Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062

Conference List

Review of Plant Studies

December 2020, Volume 7, 1, pp 16-26

Chemical Control of Alternaria Brown Spot on Mandarins Cultivars in Tunisia

Maali Haddad


Najwa Benfradj


Ibtissem Ben Salem


Mahdi Mabrouk


Naima Boughalleb-M Hamdi

Maali Haddad 1 Najwa Benfradj 1 ,
Ibtissem Ben Salem 1 Mahdi Mabrouk 4
Naima Boughalleb-M Hamdi 1 

  1. Department of Biological Sciences and Plant Protection, High Institute of Agronomy of Chott Mariem, Sousse, University of Sousse, Tunisia. 1

  2. Centre Technique des Agrumes, Tunisia. 4

Pages: 16-26

DOI: 10.18488/journal.69.2020.71.16.26

Share :

Article History:

Received: 30 September, 2020
Revised: 04 November, 2020
Accepted: 01 December, 2020
Published: 28 December, 2020


Three field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of seven active ingredients (Tryfloxystrobin, Iprodione, Procymidone, Mancozebe, Propinebe, Tebuconazole and Coppersulfate), against Alternaria brown spot (ABS) caused by Alternaria alternata on Minneola, Fortune, Nova and Tangerine mandarins citrus cultivars in Tunisia. Over the three trials, citrus trees received 6, 10 and 16 fungicides sprays. The results of the present investigation demonstrated the prevention ability of Mancozebe, Iprodione and Copper sulfate according to disease incidence, fruit infection and losses caused by ABS. Furthermore, the applications of those three fungicides used in mixture reduce the ABS development. In fact, disease incidence was reduced better after an application of a mixture of Mancozebe and Iprodione compared to application of Mancozebe or Iprodione alone and after an application of an alternation of Mancozebe and Iprodione with copper sulfate. From this study, it revealed that the incidence of ABS, an emerging fungi disease on Citrus in Tunisia, could be reduced by using chemical products.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the evaluation of the efficiency of seven active ingredients against citrus Alternaria brown spot caused by Alternaria alternata on Minneola, Fortune, Nova and Tangerine mandarin cultivars in Tunisia.


Alternaria alternata, Alteration, Citrus, Fungicides, Mixture.


[1]          C. D. A. Pacheco, I. B. Martelli, D. A. Polydoro, E. H. Schinor, R. M. Pio, K. C. Kupper, and F. A. D. Azevedo, "Resistance and susceptibility of mandarins and their hybrids to alternaria alternata," Scientia Agricola, vol. 69, pp. 386-392, 2012.Available at:

[2]          A. Vicent, J. Armengol, and J. García-Jiménez, "Rain fastness and persistence of fungicides for control of alternaria brown spot of citrus," Plant Disease, vol. 91, pp. 393-399, 2007.Available at:

[3]          K. G. Pegg, "Studies of a strain of alternaria citri pierce, the causal agent of brown spot of emperor mandarin," Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Science, vol. 23, pp. 14-18, 1966.

[4]          L. W. Timmer, T. L. Peever, Z. Solel, and K. Akimitsu, "Alternaria diseases of citrus-novel pathosystems," Phytopathologia Mediterranea, vol. 42, pp. 3-16, 2003.

[5]          N. A. R. Peres, J. P. Agostini, and L. W. Timmer, "Outbreaks of alternaria brown spot of citrus in brazil and argentina," Plant Disease, vol. 87, pp. 750-750, 2003.Available at:

[6]          M. Golmohammadi, M. Andrew, T. L. Peever, N. A. R. Peres, and L. W. Timmer, "First report of alternaria brown spot of minneola tangelo and page and fortune mandarin caused by alternaria alternate in Iran," Plant Pathology, vol. 55, p. 578, 2006.Available at:

[7]          X. F. Wang, Z. A. Li, K. Z. Tang, C. Y. Zhou, and L. Yi, "First report of alternaria brown spot of citrus caused by alternaria alternata in Yunnan Province, China," Plant Disease, vol. 94, pp. 375-375, 2010.Available at:

[8]          M. Haddad, N. Boughalleb-M’Hamdi, A. Vicent, and M. Cherif, "Occurrence of alternaria brown spot on citrus in tunisia, integrated control in citrus fruit crops," IOBC-WPRS Bulletin, vol. 95, pp. 213-221, 2013.

[9]          L. W. Timmer, H. M. Darhower, S. E. Zitko, T. L. Peever, A. M. Ibáñez, and P. M. Bushong, "Environmental factors affecting the severity of alternaria brown spot of citrus and their potential use in timing fungicide applications," Plant Disease, vol. 84, pp. 638-643, 2000.Available at:

[10]        J. Garcia-Jimenez, A. Vicent, J. Badal, N. Sanz, D. Garcia-Rellan, J. Armengol, F. Alfaro-Lassala, and F. Cuenca, "Current knowledge of the epidemiology and control of alternaria in fortune," presented at the V Citric Congress of l, Horta Sud, Picassent, Valencia, 2002.

