Utin, U. E. , Essien, G. E. (2021). Soil Properties and Growth of Maize as Affected by Slope Position and Fertilizer Type on Coastal Plain Sands. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 8(4): 180-197. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2021.84.180.197
A study was conducted to determine the effects of slope position and fertilizer type on soil properties and growth of maize (Zea mays) on Coastal Plain Sands of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Results obtained showed that soils of lower slope (LS) had the highest contents of clay and silt compared with those of upper slope (US) position. Bulk density of the upper slope soil and that of the middle slope (MS) soils were significantly higher (P?0.05) than that of LS soil and subsequently, total porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) increased downslope. Bulk density of soils that received poultry manure (PM) and NPK+PM were significantly reduced compared to those of NPK and control while total porosity and Ksat of soils that received PM and NPK+PM were significantly higher (P?0.05) than those of NPK and control. Soils of LS had highest pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, ECEC compared to those of MS and US. The application of poultry manure yielded increase in soil pH, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and ECEC when compared to soils of NPK and control. Growth of maize obtained with LS were consistently higher than those of the MS and US soils. Soils of LS that received NPK and NPK+PM had consistently similar maize growth, higher than other combinations of slope position and fertilizer type. The complementary application of poultry manure and NPK 15:15:15 can be the best option for increasing the fertility of soils with varying slope positions on Coastal Plain Sands.
This is one of very few studies that have investigated the combined effect of slope position and fertilizer type on soil properties and crop growth and has demonstrated the possibility of soil improvement and crop growth in across varying slope positions through the complementary organic and inorganic fertilizers application.
Analysis of Smallholder Farmers Repayment of Bank of Agriculture Loan in Ezza South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria (2009-2018)
Mbam, B. N. , Nwibo, S. U. , Nwofoke, C. , Egwu, P. N. , Odoh N.E. (2021). Analysis of Smallholder Farmers Repayment of Bank of Agriculture Loan in Ezza South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria (2009-2018). International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 8(4): 198-208. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2021.84.198.208
Smallholder farmer’s repayment of Bank of Agriculture (BOA) loan in Ezza South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State was studied using 120 smallholder farmer beneficiaries selected using multistage sampling technique. Data were collected from primary source only using structured questionnaire and analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed default of 32.3% as out of N333, 997,620.50 were disbursed to the farmers a total of N226, 080,887.00 were repaid. However, the socioeconomic characteristics of the loan beneficiaries contributed about 75 % (R2 = 0.754) significant influence on repayment of Bank of Agriculture loan. Meanwhile, high interest rate, excessive bureaucracy, high rate of illiteracy, late approval of loan, lack of collateral, short payback period, and low farm output were identified as the major constraints to the repayment of BOA loan. It is recommended that as a measure to promote efficient and timely repayment of BOA loans by the farmers, management of BOA should address the institutional factors such as high interest rate, excessive bureaucracy and late approval of loan, high-value collateral and short payback period that were identified as the major constraints to BOA loan repayment.
This study contributes in the existing literature on the repayment of Bank of Agriculture loan. It establishes that there is low repayment of BOA loan by the smallholder farmers in Ezza South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria.