Various maize researchers have been conducting experiments to know the effect of sowing date on maize seed yield and quality, which explored a vast variation in the results. In some countries, early sowing of maize gave good yields besides quality seed and at the same time, in some countries late sowing yielded better and posses’ high quality seed. Despite of all these differences in sowing period, many scientists and farmers opined that early and mid early sowings in India resulted good yields and high quality seed.
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated on effect of sowing date on various aspects of maize mainly used in the context of climate change, which is a most important factor in global issues.
M. E. Otegui, M. G. Nicolini, R. A. Ruiz, and P. A. Dodds, "Sowing date effects on grain yield components for different maize genotypes," Agronomy Journal, vol. 87, pp. 29-33, 1995.
A. Oktem, "Determination of sowing dates of corn (Zea Mays L.) under dryland conditions," Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, vol. 21, pp. 65-71, 2000.
J. G. Lauer, P. R. Carter, T. M. Wood, G. Diezel, D. W. Wiersma, R. E. Rand, and M. J. Mlynarek, "Corn hybrid response to planting date in the Northern Corn Belt," Agronomy Journal, vol. 91, pp. 834-839, 1999.
J. E. Newman and J. B. Beard, "Phenological observations: The dependent variable in bioclimatic and agrometereological studies," Agronomy Journal, vol. 54, pp. 399-403, 1962.
T. Hodges, Modeling and programming philosophies. In: T. Hodges (ed.) Predicting crop phenology. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, 1991.
G. Singh, S. S. Narwal, V. U. M. Rao, and D. S. Dahiya, "Effect of sowing date on requirement of growing degree days, heliothermal units and photo thermal units and phenology of winter maize (Zea Mays)," Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, vol. 60, pp. 35-41, 1990.
G. R. Benoit, A. Olness, and K. A. Van Sickle, "Day night temperature effects on leaf expansion and height of field grown corn," Agronomy Journal, vol. 852, pp. 690-695, 1990.
D. R. Wilson and M. Robson, "Pea phenology responses to temperature and photoperiod," in Proceedings of the 8th Australian Agronomy Conference, Toowoomba, 1996, pp. 590-593.
D. Lenka, Climate weather and crops in India. New Delhi: Kalyani Publishers, 1998.
Z. Berzsenyi, A. Y. Ragab, and D. Q. Lap, "Effect of sowing time on the growth of maize (Zea Mays L.) hybrids asymptotic functions," Crop Production, vol. 47, pp. 525-545, 1998.
R. L. Nielsen, P. R. Thomson, G. A. Brown, A. L. Halter, J. Wells, and K. L. Wuethrich, "Delayed planting effects on flowering and grain maturation of dent corn," Agronomy Journal, vol. 94, pp. 549–558, 2002.
S. B. P. Rao, K. L. Inra, and A. B. Singh, "Performance of Russian sunflower varieties under Kanpur conditions," in Proceedings of the Symposium on Techno-Economic Aspects of oil Based Industries in Seventies, Harcourt Butler Technological Institute, Kanpur, 1972.
M. L. Lepez, "Effect of date of planting and row spacing on sunflower crop in Andalucía," in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Sunflower, 25-29, July Clermant-Ferrad, Paris, France, 1972, pp. 133-136.
M. L. Chhabra, T. P. Yadava, and S. C. Gupta, "Effect of season of sowing on productivity of sunflower," Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, vol. 52, pp. 107-112, 1982.
A. G. Cirilo and F. H. Andrade, "Sowing date and maize productivity. I. Crop growth and dry matter partitioning," Crop Science, vol. 34, pp. 1039-1043, 1994.
M. Ahsan, M. M. Hussain, J. Farooq, I. Khaliq, A. Farooq, Q. Ali, and M. Kashif, "Physio-genetic behavior of maize seedlings at water deficit conditions," Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova, vol. 146, pp. 41-49, 2011.
M. Ahsan, A. Farooq, I. Khaliq, Q. Ali, M. Aslam, and M. Kashif, "Inheritance of various yield contributing traits in maize (Zea Mays L.) at low moisture condition," African J. Agri. Res., vol. 8, pp. 413-420, 2013.
