Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062

Conference List

Up or Down! House Management and Public Finance Theory from America’s Era of Hastert

Todd J. Barry


Melissa K. Aho

Todd J. Barry 1

Melissa K. Aho 2

  1. Independent Researcher, Branford, CT, USA. 1

  2. Ph.D. Student, University of Southern Mississippi, Long Beach, MS, USA. 2

Pages: 44-57

DOI: 10.18488/journal.74.2020.71.44.57

Share :

Article History:

Received: 30 April, 2020
Revised: 05 June, 2020
Accepted: 07 July, 2020
Published: 20 July, 2020


This primarily conceptual article hypothesizes that the deep divisions in United States politics can in part be traced to the “Hastert Rule,” a management practice since the 1990s which limits lawmakers individual respect, legitimacy, and power. The article first philosophically analyzes the noticeable change in discourse since the “Hastert Rule,” from “compromise” to “common ground.” Next the article offers a regression showing the Hastert Rule’s impact on volume of bills passed, and on public opinion, then arguing via Public Finance/Choice Economics that this management practice has led to changes in American society. A strong case regression is run concerning immigration. The results show that the Hastert Rule has hardened party lines and the public is voting for candidates according issues they suspect are not favored by the opposite party, here termed “median-division” theory. The article concludes with policy suggestions to give individual lawmakers and voters more power over legislative management- up or down!
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature in that it is the first known article to regress political and societal divisiveness by the Hastert Rule which is used by the U.S. House of Representatives. Also, it proposes an original concept related to median-voter theory, highlighting the importance of voter turnout.


Hastert rule, Median voter theory, Division, Compromise, Common ground, Era of good feelings.


Arnold, R. A. (2019). Macroeconomics (13th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.

Bishop, R., & Pearce, S. (2015). Schedule house votes in real time, the hill. Retrieved from: [Accessed November 19, 2015].

Black, D. (1948). On the rationale of group decision-making. Journal of Political Economy, 56(1), 23-34.Available at:

Buchler, J. (2011). The proximity paradox: The legislative agenda and the electoral success of ideological extremists. Public Choice, 148(1-2), 1-19.Available at:

Carmichael, M. (2017). Why do people move? Here are the top reasons for relocation, livability. USA: Livability Magazine.

Carmines, E. G., Ensley, M. J., & Wagner, M. W. (2012). Political ideology in American politics: One, two, or none? The Forum, 10(3).Available at:

Case, A., Hines, J. R., & Rosen, H. S. (1989). Copycatting: Fiscal policies of states and their neighbors. NBER Working Paper No. 3032.

Cillizza, C. (2013). How liberal is president Obama, really? Washington post. Retrieved from: . [Accessed November 25, 2013.].

Davenport, D. (2017). A growing cancer on congress: The curse of party-line voting. Forbes. Retrieved from:   [Accessed December 13, 2017].

Desilver, D. (2014). The polarized congress of today has its roots in the 1970s, Pew research center. Fact tank (blog). Retrieved from . [Accessed June 12, 2014].

Fechner, H. (2014). Managing political polarization in congress: A case study on the use of the hastert rule. Paper presented at the Symposium at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government.

Florida Professional Development Alternatives. (2019). Social Social science. Section 2: Geography in the elementary grades. Reasons for the movement of people in the world, nation, or state. Florida, USA. Retrieved from: https://fl-pda-org/independent/courses/elementary/socialScience/section2/2f.htm. [Accessed July 24, 2019]. Section 2: Geography in the elementary grades. Reasons for the movement of people in the world, nation, or state.

Fraenkel, J. (2016). The death of the median voter. The interpreter. Retrieved from: . [Accessed November 14, 2016.].

Friedman, T. L. (2007). The world is flat 3.0: A brief history of the twenty-first century (3rd ed.). New York: Picador.

Greenberg, J. (2013). Dennis hastert: There was no hastert rule. Retrieved from: . [Accessed December 19, 2013].

Hall, A. B., & Shepsle, K. A. (2013). The changing value of seniority in the us house: Conditional party government revised. The Journal of Politics, 76(1), 98-113.Available at:

Hardin, G. (1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science, 162(3859), 1243-1428.

Hooper, M. K. (2013). GOP members vow opposition if leaders ignore hastert rule. The Hill. Retrieved from: [Accessed March 12, 2013].

Hulse, C. (2018). Can the house speakership be saved? These lawmakers have an idea. The New York Times. Retrieved from: . [Accessed November 20, 2018].

Jones, B. (2016). Americans’ views of immigrants marked by widening partisan, generational divides. Pew research center. Fact tank (blog). Retrieved from: . [Accessed April 15, 2016].

Jones, B. (2016). Americans’ views of immigrants marked by widening partisan, generational divides. Pew Research Center. Fact Tank (blog). Retrieved from . [Accesed  April 15, 2016].

Jones, D. R. (2001). Party polarization and legislative gridlock. Political Research Quarterly, 54(1), 125-141.Available at:

Lee, F. E. (2015). How party polarization affects governance. Annual Review of Political Science, 18(1), 261-282.Available at:

McCarthy, J. (2016). Trump seen as less conservative than prior GOP candidates, Retrieved from: [Accessed October 4, 2016].

