Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Comparing Post-Partum Growth by Body Weight between Sex and Litter Size of Agouti (Dasyprocta Leporina) Offspring from Birth to 360 Days Old

Pages: 121-134
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Comparing Post-Partum Growth by Body Weight between Sex and Litter Size of Agouti (Dasyprocta Leporina) Offspring from Birth to 360 Days Old

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2019.62.121.134

Riyadh Mohammed , Asad Mohammed , Letetia Addison , Isaac Dialsingh , Kavita Kameela Sant , Gary Wayne Garcia

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[1]          R. C. L. Brown-Uddenberg, "The conceptualization of an intensive production model for the agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) A neotropical rodent in Trinidad, West Indies," M.Phil. Thesis in Livestock Science, The University of the West Indies, Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago, W.I, 2001.

[2]          D. A. Meritt, "The natural history and captive management of the central America agouti (Dasyprocata punctata) grey and agouti (Dasyprocta aguti) Linne," in American Association of the Zoological Parks and Aquariums, Annual Conference Proceedings. Denver, Colorado, 1978, pp. 177-181.

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[4]          P. Nguimkeu, "A simple selection test between the Gompertz and Logistic growth models," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, vol. 88, pp. 98-105, 2014. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2014.06.017.

[5]          A. Garnero, C. Marcondes, N. Albuquerque, R. Araújo, Y. Pendu, and D. Guimarães, "Growth curve of female collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) raised in captivity in the Brazilian amazon region," Brazilian Archive of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, vol. 65, pp. 961-966, 2013. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1590/s0102-09352013000400004.

[6]          A. Gbangboche, R. Glele-Kakai, S. Salifou, L. G. d. Albuquerque, and P. Leroy, "Comparison of non-linear growth models to describe the growth curve in West African dwarf sheep," Animal, vol. 2, pp. 1003-1012, 2008. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1017/s1751731108002206.

[7]          R. Mohammed, L. George, and W. G. Gary, "Towards the determination of a “Weaning Age” for the intensive production of the agouti (Dasyprocta leporina)." Livestock Research for Rural Development. Available: http://www.lrrd.org/public-lrrd/proofs/lrrd3010/riyad30173.html, 2018.

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Riyadh Mohammed , Asad Mohammed , Letetia Addison , Isaac Dialsingh , Kavita Kameela Sant , Gary Wayne Garcia (2019). Comparing Post-Partum Growth by Body Weight between Sex and Litter Size of Agouti (Dasyprocta Leporina) Offspring from Birth to 360 Days Old. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 6(2): 121-134. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2019.62.121.134
Thirty (30) offspring were weaned at 7 days old and 12 weights were taken every 30 days from the date of birth until 360 days old. The objectives of this study were: 1) to observe any dimorphism by live weight gain between agouti males and females at each 30 day interval, 2) to see if there was any difference in growth rate between litter sizes, and 3) to observe of there was a point where growth plateaued and to decide on an average age and weight for utilization (meat). Results suggested that: 1) Offspring can be weaned as early as 7 days, 2) Single born offspring grew faster than double or triple born initially in the earlier periods of life (< 6 months old) (18.89 g/d vs.17.61 g/d, 17.57 g/d) 3) Compensatory growth took place for offspring that came from larger litters in the latter stages of life (> 6 months old) (1.25 g/d, 1.21 g/d vs. 0.87 g/d) and had no major disadvantage by weight when compared to single born offspring (2750.8g 2770.0g and 2784.1g,), 4) Male and female offspring grew at the same rate from day 0 to 360, hence no sexual dimorphism by live weight was seen at day 360, 5) The average weight for optimum utilization (harvest) by live weight is no less than 2600g which can be achieved by 8 months of age, 6) The Gompertz growth model best describes the growth of Agouti offspring as compared to the Logistic and Von Bertalanffy models.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the growth and development of agouti offspring along a 360 day period and compared the growth rates of sexes and litter sizes to the Gompertz , Logistic and Von Bertalanffy growth models.