[11]        A. Vicent, J. Badal, M. J. Asensi, N. Sanz, J. Armengol, and J. García- Jiménez, "Laboratory evaluation of citrus cultivars susceptibility and influence of fruit size on Fortune mandarin to infection by alternaria alternate pv. citri " European Journal of Plant Pathology, vol. 110, pp. 245-251, 2004.Available at:

[12]        D. D. M. Bassimba, J. L. Mira, and A. Vicent, "Inoculum sources, infection periods, and effects of environmental factors on alternaria brown spot of mandarin in mediterranean climate conditions," Plant Disease, vol. 98, pp. 409-417, 2014.Available at: .

[13]        A. Vicent, J. Armengol, and J. García-Jiménez, "Protectant activity of reduced concentration copper sprays against alternaria brown spot on ‘fortune’ mandarin fruit in Spain," Crop Protection, vol. 28, pp. 1-6, 2009.Available at:

[14]        Y. Canihos, T. L. Peever, and L. W. Timmer, "Temperature, leaf wetness, and isolate effects on infection of minneola tangelo leaves by alternaria sp," Plant Disease, vol. 83, pp. 429-433, 1999.Available at: .

[15]        J. O. Whiteside, "Newly recorded alternaria- induced brown spot disease on dancy tangerines in florida," Plant Disease Report, vol. 60, pp. 326- 329, 1976.

[16]        A. Vicent, J. Armengol, R. Sales, and J. Garcia-Jiménez, "First report of alternaria brown spot of citrus in spain," Plant Disease, vol. 84, p. 1044, 2000.Available at:

[17]        A. Bhatia, P. D. Roberts, and L. W. Timmer, "Evaluation of the alter-rater model for timing of fungicide applications for control of alternaria brown spot of citrus," Plant Disease, vol. 87, pp. 1089-1093, 2003.Available at:

[18]        E. Kim, H. Lee, and Y. Kim, "Morphogenetic alterations of alternaria alternata exposed to dicarboximide fungicide, Iprodione," The Plant Pathology Journal, vol. 33, pp. 95-100, 2017.Available at:

[19]        D. Hutton and P. Mayers, "Brown spot of murcott tangor caused by alternaria alternata in queensland," Australasian Plant Pathology, vol. 17, pp. 69-73, 1988.Available at:

[20]        D. Hutton, "The appearance of iprodione resistance in alternaria alternata, the cause of brown spot of murcott tangor," Australasian Plant Pathology, vol. 18, pp. 32-32, 1989.Available at:

[21]        Z. Solel, L. Timmer, and M. Kimchi, "Iprodione resistance of alternaria alternata pv. citri from minneola tangelo in Israel and florida," Plant Disease, vol. 80, pp. 291-293, 1996.Available at:

[22]        Z. Solel, Y. Oren, and M. Kimchi, "Control of alternaria brown spot of minneola tangelo with fungicides," Crop Protection, vol. 16, pp. 659- 664, 1997.Available at:

[23]        A. Miles, S. Willingham, and A. Cooke, "Field evaluation of a plant activator, captan, chlorothalonil, copper hydroxide, iprodione, mancozeb and strobilurins for the control of citrus brown spot of mandarin," Australasian Plant Pathology, vol. 34, pp. 63-71, 2005.Available at:

[24]        R. N. Raid and L. W. Timmer, "Citrus tropical and miscellaneous crop reports," Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, vol. 55, p. 570, 1999.

[25]        A. K. Miles, S. L. Willinghan, and A. W. Cooke, "Field evaluation of strobilurins and a plant activator for the control of citrus black spot," Australian Plant Pathology, vol. 33, pp. 371-378, 2004.Available at:

[26]        A. Bhatia, P. Roberts, and L. Timmer, "Evaluation of the alter-rater model for timing of fungicide applications for control of alternaria brown spot of citrus," Plant Disease, vol. 87, pp. 1089-1093, 2003.Available at:

[27]        L. W. Timmer and S. E. Zitko, "Evaluation of fungicides for control of alternaria brown spot and citrus scab," Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, vol. 110, pp. 71-76, 1997.

[28]        N. A. Peres and L. W. Timmer, "Evaluation of the alter-rater model for spray timing for control of alternaria brown spot on murcott tangor in brazil," Crop Protection, vol. 25, pp. 454-460, 2006.Available at:

[29]        G. C. Schutte and K. V. Beeton, "The use of triazoles to control alternaria brown spot of minneola tangelo in the winter rainfall region of South Africa," Citrus Journal, vol. 4, pp. 19-20, 1994.

[30]        G. C. Schutte, K. H. Lesar, P. D. T. Pelser, and S. H. Swart, "The use of tebuconazole for the control of alternaria alternata on ‘minneola’tangelos and its potential to control post-harvest decay when applied as a pre-harvest spray," Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture, vol. 7, pp. 1070-1074, 1992.

[31]        A. R. Biggs, "Mycelial growth, sporulation, and virulence to apple fruit of alternaria alternata isolates resistant to iprodione," Plant Disease, vol. 78, pp. 732-735, 1994.Available at:


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

Related Article

( 1 ) Impact of Abattoir Effluent on Soil Chemical Properties in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria
( 2 ) The Influence of Probiotics and Antibiotic Growth Promoter on Growth Performance and Hemato-Biochemical Parameters in Broilers
( 3 ) Physico-Chemical Properties of Honey Produced In Masha, Gesha, and Sheko Districts in Southwestern Ethiopia
( 4 ) Evaluation of the Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobialproperties of Extracts from Chrysophyllum Albidum (African Star Apple) Leaf
( 5 ) Stover Yield and Chemical Composition in Some Sorghum Varieties in Gadarif State, Sudan
( 6 ) Chemical Analysis of Acacia Ehrenbergiana (Salam) Tree Fruits (Seed and Pods) As Dry Season Supplement For Livestock in Arid and Semi –Arid Lands of Sudan
( 7 ) Microbiological Profile, Shelf Stability and Some Physicochemical Properties of Fermented Flour from Different Sweet Potato Cultivars
( 8 ) “Evaluation of Phytochemical Constituents of the Fruits of Cucumis Sativus Linn. For their Hepatoprotective Activity by Molecular Docking Studies”
( 9 ) Effect of Domestic Cooking on Physicochemical Parameters, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Properties of Algerian Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L. Var. Marmande)
( 10 ) Effect of Contamination by Fungi and Yeast on the Physiochemical Characteristics of Gum Arabic Stored in Semi-Desert Climate of Khartoum City, Sudan
( 11 ) Effect of Jameed Form on the Chemical Composition, Rheological and Microbial Properties
( 12 ) Evaluation of Chemical-Nutritional Characteristics of Rainbow Trout Samples Affected by the
( 13 ) Biochemical and Electron Microscopic Changes Induced by Giardia in Experimentally Infected Lambs
( 14 ) Effect of Integrated Application of Poultry Manure and Chemical NP Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Yield Components of Highland Maize Variety on Vertisol at Ambo University on Station, Ethiopia
( 15 ) Molecular Studies on E.Coli Isolate from Milk of Mastatic Cattle with Special Reference to Associated Biochemical Changes in Kaliobea Governorate
( 16 ) Assessment of the Physical and Chemical Properties of Three Contrasting Soils Under Different Land Use Systems
( 17 ) Physicochemical and Rheological Characterization of Goat Whey
( 18 ) Effect of Tuber Sections, Heat Treatment and Rehydration with Process Chemicals on the Physicochemical Properties of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea Batatas L. (Lam)) Flour
( 19 ) Chemical Changes Associated with Repetitive Re-Use of Vegetable Oil during Deep Frying of Bean Cake, Plantain and Yam
( 20 ) Modelling and Optimization of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Paddy Pre-Treatments for Optimum Chemical Property using Response Surface Methodology
( 21 ) Effect of Boiling and Roasting on the Nutrients, Phytochemical and Functional Properties of Red and Green Cultivars of D. Bulbifera Flours
( 22 ) Biochemical Composition and Consumption Risk of Leafy Vegetables Puts and Babenda Cereals Produced in Five Cities in Burkina Faso
( 23 ) Effects of Melon Seed or Soybean Meal Supplementation on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Incompletely Peeled Cassava Garri
( 24 ) Assessment of the Processing Effects of Fresh Solanum Anguivi Berries on Biochemical Contents and Functional Properties of Powder
( 25 ) Broiler and Indigenous Chickens: A Comparison through Biochemical Parameters
( 26 ) Chemical Control of Alternaria Brown Spot on Mandarins Cultivars in Tunisia
( 27 ) Growing Jatropha Curcas and Jatropha Gossypiifolia as a Interculture with Sunflower for Control of Meloidogyne Javanica in Egypt
( 28 ) Experimental Model Validation and Control of a Lactic Fermentation Process
( 29 ) Insecticide Spraying Regime to Control Insect Pest of Cowpea: Management and Monitored Application of Cypermethrin in Lomami Province, DR Congo
( 30 ) High-Sensitivity Testing of Effectiveness of Citrus Limon, Vitis Vinifera and Citrus Sinensis in the Postharvest Control of Callosobruchus Maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Infestation of Cowpea Seeds
( 31 ) Two Stubborn Storage Insect Pests, Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais: Biology, Food Security Problems and Control Strategies
( 32 ) On-Farm Evaluation of Conservation Agriculture Practice on Weed Control and Yield of Wheat in Northern Bangladesh
( 34 ) Antifungal Activities of Selected Plant Extracts in In-Vitro Control of Anthracnose and Root Rot Diseases on Cucumber (Cucumis sativus B.)
( 36 ) Description of Immature Stages of the Brown Dog Tick Rhipicephalus Sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) Using Scanning Electron Microscopy
( 37 ) Growth and Survival Parameters and Blood IgG and Total Protein Levels of Calves Born in the First Production Year of Brown Swiss and Simmental Cows