A Case Study of Uyo Capital City, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
( 41 ) Subsidies and the Demand for Petroleum Products in Nigeria
( 42 ) Sustainable Sources of Energy and the Expected Benefits to Nigerian Economy
( 45 ) Carbon Sequestration Potential of Kpashimi Forest Reserve, Niger State, Nigeria
( 46 ) Well Log Sequence Stratigraphic and Palynological Analysis of Late Miocene to Pliocene Agbada Formation, Southwestern Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria
( 47 ) Renewable Sources of Energy for Economic Development in Nigeria
( 48 ) Analysis of Farmers’ Vulnerability, Perception and Adaptation to Climate Change in Kwara State, Nigeria
( 49 ) Climate Change and Flood Disaster Management in Nigerian Urban Centres: The Architects’ Perspective
( 50 ) Assessment of Physico-Chemical Quality of Water in Aliero Dam (Kebbi State, Nigeria)
( 51 ) Analysis of Dioxins Concentration in Domestic Waste and Burnt Tyre Residue at Gosa Dumpsite in Abuja, Nigeria
( 52 ) Improving the Geological Understanding of the Niger Delta Basin of Nigeria Using Airborne Gravity Data
( 53 ) Forest as a Redeemer: Experiences Drawn from Selected Rural Ejagham Communities in Etung Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria