Review of Environment and Earth Sciences

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2313-8440
Print ISSN: 2409-2150
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Did Global Warming and Climate Change Cause the Degradation of Lake Chad, Africa's Most Important 'Ecological Catastrophe'?

Pages: 15-41
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Did Global Warming and Climate Change Cause the Degradation of Lake Chad, Africa's Most Important 'Ecological Catastrophe'?

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.80.2018.52.15.41

Enwere Dike , Ngozi Dike

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Enwere Dike , Ngozi Dike (2018). Did Global Warming and Climate Change Cause the Degradation of Lake Chad, Africa's Most Important 'Ecological Catastrophe'?. Review of Environment and Earth Sciences, 5(2): 15-41. DOI: 10.18488/journal.80.2018.52.15.41
This paper explores six hypotheses/theories on Lake Chad’s degradation: i) natural climate variation; ii) anthropogenic climate change compounded the effects of the Sahel drought; iii) unregulated exploitation of Lake Chad’s hydrologic system overdrew the regenerative potential of the lake system; iv) high rates of deforestation in the tropical rain forest belt of West-Central Africa shifted the rain belt Southwards; v) pressure from rapidly expanding human and livestock populations exceeded the carrying potential of the Lake Chad ecosystem; and vi) anthropogenic aerosol emissions in the northern hemisphere shifted the tropical rain-belt southwards. The evidence shows that there is no single-cause explanation for Lake Chad’s degradation; rather the influence of global warming and climate change compounded those from pre-existing drought conditions and non-climate factors e.g unregulated exploitation of Lake Chad’s hydrologic system to degrade the lake.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes to the existing literature by exploring six hypotheses/theories to show that the influence of global warming and climate change on ecosystems can be compounded by non-climate variables. The degradation of Lake Chad illustrates vividly the interaction between the climate factors and non-factors in eco-system degradation.

Assessing the National Sanitation Policy in Rwanda

Pages: 55-63
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Assessing the National Sanitation Policy in Rwanda

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.80.2018.52.55.63

Amos Shyaka Kazora , Khaldoon A. Mourad

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Amos Shyaka Kazora , Khaldoon A. Mourad (2018). Assessing the National Sanitation Policy in Rwanda. Review of Environment and Earth Sciences, 5(2): 55-63. DOI: 10.18488/journal.80.2018.52.55.63
Populated cities in Rwanda rely on decentralized wastewater management systems due to the absence of central sewerage systems and the limited finances for sanitation infrastructures. This paper studied the influence of the national sanitation policy and the best available technologies in addressing and reinforcing decentralized wastewater treatment practices in Kigali city such as on-site and off-site sanitation systems. Different sanitation and wastewater management related policies were reviewed with emphasis on densely populated cities. The paper highlighted the need for a sustainable sanitation policy focusing on the safe disposal of the wastewaters and the proper connection to protect the ecosystem and to improve the status of the sanitation services in Rwanda. It was also noted that policies cannot be implemented without a real intervention of the local authorities in monitoring, advising and putting practical guidelines for individuals and communities before and after constructing their treatment systems.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper highlighted and reviewed the social and environmental problems related to the wastewater management practices in Kigali city, which has had negative impacts on human health and the ecosystem. The message to be delivered: Connecting every household to an improved sanitation system to meet the MDGs doesn’t make any sense if the collected wastewaters were not treated and managed properly after the collection. Therefore, the paper reviewed and suggested some interventions to be included in the national sanitation policy of Rwanda trying to approach sustainable sanitation principles for the country sake before achieving any other global goals.

Monitoring of Surface Soil Quality Parameters of the Sitalakshya River, Bangladesh

Pages: 42-54
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Monitoring of Surface Soil Quality Parameters of the Sitalakshya River, Bangladesh

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.80.2018.52.42.54

Md. Simul Bhuyan , Md. Rashed-Un-Nabi , Md. Enamul Hoque , Abu Sayeed Muhammad Sharif , Md. Shafiqul Islam

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Md. Simul Bhuyan , Md. Rashed-Un-Nabi , Md. Enamul Hoque , Abu Sayeed Muhammad Sharif , Md. Shafiqul Islam (2018). Monitoring of Surface Soil Quality Parameters of the Sitalakshya River, Bangladesh. Review of Environment and Earth Sciences, 5(2): 42-54. DOI: 10.18488/journal.80.2018.52.42.54
The present study was carried out to monitor and assess the surface soil quality parameters of the Sitalakshya River, Bangladesh. The soil samples were collected from Kanchpur Bridge and Atlapur during rainy and winter season. Soil texture is an important tool that aids in organic matter retention, minerals dispersal, microbial biomass, and other soil properties. The soil of the study area was recorded sandy loam and loam. The concentrations of soil parameters ranged for EC: 65.7 ?S/cm-99.83 ?S/cm; pH: 6.67-6.97; organic matter: 0.43%-0.66%; and organic carbon: 0.23%-0.35% in the soil of the Sitalakshya River. Most of the parameters showed no substantial variations in respect of sites and seasons (p>0.05) except electrical conductivity and pH (p<0.05). Statistical analysis like correlation matrix exposed the close relationship between organic matter and organic carbon. The soil of the Sitalakshya River has low nutrient contents that are not enough for the plants and organisms. Rapid industrialization and the huge establishment of brickfields are the major factors behind this less productive ecosystem. The river must be protected from further deterioration by taking fruitful management plan. This preliminary study will be a useful tool in the conservation plan. This will also help the future researchers who want to work on the river.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes the first logical analysis of the soil quality parameters of the Sitalakshya River. The study demonstrated the preliminary ecosystem condition of the river. This will provide baseline information for researchers and policymaker in the conservation issue.