Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062

Conference List

Review of Energy Technologies and Policy Research

June 2014, Volume 1, 1, pp 20-27

Transesterification of Caso With Low Amount of Free Fatty Acids and Its Optimization

Pages: 20-27

DOI: 10.18488/journal.77/2014.1.1/

Share :


This study revealed the application of ANN as a tool for optimization of transesterification of Chrysophyllum albidium seed oil (CASO) to Chrysophyllum albidium oil biodiesel (CAOB). 30 experimental runs were generated and used to determine the effects of four reaction variables namely reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst amount and methanol/oil molar ratio on CAOB yield. It was noted that the highest observed yield obtained in this study was 89.30% (w/w) at the following variable conditions; reaction temperature 60 oC, catalyst amount of 0.7 (wt. %), reaction time of 50 (min) and methanol/oil molar ratio of 5. The coefficient of determination R2 and the adj. R2 were found to be 0.99919 and 0.998439, respectively. The root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.14261 was obtained. Meanwhile, the qualities and fuel properties of CAOB produced were found to be within the ASTM D6751 and DIN EN 14214 biodiesel standards. The fatty acid profile of the CAOB revealed that CAOB is highly unsaturated (78.505%). Hence, the study established that CASO is a good alternative seed oils for fuel production which are renewable, cheap and environmental friendly. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the use of CASO to produced biofuel.



  1. T. F. Adepoju and O. Olamide, "Acid-catalyzed esterification of waste cooking oil (WCO) with high FFA for biodiesel production," International Journal of Innovative Research & Studies, vol. 3, pp. 80-85, 2014.
  2. G. Knothe, J. Krahl, and J. V. Gerpen, The biodiesel handbook. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press, 2007.
  3. E. Betiku, T. F. Adepoju, and B. O. Solomon, "Statistical approach to alcoholysis optimization of sorrel (Hibiscus Sabdariffa) seed oil to biodiesel and Emission assessment of its blends," Ife Journal of Technology, pp. 20-24, 2012.
  4. K. Ajewole and A. Adeyeye, "Seed oil of white star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum)-physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition," Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 54, pp. 313–315, 1991.
  5. O. C. Ugboge and A. R. Akukwe, "The antimicrobial effect of oil from pentaclethra macrophyll bent, Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don and persea gratissima Gaerth F on some local clinical bacteria isolates," African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 8, p. 285, 2009.
  6. T. F. Adepoju, S. K. Layokun, O. J. Ojediran, and C. Okolie, "An innovative approach to biotransformation of benzaldehyde to L-PAC via free cells of saccharomyces cerevisae in the presence of ?-cyclodextrin," International Journal of Science and Engineering Research, vol. 12, pp. 372-385, 2013.
  7. D. Bas and I. H. Boyaci, "Modeling and optimization I: Usability of response surface methodology," Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 78, pp. 836-845, 2007.
  8. S. Seraman, A. Rajendran, and V. Thangavelu, "Statistical optimization of anticholesterolemic drug lovastatin production by the red mold. Monascus purpureus," Food and Bioproducts Processing, vol. 88, pp. 266-276, 2010.
  9. M. Basri, R. N. Z. R. A. Rahman, A. Ebrahimpour, A. B. Salleh, G. E. Ryantin, and M. Basyaruddin, "Comparison of estimation capabilities of response surface methodology (RSM) with artificial neural network (ANN) in lipase-catalyzed synthesis of palm-based wax ester," BMC Biotechnology, vol. 7, p. 53, 2007.
  10. E. Kana, J. K. Oloke, A. Lateef, and A. Oyebanji, "Comparative evaluation of artificial neural network coupled genetic algorithm and response surface methodology for modeling and optimization of citric acid production by aspergillus Niger MCBN297," Chemical Engineering Transaction, vol. 27, pp. 1974-9791, 2012.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


Competing Interests:


Related Article

( 1 ) Transesterification of Caso With Low Amount of Free Fatty Acids and Its Optimization
( 3 ) Comparison and Review of the Advantages of the Fractal Method (Variogram) With Respect To the Nettelton in Determining the Density of the Bouguer Plane in the Southern Hormozgan: Iran
( 5 ) Hydrocarbon Pollutant Emitted From a Diesel Engine Fueled With Biodiesel and Diesel Fuel No.2
( 6 ) UPFC Integrated With Battery Energy Storage Systems for Stability Improvement
( 7 ) Strategies for Tourism Development in National Parks with the Use of Swot Model (Case: Golestan National Park)
( 8 ) Presentation of Empirical Equations for Estimating Internal Friction Angle of SP and SC Soils in Mashhad, Iran Using Standard Penetration and Direct Shear Tests and Comparison with Previous Equations
( 9 ) Governments Policy Reforms from 1970s Onward and It’s Implications on Land Use and Land Cover With the Help of GIS And RS Techniques In Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia
( 10 ) A Study on Gravimeteric Situation in East of Uromieh Lake Region with Determination of Suitable Bouguer Density
( 11 ) Comparison of the Gravimetric Network in Esfarayen Region with the Network of Fractal Analysis
( 12 ) “Structural Post-Disaster Damage Classification with Consideration of Liquefaction Due To Flood: Manek Urai, Kelantan, Malaysia”
( 13 ) Experimental Investigation of Dynamic Behavior of Shallow Foundation Resting on the Reinforced Sand with Embedded Pipes
( 14 ) Efficiency Enhancement of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells with a Low Cost Co-Adsorbant in N719 Dye
( 15 ) The Role of Handicrafts in the Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism with an Emphasis on Indigenous Knowledge
( 16 ) Possibilities of Creating Swimming Pools with Zero Co2 Emissions Due to Energy Use in Them
( 17 ) Efficiency Enhancement in Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Employing High Performance TiO2 Photoanode Doped with Silver Nanoparticles
( 18 ) Bathymetry of the Makoye Reservoir and its Implications on Water Security for Livestock within the Catchment
( 22 ) The Relationship Between Low-Carbon Finance and Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Industrial Bank of China
( 23 ) Political Economy and Stakeholder Perspectives on Inclusive Low-Carbon Energy Transition: Case of Kenyan Rangelands
( 25 ) Application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for Achieving Desire BA in the Biotransformation of Benzaldehyde Using Free Cells of Saccharomyces Cerevisae and the Effect of Β-Cyclodextrin
( 27 ) Eutrophication State Monitoring for Unhealthy Aquatic Ecosystem via Free-Floating Macrophytes Pattern and Behavioral
( 28 ) Pollution Free Chemical Reactions in a Fluidized Bed
( 29 ) Gaseous Air Quality Indicators along Traffic Routes in Greater Freetown, Sierra Leone
( 32 ) Qanat and Its Challenges in Ferdows County-Iran
( 33 ) A Comparative Study of Physical and Chemical Parameters in Sistan and Baluchistan University Wastewater and Its Re-Use of Wastewater
( 34 ) Solvent Extraction of Oil from Soursop Oilseeds & its Quality Characterization