McCarty, N. M. (2011). The limits of electoral and legislative reform in addressing polarization. California Law Review, 99(2), 359-371.

Noah, T. (2013). The absurdity of the hastert rule. MSNBC. Retrieved from: . [Accessed July 21, 2019].

Pew Research Center. (2017). Public trust in government: 1958-2017. Retrieved from . [Accessed December 14, 2017].

Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Touchstone Books.

Richman, J. (2015). The electoral costs of party agenda setting: Why the Hastert rule leads to defeat. The Journal of Politics, 77(4), 1129-1141.Available at:

Ryan, E. (2013). Hastert: Primary challenges making congress Kind of neurotic. Retrieved from: . [ Accessed October 8, 2013].

Saad, L. (2018). Conservative lead in U.S. Ideology is down to single digits. Retrieved from: [Accessed January 11, 2018].

Sharp, D. (2013). Maine's King: 'Hastert rule' adds to gridlock. Associated Press, AP Regional State Report.

The Economist. (2018a). America’s electoral system gives the republicans advantages over democrats. Retrieved from: . [Accessed July 12, 2018].

The Economist. (2018b). Should the party move to the left or to the centre? Retrieved from . [Accesed July 12, 2018].

The Economist. (2018c). A slow thaw: Republicans inch towards action on global warming. Retrieved from: . [Accessed August 2, 2018].

Tiebout, C. M. (1956). A pure theory of local expenditures. Journal of Political Economy, 64(5), 416–424.Available at:

Trigger Events of the Civil War. (2020). American battlefield trust. Retrieved from: . [Accessed June 20, 2020].

Weise, C. L., & Larson, B. A. (2015). A way around the divided house majority. Real Clear Politics Journal, USA. Retrieved from [Accessed October 16, 2015].

Welna, D. (2012). The 3 unofficial GOP rules that are making a deficit deal even harder. NPR. Retrieved from: . [Accessed December 2, 2012].

Woshinsky, O. H. (2008). Explaining politics: Culture, institutions, and political behavior. New York: Routledge.

Yglesias, M. (2013). Boehner to reid: “Go F-yourself”; why party cartels matter. USA: Slate Magazine.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


