Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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The Development of the Entrepreneurship Learning Design Based on Caring Economics to Enhance Spirit of Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurial Intentions

Pages: 1-13
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The Development of the Entrepreneurship Learning Design Based on Caring Economics to Enhance Spirit of Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurial Intentions

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.91.1.13

Indra Darmawan , Budi Eko Soetjipto , Ery Tri Djatmika , Hari Wahyono

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Indra Darmawan , Budi Eko Soetjipto , Ery Tri Djatmika , Hari Wahyono (2021). The Development of the Entrepreneurship Learning Design Based on Caring Economics to Enhance Spirit of Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurial Intentions. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 9(1): 1-13. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.91.1.13
This study aims to establish a caring economics-based entrepreneurship learning design in order to enhance students’ spirit of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial intentions at a higher education level. This research and design study referred to design-based research (DBR) and data was gathered by distributing questionnaires and conducting interviews to develop quality recommendations for revising products from validators and trial courses. Respondents were the students of Sanata Dharma University, Indonesia, and the validators were the learning design experts from the State University of Malang, Indonesia. The data was a descriptive elaboration of the validation stage and trials before and after the product prototype revision. Based on factual model analysis, it was found that the recent entrepreneurship learning practice had not yet enhanced the students’ spirit of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial intention. The entrepreneurship learning material had not been linked systematically to the concepts of caring economics, which align with the spirit of mutual cooperation and togetherness. The validation and learning design prototype trials result was very beneficial and is ready to be implemented in the entrepreneurship learning class at a higher education level. The study is expected to contribute to the colleges, especially in entrepreneurship learning based on caring economics that prioritizes social entrepreneurship development, by emphasizing caring aspects for people and the environment.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few that have investigated entrepreneurship learning design development based on caring economics to enhance the students’ spirit of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial intentions in higher education.

The Effect of Education Expenditure on Economic Growth: The Case of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Pages: 14-23
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The Effect of Education Expenditure on Economic Growth: The Case of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.91.14.23

Zouheyr Gheraia , Mohamed Benmeriem , Hanane Abed Abdelli , Sawssan Saadaoui

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Zouheyr Gheraia , Mohamed Benmeriem , Hanane Abed Abdelli , Sawssan Saadaoui (2021). The Effect of Education Expenditure on Economic Growth: The Case of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 9(1): 14-23. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.91.14.23
The relationship between the cost of education and economic growth is among the studies attracting interest in economic literature. This study revealed that education expenses in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had a positive effect on economic growth for the period 1990–2017, and is explained as follows: first, in the long term, with an estimated flexibility value of 0.89, which means that a rise in education expenditure of 1% would lead to an increase in economic growth of 0.89%, and second, in the short term, the relationship between domestic production and the volume of expenditure is also statistically positive and significant with the estimated value of partial flexibility being 0.3, which means that an increase in education expenditure by 1% would lead to a rise in the domestic production volume by 0.3%. Furthermore, a higher allocation of resources for education expenses could make the KSA economy more dynamic.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies that have investigated the effect of spending on education on economic growth in the KSA using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Models. The paper's primary contribution is finding a positive relationship between spending on education and economic growth rate.

Employee Motivation and Industrial Output in Nigeria

Pages: 24-33
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Employee Motivation and Industrial Output in Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.91.24.33

Esther Elomien , Friday Francis Nchuchuwe , Oluwatobiloba Ademola Idowu , Ademola Onabote , Romanus Osabohien

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Esther Elomien , Friday Francis Nchuchuwe , Oluwatobiloba Ademola Idowu , Ademola Onabote , Romanus Osabohien (2021). Employee Motivation and Industrial Output in Nigeria. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 9(1): 24-33. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.91.24.33
This study applied the autoregressive distribution lag (ARDL) econometric approach to examine the long-run effect of employee motivation on industrial output in Nigeria. Data used for the study was sourced from the World Development Indicators (WDI) of the World Bank from 1981 to 2018. Industrial output was proxied by industrial value added (annual % growth) and was used as the dependent variable, while the independent variable is motivation, which was proxied by wage and salaried workers, total (% of total employment) and was modelled on the ILO estimate. Results from the analysis showed that employee motivation is statistically significant and positive in determining the level of industrial output in Nigeria. This result implies that an increase in the level of employee motivation has the potential to increase industrial output by 98%. Therefore, based on the findings, the study recommends that employees should be motivated through regular payment, increased wages and salaries and other bonuses (fringe benefits) to increase industrial productivity.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by applying the autoregressive distribution lag (ARDL) econometric approach to examine the impact of employee motivation on industrial output or organizational productivity in Nigeria.