Q. Ali, M. Elahi, M. Ahsan, M. H. N. Tahir, and S. M. A. Basra, "Genetic evaluation of maize (Zea Mays L.) genotypes at seedling stage under moisture stress," IJAVMS, vol. 5, pp. 184-193, 2011.
P. S. Stephen and W. W. Wallace, "Planting date and residue rate effects on growth, partitioning and yield of corn," Agronomy Journal, vol. 88, pp. 205-210, 1996.
G. A. Maddonni, M. E. Otegui, and R. Bonhomme, "Grain yield components in maize: II. Post silking growth and kernel weight," Field Crops Research, vol. 56, pp. 257-264, 1998.
F. H. Andrade, S. A. Uhart, and A. Cirilo, "Temperature effects radiation efficiency in maize," Field Crops Research, vol. 32, pp. 17-25, 1993.
Q. Ali, M. Ahsan, M. H. N. Tahir, and S. M. A. Basra, "Genetic evaluation of maize (Zea Mays L.) accessions for growth related seedling traits," IJAVMS, vol. 6, pp. 164-172, 2012.
Q. Ali, M. Ahsan, H. S. B. Mustafa, and Ejaz-ul-Hasan, "Genetic variability and correlation among morphological traits of maize (Zea Mays L) seedling," Alban. J. Agric. Sci., vol. 12, pp. 405-410, 2013d.
S. M. N. Alam, M. Salim, N. Islam, and M. M. Rahman, "Effect of sowing date and time of harvesting on the yield and yield contributing characters of sesame (Sesamum Indicum L.) seed," International Journal of Sustainable Crop Production, vol. 2, pp. 31-35, 2007.
S. G. Moosavi, M. J. Seghatoleslami, and M. Ali, "Effect of planting date and plant density on morphological traits, LAI and forage corn (Sc. 370) yield in second cultivation," International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 57-63, 2012.
P. Bassetti and M. E. Westgate, "Emergence, elongation and senescence of maize silks," Crop Science, vol. 33, pp. 271-275, 1993.
R. E. Harris, R. H. Moll, and C. W. Stuber, "Control and inheritance of prolificacy in maize," Crop Science, vol. 16, pp. 843-850, 1984.
M. E. Otegui and S. Melon, "Kernel set and flower synchrony within the ear of maize. I. Sowing date effects," Crop Science, vol. 37, pp. 441-447, 1997.
S. R. Anderson, M. J. Lauer, J. B. Schoper, and R. M. Shibles, "Pollination timing effects on kernel set and silk receptivity in four maize hybrids," Crop Science, vol. 44, pp. 464-473, 2004.
Q. Ali, M. Ahsan, F. Ali, S. Muhammad, M. Manzoor, N. H. Khan, S. M. A. Basra, and H. S. B. Mustafa, "Genetic advance, heritability, correlation, heterosis and heterobeltiosis for morphological traits of maize (Zea Mays L) " Alban. J. Agric. Sci., vol. 12, pp. 689-698, 2013b.
S. R. Aldrich, W. O. Scott, and R. G. Hoeft, Modern corn production. Champaign: A and L Publications, 1986.
Q. Ali, M. Ahsan, M. H. N. Tahir, and S. M. A. Basra, "Genetic studies of morpho-physiological traits of maize (Zea Mays L.) seedling," African J. Agri. Res., vol. 8, pp. 3668-3678, 2013c.
Q. Ali, A. Ali, M. Waseem, A. Muzaffar, S. Ahmad, S. Ali, M. Awan, and T. Samiullah, "Correlation analysis for morpho-physiological traits of maize (Zea Mays L.)," Life Sci J., vol. 11, pp. 9-13, 2014b.
N. M. Adam, M. B. McDonald, and P. R. Henderlong, "The influence of seed position, planting and harvesting dates on soybean seed quality," Seed Science and Technology, vol. 17, pp. 143-153, 1989.
Q. Ali, M. Ahsan, F. Ali, M. Aslam, N. H. Khan, M. Manzoor, H. S. B. Mustafaa, and S. Muhammad, "Heritability, heterosis and heterobeltiosis studies for morphological traits of maize (Zea Mays L.) seedlings," Adv. Life Sci., vol. 1, pp. 52-63, 2013a.
L. N. Sheperd, D. R. Hicks, and W. H. Schmidth, Maximizing the advantages of early corn planting. National corn handbook. West Lafayette, Indiana, USA: Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service, 1991.
D. R. Hicks, I. D. Harrington, and J. H. Mc Gahen, Maximizing the advantages of early com planting. National corn handbook. crop management. West Lafayette, Indiana, USA: Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service, 1993.
S. R. Aldrich, W. O. Scott, and E. R. Leng, Modern corn production, 2nd ed. Champaign: A and L Publications, 1975.
T. S. Green, M. Ender, and J. J. Mock, "Effect of sowing dates on maize yields," Agricultural Sciences, vol. 20, pp. 51-63, 1985.
Q. Ali, A. Ali, M. Ahsan, S. Ali, N. Khan, S. Muhammad, H. Abbas, I. Nasir, and T. Husnain, "Line × tester analysis for morpho-physiological traits of Zea mays L. seedlings," Adv. Life Sci., vol. 1, pp. 242-253, 2014a.
Q. Ali, M. Ahsan, N. Khan, M. Waseem, and F. Ali, "An overview of zea mays for the improvement of yield and quality traits through conventional breeding," Nat Sci., vol. 12, pp. 71-84, 2014d.
C. E. Scarsbrook and B. D. Doss, "Leaf area index and radiation as related to com yield," Agronomy Journal, vol. 65, pp. 459-461, 1972.
B. C. Miller, E. S. Oplinger, R. Rand, J. Peters, and G. Weis, "Effect of planting date and plant population on sunflower performance," Agronomy Journal, vol. 76, pp. 511-515, 1984.
P. R. F. Silva and L. Sangoi, "Time of sowing sunflower. I. Effect on seed yield, yield components, oil content and yield," Lavoura Arrozeira, vol. 38, pp. 20-27, 1985.
J. Gardner, Substituting legumes for fallow in U.S.great plains wheat production: The first five years of research and demonstration 1988-1992. USDA/SARE and North Dakota State Univ.,Michael Fields Agricultural Institute,Kansas State Univ. and Univ. of Nebraska. Carrington,N.D.: NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center, 1992.
M. Sarvari and Z. Futo, "Correlation between the sowing date, yield and grain moisture content of maize hybrids on chernozem soil," Debreceni Egyetem Agrartudomanyi Kozlemenyek Journal, vol. 1, pp. 32-41, 2000.
M. A. Rahman, E. L. Magboul, and E. N. Abdelatief, "Effects of sowing date and cultivar on the yield and yield components of maize in northern Sudan," presented at the Seventh Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Maize Conference, 2001.
M. A. Ali, M. Ali, M. Sattar, and L. Ali, "Sowing date effect on yield of different wheat varieties," Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 48, pp. 157-162, 2010.
C. P. Mansur, Y. B. Palled, S. I. Halikatti, M. B. Chetti, and P. M. Salimath, "Effect of dates of sowing and irrigation levels on growth, yield parameters, yield and economics of Kabuli chickpea," Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, vol. 23, pp. 461-463, 2010.
M. A. Beiragi, S. K. Khorasani, S. H. Shojaei, M. Dadresan, K. Mostafavi, and M. Golbashy, "A study on effects of planting dates on growth and yield of 18 corn hybrids (Zea Mays L.)," American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, vol. 1, pp. 110-120, 2011.
B. N. M. Kumar, Basavegowda, B. S. Vyakaranahal, V. K. Deshpande, and P. V. Kenchanagoudar, "Influence of sowing dates on production of seed yield in Niger (Guizotia Abyssinica Cass.)," Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, vol. 24, pp. 289–293, 2011.
B. A. Lawal, G. O. Obigbesan, W. B. Akanbi, and G. O. Kolawole, "Effect of planting time on sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.) productivity in Ibadan, Nigeria," African Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 6, pp. 3049-3054, 2011.
T. Susila and M. Rajkumar, "Effect of date of sowing of ajowan (Trachyspermum Ammi L.) sprague on seed yield in Southern Telangana, Andhra Pradesh," Madras Agricultural Journal, vol. 98, pp. 39-40, 2011.
H. M. Taylor and P. S. Blackett, "Soybean and maize yield as affected by row spacing, planting dates and seasonal water supply," Agronomy Journal, vol. 80, pp. 930-935, 1982.
Q. Ali, A. Ali, M. Awan, M. Tariq, S. Ali, T. Samiullah, S. Azam, S. Din, M. Ahmad, N. Sharif, S. Muhammad, N. Khan, M. Ahsan, I. Nasir, and T. Hussain, "Combining ability analysis for various physiological, grain yield and quality traits of zea mays L," Life Sci J., vol. 11, pp. 540-551, 2014c.
Q. Ali, M. Ahsan, M. H. N. Tahir, and S. M. A. Basra, "Gene action and correlation studies for various grain and its contributing traits in maize (Zea Mays L)," Bothalia, vol. 44, pp. 80-91, 2014e.
K. B. E. G. Nasser, "Effect of planting date and fertilizer application on yield of wheat under no till system," World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, vol. 5, pp. 777-783, 2009.
J. Berger, "Maize production and the manuring of maize," Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 1, pp. 293-302, 1969.
L. M. Sutton and R. E. Stucker, "Growing degree days to black layer compared to relative maturity rating of corn hybrids," Crop Science, vol. 14, pp. 408-412, 1974.
M. Tollenaar and A. Aguilera, "Radiation use efficiency of an old and a new maize hybrid," Agronomy Journal, vol. 84, pp. 536-541, 1992.
V. Krishnasamy and K. R. Ramaswamy, "Studies on synchronization of flowering in the parental lines of sorghum hybrids. I. Variation in the duration of flowering as influenced by dates of sowing," Madras Agricultural Journal, vol. 74, pp. 346-350, 1987.
M. Tollenaar and T. W. Bruulsema, "Effects of temperature on rate and duration of kernel dry matter accumulation of maize," Canadian Journal of Plant Sciences, vol. 68, pp. 935-940, 1998.
D. T. Daynard and W. G. Duncan, "The black layer and grain maturity in corn," Crop Science, vol. 9, pp. 473-476, 1972.
D. W. Stewart, L. M. Dwyer, C. J. Andrews, and J. A. Dugas, "Modeling carbohydrates production, storage and export in leafy and normal maize," Crop Science, vol. 37, pp. 1228-1236, 1997.
L. Sangoi, "Suitability of the fields of lages (SC) for corn production in different growing seasons," Brazilian Agricultural Research, vol. 28, pp. 51-63, 1993.
L. Sangoi and R. J. Salvador, "Influence of plant height and leaf number on maize production at high plant densities," Brazilian Agricultural Research, vol. 33, pp. 297-306, 1998.
P. R. F. Silva, G. Argenta, and F. Rezera, "Response of irrigated corn hybrids to plant density in three sowing dates," Brazilian Agricultural Research, vol. 34, pp. 585-592, 1998.
V. G. Patil and Dighe, "Cotton seed quality related to time of harvest and position of bolls," Cotton Development, vol. 14, pp. 29-32, 1985.
I. P. Singh, D. P. Singh, and B. S. Chhabra, "Seed germination in relation to time of pickings in cotton," Cotton Development, vol. 17, pp. 37-38, 1987.
M. M. Greven, B. A. McKenzie, and G. D. Hill, "The influence of stress on yield, abortion and seed size of French dwarf beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.)," Proceedings of Agronomy Society, New Zealand, vol. 27, pp. 101- 108, 1997.
R. T. Kasul, N. R. Kadam, N. R. Pavithrakar, and R. P. Khedekar, "Improvement of seed quality in the marginal seed lots of cotton by using specific gravity separator," Seed Research, vol. 31, pp. 213-218, 2003.