Both authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

Related Article

( 1 ) Corruption’s and Democracy’s Effects on Economic Growth
( 2 ) Anti-Corruption Crusade in Nigeria: More Words Than Deeds
( 3 ) The Influence of Information Technology and Communication Supply Chain Management Performance for Greater SME Manufacturing in Aguascalientes
( 4 ) An Assessment of the Impact of Information Communication Technology (ICT) On the Administration of Public Records: A Case Study of the Bolgatanga Municipal Assembly in the Upper East Region of Ghana-West Africa
( 5 ) A Review upon the Changes Which Come With the Model upon Turkish Metropolitan Municipality within the Provincial Administrative Boundaries
( 6 ) Emotional Workgroup Performance and Group Effectiveness Egyptian Context
( 7 ) A Theoretical Analysis Upon the Environmental Health and Justice Issue: A Case Study for a Comparison Between G20s Unitary and Federal Members
( 8 ) Decoupling Analysis of Bulgaria’s Agriculture
( 9 ) Dynamics of Inflation, Economic Growth, Money Supply and Exchange Rate in India: Evidence from Multivariate Analysis
( 10 ) Determinants of Public Sector Corruption in Nigeria
( 11 ) Foreign Direct Investment in Zimbabwe: The Role of Uncertainty, Exports, Cost of Capital, Corruption and Market Size
( 12 ) Analysis of Effect of Profitability, Capital, Risk Financing, the Sharia Supervisory Board and Capabilities Zakat in Islamic Perspective with Circular Approach Causastion on Islamic Banks in Indonesia
( 13 ) Innovations Dissemination Approaches among Government Co-Operative Supporting Organisations in Tanzania
( 14 ) The Effectiveness of the Production of Healthy Rice in Comparison with other Rice Varieties in the Upper Northern Region of Thailand
( 15 ) Up or Down! House Management and Public Finance Theory from America’s Era of Hastert
( 16 ) Ethical Context of Organization and Turnover Intention of Women Employees: The Mediating Role of Perceived Organizational Support
( 17 ) Does Corruption Grease or Sand the Wheels of Economic Growth in Ghana? An ARDL Bounds Test
( 18 ) The Effect of Disruptive Factors on Inventory Control as a Mediator and Organizational Performance in Health Department of Punjab, Pakistan
( 19 ) Exploring the Dimensions Using Exploratory Factor Analysis of Disruptive Factors and Inventory Control
( 20 ) Child Support Enforcement and Infants Health Outcomes
( 21 ) Contemporary Approach to Enhanced Road Transport System in Nigeria Through the Application of It-Based (Online) Bus Ticketing and Payment System
( 22 ) Making Poverty A History in Africa: The Role of the G8
( 23 ) Impact of Labour, Capital and Human Resources in Productivity of Transport Firms in Nigeria
( 24 ) External Factors Influencing on Industrial Building System (Ibs) in Malaysia
( 25 ) The Climate Change Menace, Food Security, Livelihoods and Social Safety in Northern Ghana
( 26 ) Consideration the Relationship Between Information Communications Technology and Economic Growth in Top 10 Economic
( 27 ) NGO Programming and Policy Advocacy in the Land Sector in Zimbabwe
( 28 ) Compost Adoption in Northern Ghana
( 29 ) The Development of Participated Environmental Education Model for Sustainable Mangrove Forest Management on Eastern Part of Thailand
( 30 ) Marxist Political Economy and the Crisis of Relevance in Contemporary World
( 31 ) The Impact of Investment Climate Reforms on the Development of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Nigeria: A Policy Brief
( 32 ) Importance of Corporate Governance Quality and Voluntary Disclosures of Corporate Governance Information in Listed Malaysian Family Controlled Businesses
( 33 ) Testing the Random Walks in Korea Stock Exchange
( 34 ) How Telecommunication Development Aids Economic Growth: Evidence from Itu Ict Development Index (IDI) Top Five Countries for African Region
( 35 ) Gaining Trust After the Financial Crisis in the Nigerian Economy: A Conceptual Framework
( 36 ) The Effects of Exchange Rate Liberalization in Kenya on French Beans Exports
( 37 ) Analyzing Skill Profile Among Business Graduates: Is it Generic or Specific?
( 38 ) Driving Role of Institutional Investors in the Indian Stock Market in Short and Long-Run – An Empirical Study
( 39 ) Development of Logarithmic Equations for Statistical Sample Determination
( 40 ) A Review on Criteria for Green Infrastructure to be Adopted by Local Authorities
( 41 ) Taylor Rule in The Context of Inflation Targeting: The Case of Tunisia
( 42 ) Labor and Economic Growth in Zimbabwe
( 43 ) Exchange Rate Movements, Import And Economic Growth in Nigeria (1986-2010)
( 44 ) Cross-Cultural Leadership Intelligence: Recommendations for Kenya
( 45 ) Improved Performance Through Empowerment of Small Industry
( 46 ) Challenges of Human Rights Abuses in Nigerian Democratic Governance – Which Way Forward ?
( 47 ) An Inventory Model with Lost Sale is Time Dependent
( 48 ) Teachers Characteristics and Students’ Performance Level in Senior Secondary School Financial Accounting
( 49 ) The Sustainable Livelihoods Index: A Tool To Assess the Ability and Preparedness of the Rural Poor in Receiving Entrepreneurial Project
( 50 ) Public Infrastructure Spending and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) Approach
( 51 ) Survey of Students’ Academic Achievement and Mathematics Identity-Formation
( 52 ) Organizational Commitment of White Collar Employees in Damansara Heights, Kuala Lumpur