Human Ecological Systems Shaping College Readiness of Filipino K-12 Graduates: A Mixed-Method Multiple Case Analysis

Pages: 34-49
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Human Ecological Systems Shaping College Readiness of Filipino K-12 Graduates: A Mixed-Method Multiple Case Analysis

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.91.34.49

Jay Emmanuel L. Asuncion , Antonio I. Tamayao , Rudolf T. Vecaldo , Maria T. Mamba , Febe Marl G. Paat , Editha S. Pagulayan , Jonalyn U. Utrela

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Jay Emmanuel L. Asuncion , Antonio I. Tamayao , Rudolf T. Vecaldo , Maria T. Mamba , Febe Marl G. Paat , Editha S. Pagulayan , Jonalyn U. Utrela (2021). Human Ecological Systems Shaping College Readiness of Filipino K-12 Graduates: A Mixed-Method Multiple Case Analysis. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 9(1): 34-49. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.91.34.49
How ready are the K-12 graduates in the Philippines? What environmental conditions shape their college readiness? How do these conditions help to prepare them to transition from basic to tertiary education seamlessly and effectively? This study answers these questions by utilizing a mixed-method multiple case study design framed within the Human Ecological Systems Model. The 7,238 respondents and 28 study participants were first-year students enrolled in one state university in northern Philippines. Results revealed that the Filipino K-12 graduates demonstrated less preparedness for college education. The variables under human ecological systems influencing their college readiness include sex, gender, birth order (individual system), parents’ monthly income (microsystem), type of senior high school (SHS) graduated and track taken in SHS (mesosystem), parents’ location of employment (exosystem); and ethnicity and parents’ educational attainment (macrosystem). Such findings prove that college readiness among K-12 graduates is not solely dependent on their cognitive abilities but is a confluence of environmental conditions from the individual to macrosystems. Thus, the human ecological system serves as a functional frame in understanding factors shaping the college readiness of K-12 graduates and it is recommended that the conditions under each system must be considered as valuable inputs for basic education in preparing K-12 students for college life.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is an initial effort to explore the college readiness of Filipino K-12 graduates using the lens of the Human Ecological Systems Model. It presents the baseline data that can be used by education stakeholders to make decisive and viable actions to ensure the K-12 graduates’ effective transition from basic to tertiary education.

Citizens Participation and Primary Healthcare Policy Implementation in Ogun State, Nigeria: An Empirical and Systems Enquiry

Pages: 50-57
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Citizens Participation and Primary Healthcare Policy Implementation in Ogun State, Nigeria: An Empirical and Systems Enquiry

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.91.50.57

Adeola I. Oyeyemi , Daniel E. Gberevbie , Jide Ibietan

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Adeola I. Oyeyemi , Daniel E. Gberevbie , Jide Ibietan (2021). Citizens Participation and Primary Healthcare Policy Implementation in Ogun State, Nigeria: An Empirical and Systems Enquiry. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 9(1): 50-57. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.91.50.57
Health in its complete state of wellbeing is of utmost importance in the achievement, development and sustainability of societal goals, as envisioned in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3, and joint efforts are required for its attainment. Studies have focused on the importance of citizen participation in diverse fields, including health care, but little attention has been paid to this in developing countries’ primary healthcare (PHC) systems, such as Nigeria. Thus, this paper seeks to ascertain the relationship between citizens’ participation and primary healthcare policy implementation challenges in Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey research design was adopted with a multi-stage sampling technique used to select 500 Ogun State citizens. Primary data were analyzed using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation to ascertain the relationship between the variables. Findings show that there is a significant positive and strong relationship between citizens’ participation and policy implementation (R-value: 0.696; p-value: 0.000), but there is no significant relationship between citizens’ participation challenges and PHC policy implementation (R-value: -0.105; p-value: 0.120). The study is premised on the political system theory that explains citizens’ participation with a holistic and integrated approach of involvement, empowerment and accountability in the healthcare system. The study, therefore, recommends an integrated decision-making process that is bottom-up, which would support a sustainable healthcare system with enlightened citizens’ input towards the actualization of an effective PHC system.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing literature by providing a collaborative approach in PHC policy implementation, which is a radical departure from the stereotypical nuances and bifurcation of the top-down model, which characterizes parts of the policy process (formulation and implementation) in Nigeria.

