Akinwalere B.O , Okunlola J.O (2019). Roles of Extension Services in Adoption of Agroforestry Practices among Farmers in South West Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 6(1): 1-7. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2019.61.1.7
The study examined the roles of extension in the adoption of agroforestry practices in South west Nigeria, with a view to providing data on the practices of agroforestry in the area. It highlighted the extent of agroforestry, the ownership and management of agroforestry practices, the utilization and sustainability of the practices, as well as the challenges faced by farmers practicing agroforestry. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 200 agroforestry farmers. A large proportion (82%) of the respondents are married and the mean age was 52years. Majority (81.5%) of them had formal education while 92% are involved in farming as their primary occupation. 39.5% of the respondents are involved in the practice of shelter belt and wind breaks, 35% are involved in improved fallow, 24% in Taungya, 22% in fuel wood production, 16% in the practice of Alley cropping, 10% in Tree on range land, while 7% and 2.5% are into home garden and apiculture respectively. About half (54.5%) of respondents had no contact with extension services, access to extension service in the study area as rated by farmers is an indication of low extension agent to farmer ratio. The result of Pearson moment correlation coefficient showed that there was no significant relationship between extension contacts and sustainable adoption of agroforestry practices (r = 0.12, p = 0.07).
The study examined the roles of extension services in the adoption and utilization of agroforestry practices by farmers. It discussed the various agroforestry practices available, the acceptability and perception of the farmers. The study also revealed the lack of proper extension services needed for successful implementation of any adoption process.
Pepper Disease Assessment and Identification in Major Growing Districts of West Gojam Zone in Northwestern Ethiopia
Azanaw Abebe , Merkuz Abera (2019). Pepper Disease Assessment and Identification in Major Growing Districts of West Gojam Zone in Northwestern Ethiopia. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 6(1): 8-20. DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2019.61.8.20
Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an economically and traditionally an important crop in Ethiopia. It is also necessary vegetable crop mainly for small-scale farmers in Amhara National Regional State of Ethiopia. The productivity of this crop is low under national level, it is said to be 7.36qt per hectare. It is even lower to that of the national in Amhara National Regional State growing areas. Assessing pepper growing areas and collect damaged plants by the disease and identification of diseases was the focus of this study. Three districts were selected purposively based on accessibility, production and problem, available time, logistics, and representativeness. In each district three representative peasant administrations (PAs)/kebeles were selected. Sampled kebeles and respondents were selected using simple random sampling techniques. A total of 135 respondents were selected for interview. The data was collected through semi structured interview schedule. In each PA, three simple random sample selected farmers’ fields were assessed. The assessment was done at one growth stage of the plant (flowering-podding stage). The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings of this study confirm that in all the surveyed peasant farms, only one type of variety, which is Marekofana was encountered with low to high levels infestation of different leaf, stem, and root diseases. Root rot/wilt complex diseases were found distributed in almost all the surveyed areas. The prevalence of the disease, pepper wilt/root rot complex is high, therefore; efforts better to be made towards the integration of multiple control options.
This study contributes in the existing literature to fill the gap of the current state of knowledge of pepper disease assessment and identification. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated pepper disease assessment and identification. The paper contributes the first logical analysis of pepper disease.