( 53 ) Ensuring Quality Provision of Education for All: Discovering Challenges Faced by Teachers of Students with Learning Disabilities in Regular Primary Schools in Masvingo District
( 54 ) A Study of Transnational and Transformation Leadership Styles and Factors Affect The Leadership Style
( 56 ) Impact of Microfinance Lending On Economic Growth of Third world Nations: Study of Nigeria
( 57 ) Explaining Psychological Capital Components through Organization’s Ethical Climate Components
( 58 ) The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Rural Socio-Economic Development in Africa
( 60 ) Conceptual Framework of Green Infrastructure Performance Evaluation for Local Authority
( 61 ) Social Security; A Public Policy for Good Governance in Nigeria: The Role of Nigerian Legislature
( 62 ) Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Employment: A Case of Province of Punjab, Pakistan
( 63 ) Contracting Out: What Works, What Doesn’t and Why?
( 64 ) Dividend Policy Relevancy in Theoretical and Practical Economics
( 65 ) S-Dimensional Assets Portfolio Evaluation
( 66 ) Government Borrowing Behaviour: Implications for Private Sector Growth in Nigeria
( 67 ) The Recruitment of Migrant Workers in the Food Service Industry in Malaysia. A Study of Old Town White Coffee and Pappa Rich Kopitiam
( 68 ) Quality Management Practices towards Customer Satisfaction in Local Authority Public Services Website
( 69 ) The Association Between Corporate Risk Disclosure and Firm Performance in Emerging Country – The Case of Egypt
( 70 ) Moderating Effect of Demographics on Monetary Motivation and Employees Job Performance Relationship: Evidence from Malaysia
( 71 ) The Impact of Rice Production, Consumption and Importation in Nigeria: The Political Economy Perspectives
( 72 ) Consideration the Effects of Water Sector Investment on Economic Growth in Iran
( 73 ) Is Brics a Viable Solution for Russia in the Context of the Present Eu’s Economic Sanctions?
( 74 ) Local Governance and Service Delivery in Zimbabwean Local Authorities: The Case of Harare and Masvingo Urban Municipalities
( 75 ) Structural Breaks and the Long-Run Stability of Demand for Real Broad Money Function in Nigeria: A Gregory-Hansen Approach
( 76 ) A Theoretical Review on Critical Success Factors (CSFS) of Entrepreneurship Programs in Community College
( 77 ) Influence Internship Learning Effect in Business Service Sector: Using Internship Self-Efficacy as the Mediator Variable
( 78 ) The Impact of Dividend Policy on Shareholders’ Wealth before and After Financial Melt down: Evidence from FMCG Sector in India
( 79 ) Stock Market Performance and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria Employing Vector Error Correction Model Framework
( 80 ) Factors Impacting on SMEs Internationalization: Dairy Industry in Zimbabwe
( 81 ) Promoting Local Acceptability of International Oil Companies (IOCS) Through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): The Case of Tullow Oil in Ghana
( 82 ) The Biodiesel Market in Brazil and the Prospects for the Sector
( 83 ) Challenges and Survival Strategies for Women in Small Scale Catering Business: A Case Study of Siyaso Magaba, Mbare
( 85 ) The Phenomenon of Money Politics and Nigeria’s Democratization: An Exploration of the Fourth Republic
( 86 ) Emergent Behavior of “Rational” Agents in Some Forgotten N-Person Games
( 87 ) A Mixed-Methods Study to Explore Stage of Readiness and Intention of Micro and Small Enterprises to Adopt Mobile Money in Indonesia
( 88 ) Attributes Influencing Strategic Alignment in the Service Sector: An Indonesian Banking Sector Case Study
( 89 ) Leveraging Telematics for Optimal Fleet Performance
( 90 ) Nigerian Politics, Economic Development, and the Role of Human Rights Organisations on Elections
( 91 ) Income Elasticity of Poverty: Estimates for South Asian Countries
( 92 ) Profit And Loss Sharing As an Offshoot for Bank Stability: A Comparative Analysis
( 93 ) The Wider Vision of Social Policy: Exploring the Ways of Curbing Violence against Women in Four Wards of Shamva North Constituency (Zimbabwe)
( 94 ) The Potential of Rural–Urban Linkages for Sustainable Development and Trade
( 95 ) Workplace Bullying: Modelling Construct Validity in an Australian Public Sector Workforce
( 96 ) The Effect of Selected Financial Ratios on Profitability: An Empirical Analysis of Listed Firms of Cement Sector in Saudi Arabia
( 97 ) Role of Foreign Investment and External Debt in Determination of Exchange Rate
( 98 ) Benefit-Cost Analysis of Alternative Insect Pests Management in Cashew and Mango Orchards in Tanzania
( 99 ) Stock Market Index Prediction with Neural Network during Financial Crises: A Review on Bist-100
( 100 ) Effects of Advertising on Consumer Behavior in Low Density Houses: The Case of Marlborough, Zimbabwe
( 101 ) The Total Factor Productivity of Libyan Banks, 2004 – 2010
( 102 ) The Life-Time of Tomorrow Party of Japan and Its Negative Impacts on the Anti-Nuclear Movements in Japan’s Politics
( 103 ) Exploration of Suitability of Situational Leadership in the Oil and Gas Sector
( 105 ) The Effects of Changes in Accounting Standards on Value Relevance of Financial Statement Information of Malaysia and Nigeria Banks
( 106 ) The Role of Strategic Planning on the Management of Organizational Change
( 107 ) Estimating Value at Risk for Sukuk Market Using Generalized Auto Regressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity Models
( 108 ) Development, Preference Change, and Inequality in an Integrated Walrasian-General-Equilibrium and Neoclassical-Growth Theory