Role of ICT in the Process of EFL Teaching and Learning in an Arab Context

Pages: 58-71
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Role of ICT in the Process of EFL Teaching and Learning in an Arab Context

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.91.58.71

Badia Hakim

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Badia Hakim (2021). Role of ICT in the Process of EFL Teaching and Learning in an Arab Context. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 9(1): 58-71. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.91.58.71
The immense growth in information and communications technology (ICT) has introduced a myriad of opportunities to the education sector globally. In today’s educational arena, EFL teachers aim to use technology in foreign language education to contribute to the mode of instruction in language teaching and learning. The aim of the current study is to explore the impact of ICT in teaching English as a foreign language. The quantitative method of data collection and a questionnaire were used for the induction of the ICT spectrum and its impact on the EFL classrooms at the English Language Institute (ELI), King Abdulaziz University (KAU-Saudi Arabia). For data collection, 50 language instructors from the ELI-KAU participated in the process. The study investigates the process of developing skills among EFL learners with the help of ICT and the appropriate training of ICT utilization by EFL teachers. Finally, the study investigates the impact of ICT use in EFL classrooms by observing its advantages and disadvantages and offers prospectus solutions and remedial measures to counter these problems. The literature review in this study focuses on the fact that most of the research conducted in relation to ICT in EFL teaching and learning processes revolves aroundthe use of ICT tools, obstacles and challenges faced by the teachers and their perceptions and views regarding ICT. This review of the study further debates the gaps in previous research and launches a theoretical concrete background for further studies, specifically in Saudi Arabia.
Contribution/ Originality
This is one of very few studies that has investigated multiple aspects of ICT training of language teachers in order to change their perceptions regarding ICT integration in language learning processes and opens gateways for innovative ideas and new research in this field.

The Liability of Foreignness in Early-Stage Corporate Venture Capital Investment

Pages: 72-85
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The Liability of Foreignness in Early-Stage Corporate Venture Capital Investment

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.91.72.85

Shinhyung Kang , Shalendra S. Kumar , Bonwoo Ku

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Shinhyung Kang , Shalendra S. Kumar , Bonwoo Ku (2021). The Liability of Foreignness in Early-Stage Corporate Venture Capital Investment. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 9(1): 72-85. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.91.72.85
Cross-border corporate venture capital (CVC) investments are inevitable for firms outside the U.S. in order to access the emerging and disruptive technology of ventures in the U.S. In particular, investing in early-stage ventures has more strategic benefits than in later-stage ones. However, investing firms suffer from the liability of foreignness (LOF) to a greater extent in the case of CVC investments in early-stage ventures. Since establishing a local unit is a generally accepted approach to resolving the LOF, we examine whether non-U.S. firms establishing a local CVC unit in the U.S. helps to overcome the LOF. In addition, because CVC investments engender imitation risk for ventures, we also examine the moderating effect of the intellectual property protection (IPP) regime. The hypotheses are tested with 2,171 CVC investments in the U.S. between 2001 and 2010. We find that a local CVC unit is only effective in resolving LOF when the target venture is under a strong IPP regime.
Contribution/ Originality
This study extends the research on the liability of foreignness from the perspective of the capital market, in particular CVC investment. Specifically, it highlights that not only the imitation risk for ventures but also the adverse selection risk for corporate investors needs to be mitigated for early-stage cross-border CVC investments to be successful.