Review of Environment and Earth Sciences

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Rural Harvested Rainwater: Effect of Roof Types and its Design on Water Quality and Health: A Case for CBP Approach in Anambra State

Pages: 1-14
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Rural Harvested Rainwater: Effect of Roof Types and its Design on Water Quality and Health: A Case for CBP Approach in Anambra State

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.80.2020.71.1.14

Angela Oyilieze Akanwa

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Angela Oyilieze Akanwa (2020). Rural Harvested Rainwater: Effect of Roof Types and its Design on Water Quality and Health: A Case for CBP Approach in Anambra State. Review of Environment and Earth Sciences, 7(1): 1-14. DOI: 10.18488/journal.80.2020.71.1.14
The rainwater quality harvested from rooftops in remote African communities has become a huge concern due to its potential risks on community health. This study addressed the effect of harvested rainwater quality and the design of the collection system from 3 common roof types on public health in Orsumoghu, Ihiala, LGA in Anambra State. This study employed the case study approach and mixed methods. Mixed methods combined the survey and laboratory methods. The survey method included field observation, interviews, photography and 250 questionnaires were randomly sampled. The laboratory method employed physic-chemical and biological analysis of rain water sampled from three (3) common rooftop systems in the area (aluminum, concrete, and zinc). The parameters analyzed were pH, temperature, hardness, conductivity, turbidity, TSS, TDS, COD, sulphates, Zinc, Lead, Cadmium and Coliform. Findings from the study showed that the poor design of RWHS coupled with mining and agricultural activities may have increased the concentration of atmospheric pollutants in the area. Findings proved that pH and three heavy metals (Zn, Ca and pb) were all above the WHO acceptable limits. Coliform as the bacterial indicator was present in the samples from aluminum and zinc roofs. However, concrete roof was free from pathogenic contamination. ANOVA analysis showed that there a difference between quality of harvested rainwater and WHO standard. To address this challenge this study recommended a community-based participatory research (CBPR) as an all-inclusive tool to promote rooftop RHW design as a rural development project that would protect the rainwater quality and minimize health risks.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes the first comprehensive analysis identifying (CBPR) as a tool for the sustainable rural development RHW project. It highlights the peculiar limitations of Rooftop RWH design in Orsumoghu where regulations, sanitary design and fittings are absent and hence, during collection varied pollutants are introduced leading to health risks.

Phytoremediation: An Environmental Detoxification Technology using Plants

Pages: 15-26
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Phytoremediation: An Environmental Detoxification Technology using Plants

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.80.2020.71.15.26

Awotedu, Olamilekan Lanre , Ogunbamowo, Paul Oluwatimilehin , Ariwoola, Oluwole Sesan , Chukwudebe, Eccepacem , Awotedu, Bolajoko Folake

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Awotedu, Olamilekan Lanre , Ogunbamowo, Paul Oluwatimilehin , Ariwoola, Oluwole Sesan , Chukwudebe, Eccepacem , Awotedu, Bolajoko Folake (2020). Phytoremediation: An Environmental Detoxification Technology using Plants. Review of Environment and Earth Sciences, 7(1): 15-26. DOI: 10.18488/journal.80.2020.71.15.26
Phytoremediation is a green technology that uses plant to remove, detoxify and clean up some selected environmental contaminations inside the soil, waste water, ground water and sludge that are contaminated through human, economic, agricultural and industrial activities. Excessive contaminations of the soil usually pose significant health hazard to human and plants life, hence it is imperative to adequately and carefully remove all these toxic substances from the soil leaving the soil free of contaminations. They are usually less expensive and eco-friendly. These pollutants are usually remediated using five different applications; Phyto-extraction, phyto-stabilization, phyto-filtration (Rhizo-filtration), phyto-volatization, phyto-transformation (Phyto-degradation). Different plants have been identified as phyto-remediators and are capable of bio-accumulating shallow contaminants, toxic metals, organic and nutrients pollutants into their different harvestable body parts; like the leaves, root, shoot and stem thereby stabilizing the soil of variety of pollutions. The plants that are efficient in remediating the soil are also called ‘Hyper-accumulators’ they thrive well in a toxic environment. They concentrate heavy metals like; Pb, Ni, Co, Cd, Co and lots more into their body parts and the plant biomass are carefully disposed and incinerated in an enclosed medium. United States Environmental Protection agency reiterates that phytoremediation is a clean and cheap technology that can be used in remediating our polluted sites.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on how to make use of green plants to effectively remove, cleanse, restore and remediate soils contaminated with metals, pesticides, solvents, crude oil, waste water, sludge and sediments without disrupting the structure, texture and quality of the soil.