( 109 ) Share Options, Share Award and Firm’s Performance: Evidence from Malaysian Public Listed Companies
( 110 ) An Analysis of Purchase Behavior of Generation Y in Kenya
( 111 ) The Effect of Outsourcing on Anglogold Ashanti Obuasi Mines Performance
( 112 ) Insecurity and Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria
( 113 ) Organisational Politics – Causes and Effects on Organisation and Employees
( 114 ) The Mediating Effect of Market Orientation on the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation Dimensions and Organizational Performance: A Study on Banks in Libya
( 115 ) Milk or Wine: Are Critical Infrastructure Protection Architectures Improving with Age?
( 116 ) Various International Experiences in Waste Management - Useful Lessons for Algeria
( 117 ) The Correlation Between the Palestinian Civil Society Institutions and the Universities (Status: The Palestine Technical University Kadourie with Tulkarm Institutions)
( 118 ) Causal Relationship between Imports and Economic Growth in Zimbabwe: An Empirical Analysis 1975 – 2013
( 119 ) The Investment Performance of Socially Responsible Investment in Japan
( 120 ) Investigating the Demand of Small Hotel and Restaurant Businesses for Bank Financing: The Case of Turkey
( 121 ) A Review on EU Transportation Projects within the Case of Turkey for European Union Regional Development Policy
( 122 ) Land Use/Land Cover Change and its Effects on Bamboo Forest in Benishangul Gumuz Region, Ethiopia
( 123 ) Appointment of Directors and Performance of Deposit Money Banks in Sub Saharan Africa: Do We Need More Executive or Non-Executive Directors?
( 124 ) Corporate Funding and Sustainability of Non- Governmental Organizations in Africa
( 125 ) Does Managerial Emotional Biases Affect Debt Maturity Preference? Bayesian Network Method: Evidence from Tunisia
( 126 ) Development of the National Economies and the Foreign Trade Relations between Ukraine and Bulgaria (In the Period 2005-2014)
( 127 ) Market Share and Profitability Relationship: A Study of the Banking Sector in Nigeria
( 128 ) Determinants of Import Demand Functions of Pakistan: An ARDL Bound Testing Approach
( 130 ) Forecasting-Based Carry Trade Using Pegged Currency: A Case of Omani Rial
( 131 ) The Indirect Impact of Overconfidence on the Performance of Tunisian Firms Through their Financing Structure
( 132 ) Quality of Accounting Reporting After the IFRS Adoption in Nigeria
( 133 ) Effect of Media Transportation and Advertising Transportation on Customers Responsiveness
( 134 ) The Effect of Personal Factors on the Customer Rating of the Quality of Services of the Islamic Banks Operating in the Syrian Coast
( 136 ) Academic Mobility for Engineering and Technology Graduates in Africa: Lessons and Experiences from the Implementation
( 137 ) A Review of Cross Border Higher Education in Africa: Focus on Graduate Level Training in Engineering and Technology
( 138 ) Determining Rural Poverty in Manga Del Cura – Ecuador Non Delimited Zone
( 139 ) A Factor Analysis Approach Towards a Study of the Factors Affecting Students’ Choice of Higher Education Institution: A Case Study of a Private Institution (Twintech International University College of Technology)
( 140 ) Examining Long Run Relationship between Household Debt and Household Savings in South Africa – An Error Correction Model and Granger Causality
( 141 ) Purchasing Power Parity Hold in Major SAARC Countries? Panel Cointegration Analysis
( 142 ) Auditing Procedures and Process in the Public Sector
( 143 ) Rice Farmer and Capital Formation: A Case Study of Rice Farmer's Credit Cooperative in Itoikin, Ikosi-Ejirin LCDA, Lagos State
( 144 ) How the Principles of the Sharing Economy Can Improve Organizational Performance of the US Public School System
( 145 ) Effect of Budget Defict on Private Investment in East African Community for the Period 1981-2015: A Panel Data Analysis
( 146 ) An Econometric Planning Model of Urban Forestry as a Measure of Sustainability: A Matrix of Action and Change
( 147 ) Pollution Tax Under Imperfect Competition and Air Transport in a Domestic Economy
( 148 ) Internationalization of State Multilatinas: A Multi-Case Study in The Oil Sector
( 149 ) Implications of Accountants Unethical Behavior and Corporate Failures
( 150 ) Relevance of Stakeholders Theory, Organizational Identity Theory and Social Exchange Theory to Corporate Social Responsibility and Employees Performance in the Commercial Banks in Nigeria
( 151 ) Public Sector Size and GDP Growth Nexus: Panel Data Estimation
( 152 ) China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC): Analysis of Internal and External Challenges
( 153 ) Financial Tables Reports Gaps in Jordanian Islamic Banks
( 154 ) Analyzing Factors Affecting the Success of Social Media Posts for B2b Networks: A Fractional-Factorial Design Approach
( 155 ) The Influence of Communication, Work Motivation and Career Development on Elementary School Teacher’s Job Performance in Medan, Indonesia
( 156 ) Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on Banks Financial Performance in Nigeria: A Study of United Bank of Africa
( 157 ) Construction and Application of Water Resource Accounting Information System in Taiwan
( 158 ) Is Alumni Salary an Appropriate Metric for University Marketers?
( 159 ) The Effect of Work-Life Balance on Accounting Ethics
( 160 ) On the Prediction of the Inflation Crises of South Africa Using Markov-Switching Bayesian Vector Autoregressive and Logistic Regression Models
