Nazri Muslim (2020). The Transformation of Ethnic Relations in Malaysia. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 8(3): 252-263. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2020.83.252.263
Ethnic relations in Malaysia have undergone a long history. It all began when the Melaka Malay Government was founded until today. As it is today, communities of various backgrounds, cultures and religions are the main characteristics of world countries. These pluralistic communities are perceived to have been laden with all-too-common ethnic competitions and conflicts. In Malaysia, the concept of race is not used in understanding the relationship between people of various cultures. The concept adopted instead is the one characterizing upon the culture, language and religion. The Malay World, had successfully constructed a pluralistic society through inter-group bonding that there was a cross-cultural relationship based on the permeable and umbrella ethnicity concepts. However, through the Divide and Rule Policy by the British colonials, it had changed the form of ethnic relations in the Malay World to the point that there was a distributed occupational form according to different ethnic groups. The structure of ethnic relations in Malaysia post-NEP was influenced by a very thin line of ethnic boundaries and their relationships based on non-ethnic considerations. Meanwhile, the analysis of the Post-14th General Election finds that there has a positive and negative scenario and situations created in terms of the ethnic relations in Malaysia. Thus, this article will analyze the transformation of ethnic relations in Malaysia since the Malay Sultanate Era in Melaka, the Era of Colonization, the Post-New Economic Policy Era and the Post-14th General Election Era.
The paper,s primary contribution is finding that shows there was a fluctuating transformation in the ethnic relations in Malaysia and the transformation of ethnic relations in Malaysia is always changing and it depends on how the questions about the position of Malays and Islam are managed.
Influence of Information Technology towards the Development Economics of SMEs in Indonesia
Saparuddin Mukhtar , K. Y.S. Putri , Deky Aji Suseno , Agus Wibowo , Ludi Wisnu Wardana (2020). Influence of Information Technology towards the Development Economics of SMEs in Indonesia. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 8(3): 280-291. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2020.83.280.291
Technology continues to develop rapidly and creates an impact on the economic field. SMEs are increasing at a rapid pace because of the spread and increase in the number of prospective consumers who are influenced by promotion in marketing. With this online marketing strategy, one can find SMEs are able to sell their products. This study aims to identify the influence of information technology with Capture, Processing, Result, Save, Retrieve, and Transmission indicators on the economic development of SMEs in Indonesia. This sequential explanatory mixture method uses two stages of data collection, namely quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative data was collected through surveys with 127 respondents who are SMEs entrepreneurs. The qualitative data was gathered by interviewing 30 informants who have SMEs in the fields of food and beverage, fashion, and handicraft. The results of this study indicate that there is a dimension of information technology that affects the economy of SMEs in conducting sales activities. The impact is seen in the positive results of indicators of Capture, Processing, Result, Save, Retrieve, and Transmission. Then, descriptive results show that with r values capturing (0,78), processing (0,77), result (0,79), save (0,78), retrieve (0,80), and transmission (0,80).
This research is one of the few studies that have investigated the influence of information technology on the development of SMEs in Indonesia when viewed from the capture, processing, result, save, retrieve, and transmission indicators.
Wastage of School Material Resources and Secondary School System Effectiveness: Evidence from a Survey in Nigeria
Usen F. Mbon , Godfrey E. Ukpabio , Ekpenyong E. Ekanem , James E. Okon , Esther S. Uko , Mary N. Ngaji , Effionwan E. Okon (2020). Wastage of School Material Resources and Secondary School System Effectiveness: Evidence from a Survey in Nigeria. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 8(3): 264-279. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2020.83.264.279
This study was undertaken to assess the causal effects of the wastage of school material resources and school system effectiveness in secondary schools in Cross River State of Nigeria. A survey was conducted using a sample of 1,480 respondents (271 principals, 396 vice principals, and 813 teachers. Data were collected through two instruments Wastage of School Material Resources Questionnaire (WSMRQ) designed by the researchers, validated by three experts, and with Cronbach alpha reliability of .895; School System Effectiveness Scale (SSES) designed and validated psychometrically by Bassey, Owan, and Eze (2019) with Cronbach reliability values of .982, .983, and .930 for the three sub-scales, and a reliability coefficient of .941 for the overall instrument. Descriptive statistics and structural equation modelling were employed in analysing collected data. Findings of the study revealed that school material resources are wasted in different and numerous ways. Some of these ways are significant while others are not. Teaching equipment that are wasted in schools include manuals, desks, workbooks, charts, projectors, playgrounds, drawing books, chalks, textbooks, laboratories, chalkboard/whiteboards, markers, handbooks, and computers. It was discovered also that wastage of school farm resources, buildings, and teaching equipment have a direct significant but negative effect on the effectiveness of schools, accounting for 17% of the total variance in the effectiveness of the school. It was concluded, that increment in the wastage of school material resources will cause the effectiveness of schools to decline. The implication of the finding of this study is discussed for global best practices.
This study contributes to the existing literature by being the first to used a structural equation modelling (SEM) approach to analyse the direct and indirect effects of the wastage of school material resources on school system effectiveness.