( 161 ) Entrepreneurial Networking and Women Entrepreneurs’ Contribution to Employment Creation in Rivers State, Nigeria
( 162 ) Participatory Processes in Planning for Self-Help Housing Provision in South Africa: Policies and Challenges
( 163 ) The Moderating Effect of Governance Mechanisms on the Relationship Between Innovation Strategy and the Performance
( 164 ) Public-Private Partnership as a Strategy for E-Governance Funding in Africa: The Gains and the Pains
( 165 ) Scenario Economic Impact Analysis of Offshore Fishing Tournaments in Ocean City
( 166 ) Employee Loyalty and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour in the Port Harcourt Area Command of the Nigeria Police Force
( 167 ) Effect of Institutional Factors on Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria
( 168 ) Does Gold Price Lead or Lags Islamic Stock Market and Strategy Commodity Price? A Study from Malaysia
( 169 ) Measuring and Assessing the State of Technological Innovations and the Level of Interaction between Rice Processors and Stakeholders in Rice Processing Industry in Nigeria
( 170 ) Macroeconomic Indicators and Capital Formation Growth in Nigeria: A New Evidence
( 171 ) Foreign Capital Inflows and Unemployment in Nigeria: A New Evidence from ARDL-Bounds Testing Approach
( 172 ) Financial Market Predictions with Factorization Machines: Trading the Opening Hour Based on Overnight Social Media Data
( 173 ) Electronic Banking Innovations and Selected Banks Performance in Nigeria
( 174 ) The Effect of Internal and External Factors of Companies on Profitability and its Implications on Stock Price Index of State-Owned Banks
( 175 ) An Empirical Investigation into the Key Drivers of Economic Performance in the CEMAC Zone: A Panel Corrected Standard Errors Approach
( 176 ) Leading Indicators and Financial Crisis: A Multi-Sectoral Approach Using Signal Extraction
( 177 ) Incorporating Islamic Ethic Elements into Marketing Mix Paradigm
( 178 ) Forecasting Equity Index Volatility: Empirical Evidence from Japan, UK and USA Data
( 179 ) Disaggregated Foreign Capital Inflows and Economic Growth in a Developing Economy: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria
( 180 ) Impact of Telecommunications Market Liberalization on Labor Productivity in Economic Community of West African States
( 181 ) The Importance of Public Administration Towards Achieving Good Governance for Positive National Development by Using SmartPLS 3
( 182 ) Depositors Confidence and Mergers and Acquisitions: The Nigerian Banking Sector Experience
( 183 ) Assessment of Dual Carriageway for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
( 184 ) Industrialization and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Human Capital in Structural Transformation
( 185 ) Trade Policy and Democracy for Development in Central African Countries
( 186 ) Does Agricultural Sector Contribute to the Economic Growth in Case of Republic of Benin?
( 188 ) Exchange Rate and Foreign Reserves Interface: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria
( 189 ) Impact of Participatory Decision Making on Organisational Goal Attainment
( 190 ) Forecasting Prices of Three Important Agricultural Crops in Bangladesh
( 191 ) Uncertainties in Global Economic Policy and Nigerias Export Earnings
( 192 ) External Debt and Economic Growth: Two-Step System GMM Evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa Countries
( 193 ) Decision-Making on Working Capital Management, Based on Industry Differences
( 194 ) Investigate Airport Service Quality- A Case Study of Airports in Shanghai
( 195 ) An Entrepreneurship Research in Singapore: Basic Psychological Needs and Motivation
( 196 ) The Impact of Organisational Culture on Public Sector Performance: A Case Study of Local Authorities in Zimbabwe
( 197 ) Sectoral Credit Allocation of Deposit Money Banks and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria
( 199 ) Gamification on Sales Force Performance in Nigeria Bottling Company
( 200 ) Foreign Direct Investment - Growth Linkage in Sub-Saharan Africa: Is Governance a Mediating Factor?
( 201 ) Factors that Influence Profitability of General Insurance Issuers in Indonesia
( 202 ) An Investigation of the Impact of Organisational Structure on Organisational Performance
( 203 ) Impact of Exchange Rate Fluctuation on Selected Economic Sectors of the Nigerian Economy
( 204 ) Dutch Disease: Myth or Reality? An Analysis of the ARDL Model
( 205 ) Determinants of Banks Profitability & Liquidity and the Role of BASEL III in Islamic & Conventional Banking Sector of Pakistan: A Case Study of NBP
( 206 ) Factors Influencing Human Capital in Ready Made Garments Industry in Bangladesh
( 207 ) Investigating the Impact of Business Alignment on Job Gratification in an Organization: The Case of a University in Egypt
( 208 ) Impact of Network Finance Development on Inflation: Evidence from Chinese Market
( 209 ) Profitability Behavior of Plastic Industries in Indonesia
( 210 ) Correlation between Financial Difficulties and Financing Strategies among Market Stallholders in Batangas City
( 211 ) Analysis of the Effects of Pull and Push Factors on Brain Drain: An Example of Turkey
( 212 ) Analysis of Environmental Factors Affecting Manufacturing Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in Kogi State Nigeria
( 213 ) Optimal Stock Portfolio Issuers of Building Construction Registered in LQ45 Based on the Markowitz Approach
( 214 ) The Effect of Selected Factors on Tax Revenue Mobilization in Ethiopia: The Case of Amhara Region
( 215 ) The Mediating Effect of Financial Self-Efficacy on the Financial Literacy-Behavior Relationship: A Case of Generation Y Professionals
( 216 ) Determinants of Corporate Tax Avoidance Strategies among Multinational Corporations in Malaysia
( 217 ) Study on the Effect of Foreign Investment on Anhuis Industrial Structure Optimization
( 218 ) Exploring the Asymmetric Linkage between Commodity Prices and Fiscal Performance in Nigeria
( 219 ) Assessing the Perceived Value of Customers for being Satisfied towards the Sustainability of Hypermarket in Malaysia
( 220 ) Effects of Socio-Cultural Diversity on the Performance of Private Health Care Organizations in Kogi State
( 221 ) Organizational Memory and Employee Performance in Federal Parastatals in Enugu State of Nigeria
( 223 ) The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure on Corporate Financial Performance
( 224 ) Incidence of Short Term Private Capital Outflow: Empirical Analysis in Nigeria
( 225 ) Rethinking Port Role as Transport Corridor under Symbiosis Theory-Case Study of China-Europe Trade Transportation
( 226 ) Exchange Rate Pass-through to Prices: VAR Evidence for Albania
( 227 ) Can Small-Cap Active Funds Substantially Outperform the Market Over Time?
( 228 ) Analyzing the Financial Soundness of Kuwaiti Banks Using CAMELS Framework
( 229 ) Growing and Building: Collaboration of Urban Poverty Reduction Strategy
( 230 ) Challenges and Opportunities of Investment to the People of Sebeta Town, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
( 231 ) Fiscal Reaction Functions and Public Debt Sustainability in Nigeria: An Error Correction Mechanism Approach
( 232 ) The Trajectory and Diaspora of Women Imprisonment: An Analysis
( 233 ) Exchange Rate Volatility, Foreign Exchange Market Intervention and Asymmetric Preferences
( 234 ) Value for Money (VFM) Audit and Public Sector Performance in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria
( 235 ) German Exports, Economic Growth and Foreign Demand: An Analysis of the Period 2000–2017
( 236 ) Multivariate Analysis in Formulation of the Benefit-Cost Index Related to the Sugarcane Production System in the Quirinopolis Municipality Productive Center, Goias, Brazil
( 237 ) Does External Borrowing Affect Economic Growth? A Revisit of the Age-Long Debate for Nigeria
( 238 ) What are the Contextual Influences of Bank Criminality in Osun East Senatorial District?
( 239 ) Determinant of MSMEs Performance and its Impact on Province GRDP in Indonesia
( 242 ) Perceived Poverty and Alleviation Efforts of Kogi State Community and Social Development Agencies in Kogi State: An Empirical Investigation
( 243 ) Determinants of Financial Performance and its Impact on the Growth of Islamic Bank Assets on Indonesia
( 244 ) The Role of Social Security Program for Enhancing Seniors Longevity
( 245 ) Trade Union Performance and Industrial Relations Climate in the Nigerian Petroleum Sector
( 246 ) Nexus between Non-Oil Sectoral Contribution and Economic Growth in Nigeria 1981-2018
( 247 ) An Empirical Investigation of Real Exchange Rate Responses to Foreign Currency Inflows: Revisiting the Dutch Disease Phenomenon in South Asia
( 248 ) Factors Affecting the Individual Stock Price Index (IHSI) Industrial Manufacturing Sector in Indonesia, Automotive Sub Sectors, and Components in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX)
( 249 ) Evaluating the Model of Demand for Money in Nigeria
( 250 ) Entrepreneurship Training for Mitigating Unemployment in Nigeria: How have the Tertiary Institutions Fared?
( 251 ) Evaluating the Effectiveness of CAPM and APT for Risk Measuring and Assets Pricing
( 252 ) Do Derivative Instruments Increase Firm Risk for Indonesia Non-Financial Companies?
( 253 ) Effect of Brand Enhancement on Buying Behavior towards the Sport Sponsorship Companies in Riyadh, KSA
( 254 ) Factors Influencing on Human Resources Development in SMEs Service Enterprises in Industry 4.0: The Case of Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam
( 255 ) Determinant of Tax Revenue Effort in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis
( 256 ) The Relationship between Creative Accounting Risks and Auditing Risks from the Perspective of External Auditors in Saudi Arabia
( 257 ) Determinants of Profitability and its Implications on Corporate Values (Studies at Ceramic, Porcelain and Glass Sub Sector Listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange, 2009 - 2018)
( 258 ) Developing a Conceptual Model for Antecedents of Resistance to Change towards Sustainable Construction Practices
( 259 ) Towards a Proposal of a Local Authority Model Based on the Systemic Approach
( 261 ) Interest Rate Ceilings and Financial Exclusion in Kenya: Evidence from Commercial Banks’ Sectoral Credit Distribution
( 262 ) Export- Led Growth Hypothesis for Ghana: A TVAR & TVECM Analysis
( 263 ) Factors Affecting the Capital Structure of the Textile Industry in Bangladesh: An Inferential Study
( 264 ) Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure in Indonesia: A Bibliographic Study
( 265 ) Deficit Financing Asymmetry and Nigerias Economic Growth: A Nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach
( 266 ) The Dimensions of the Quality Perceived by Users in a Clinical Analysis Laboratory of A University Hospital
( 268 ) A Process Model for Conformance of Health Information Systems: Towards National Interoperability
( 269 ) Likely Effect of Gender and Education on Information Adoption and Utilization among Sugarcane Farmers in the Nyanza Region, Kenya
( 270 ) Change Management and Firm Performance of Selected Deposit Money Banks in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
( 272 ) Factors Influencing Audit Expense and Quality in an Emerging Economy: A Study on Bangladesh
( 274 ) Factors Influencing Farmers’ Adoption of Soil Conservation Development
( 275 ) The Contingent Fit between Management Control System and Capabilities on Sustainability Performance
( 276 ) International Financial Reporting Standards Adoption and Earnings Management: The Fundamental Effect Framework
( 277 ) Influence of Corporate Characteristics on Firm Leverage: Evidence from Bangladesh
( 278 ) The Impact of Merger and Acquisition on the Financial Performance of the Nasdaq Listed Small Size Technology Companies
( 279 ) Factors Affecting Profitability of General Insurance Companies in Indonesia
( 281 ) Panel Data Estimators in the Presence of Serial and Spatial Correlation with Panel Heteroscedasticity: A Simulation Study
( 282 ) An Empirical Investigation of the Impact of FDI, Export and Gross Domestic Savings on the Economic Growth in Bangladesh
( 283 ) Exploring the Linkages between Remittances, Economic Growth and Poverty: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan
( 284 ) Human Capital Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Approach
( 285 ) Exchange Rate Fluctuations and the Performance of Nairobi Securities Exchange Market in Kenya During the Coronavirus Pandemic
( 286 ) A Qualitative Analysis of the Impediments to Business Innovation and Information Management in Nigeria: A Policy Stance
( 287 ) Analysis of Demographic Factors on Perceptions of Inventory Managers towards Healthcare Performance
( 288 ) Contribution of Domestic Direct Investment and Direct Foreign Investment to Economic Growth in Indonesia Era Joko Widodo
( 289 ) The Euribor and EONIA Reform: Achieving Regulatory Compliance while Protecting Financial Stability
( 290 ) The Financial Decentralization Policy for Local Development in Cameroon: An Econometric Analysis
( 291 ) The Reasons Behind the Shift of Patients from Public to Private Hospitals: Evidence from Public Hospitals in Cumilla City Corporation
( 292 ) Innovation Efforts in the Face of Institutional Obstacles in Latin America
( 293 ) Assessment of Mental Health of Undergraduate Students Based on Age: A Bayesian Ordinal Quantile Regression Approach
( 294 ) Research on the Construction and Application of Chinese Enterprises Overseas Port Investment Confidence Index Based on D-S Evidence Theory
( 295 ) Assessing Access to Comprehensive HIV Treatment Services for Men Who Have Sex with Men and Female Sex Workers in the Bamenda Health District
( 296 ) The Promise and Reality of Public Sector Reform – A Case Study of the Implementation of Trinidad and Tobagos Health Sector Reform
( 297 ) Sustainability Performance and Sustainable Development Goals
( 298 ) Impacts of Domestic Savings and Domestic Investment on Economic Growth: An Empirical Study for Pakistan
( 299 ) A Study on Financial Performance of Transport & Warehouses Firms Listed on the Hanoi Stock Exchange
( 300 ) The Effects of The Covid-19 Pandemic on Explotative and Explorative Strategies of Pharmaceutical Industries in Brazil
( 301 ) IT Governance as Drivers of Dynamic Capabilities to Gain Corporate Performance Under the Effects of Environmental Dynamism
( 302 ) Fertility, Education, Labor Force Outcomes, and Cultural Acculturation of Immigrants
( 303 ) Financial Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria: New Evidence from a Threshold Autoregressive and Asymmetric Analysis
( 306 ) The Nexus between Financial Crisis and Household Consumption: Evidence from Emerging Countries
( 309 ) A Brief Survey of the House Allocation Problems
( 313 ) Earnings Management and Stock Market Returns
( 317 ) Moderating Effects of Project Management Experience, Project Team Size, Project Duration and Project Value Size on the Relationship between Project Manager’s Leadership Roles and Project Team Effectiveness in Malaysia
( 319 ) Determinants of Share Price Movement in Nigeria -The Management Perspective
( 321 ) A Negative Rational Pigs Game and its Applications to Website Management
( 323 ) Africa's Human Capital Development: Is Public Finance Management an Effective Strategy?
( 324 ) Activity Cost Management and its Effect on Enterprise Productivity
( 325 ) Determinant Analysis of Productivity on Rice Management in Indonesia
( 326 ) Management of The CFA Franc: What are the Fundamentals of the Real Exchange Rate in West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)?
( 330 ) Risk Management and Shareholders’ Wealth Maximization
( 333 ) Internal Audit Quality and Disclosure on Risk Management and Internal Control
( 337 ) Kuala Lumpur Urban Biodiversity: Birds Community in Urban Public Parks
( 341 ) Republic of Zimbabwe National Water Policy: A Desk Review of the Gaps between the Policy and Its Implementation
( 343 ) Managing Public Perception towards Local Government Administration
( 344 ) The Effect of Public Debt on Domestic Product and Unemployment (An Empirical Study on the Palestinian Economy)
( 345 ) Panel Data Analysis of the Impact of Economic Freedom as Well as Economic Conditions, The Quality of Life, and Public Education Spending on U.S. Undocumented Immigrant Settlement Patterns