Evaluation of Selected Botanical Extracts against Mendi Termite Macrotermes subhyalinus (Isoptera: Termitidae), under Laboratory Condition

Pages: 135-140
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Evaluation of Selected Botanical Extracts against Mendi Termite Macrotermes subhyalinus (Isoptera: Termitidae), under Laboratory Condition

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2019.62.135.140

Weldesenbet Beze Kassie

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[1]          J. D. Mitchell, "Termites as pests of crops, forestry, rangeland and structures in Southern Africa and their control," Sociobiology, vol. 40, pp. 47-69, 2002.

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[6]          M. B. Isman, "Botanical insecticides, deterrents, and repellents in modern agriculture and an increasingly regulated world," Annual Review of Entomology, vol. 51, pp. 45-66, 2006. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.51.110104.151146.

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[8]          N. Sahay, C. Prajapati, and P. Singh, "Anti-termite potential of plants selected from the SRISTI database of grassroots innovations," Journal of Biological Pest Control, vol. 7, pp. 164-169, 2014.

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[11]        R. K. Upadhyay, "Effects of plant latex based anti-termite formulations on Indian white termite, odontotermes obesus (Isoptera: Odontotermitidae) in sub-tropical high infestation areas," Journal of Animal Science, vol. 3, pp. 281-294, 2013. Available at: https://doi.org/10.4236/ojas.2013.34042.

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[15]        N. Lulie and N. Raja, "Evaluation of certain botanical preparations against African bollworm, helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and non target organisms in chickpea, cicer arietinum L," Journal of Biofertilizers & Biopesticides, vol. 3, pp. 1-6, 2012. Available at: https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-6202.10000130.

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Weldesenbet Beze Kassie (2019). Evaluation of Selected Botanical Extracts against Mendi Termite Macrotermes subhyalinus (Isoptera: Termitidae), under Laboratory Condition. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 6(2): 135-140. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2019.62.135.140
Termites are most pestiferous insects causing damage to crop and buildings. Their control still relies mainly on harmful chemical pesticides to the detriment of eco-friendly pesticides. The main objective of the study was evaluate seed extracts of Brassica nigra and leaves extracts of Acokantra schimperi, Croton macrostachyus and Rhamnus prinoides against Macrotermes subhyalinus, known to cause damage to crops, vegetation and buildings in Ethiopia. Treatments were consisted of three concentrations levels (5, 10 and 15 weight of botanical powder (g) per 100 ml volume of water) by three replications. Mortality of termite was counted after 24, 48 and 72 hours exposure for both conditions. The results of all botanical extracts at all concentration levels showed that caused mortality of M. subhyalinus workers. Complete mortality (100%) of M. subhyalinus was observed after treatment with 15 w/v B. nigra extract at three time intervals. Moreover, A. schimperi at 15 w/v concentration also resulted 100% mortality after 48-72 hours of exposure. Brassica nigra extract showed least LC50 (5.63g/100ml) value than other botanical extracts after 24 hours exposure. Based on their toxicity status extracts of B. nigra > A. schmperi > R. prinoides > C. macrostachyus leaf extracts.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by giving important information for farmers, government and Non-governmental developmental sectors to control Mendi Termite Macrotermes subhyalinus by using of these locally available botanical extracts alternatives rather than using synthetic pesticides because, botanical extracts have minimum mammalian toxicity and environmental influences.

Floristic Composition and Density of Main Woody Species of the Parklands in Two Phytogeographical Zones in Burkina Faso

Pages: 54-67
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Floristic Composition and Density of Main Woody Species of the Parklands in Two Phytogeographical Zones in Burkina Faso

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2019.62.54.67

Nabaloum Moumouni , Belem Mamounata , Ouoba Pounyala Awa , Yameogo Josephine , Da Dapola Evariste Constant

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Nabaloum Moumouni , Belem Mamounata , Ouoba Pounyala Awa , Yameogo Josephine , Da Dapola Evariste Constant (2019). Floristic Composition and Density of Main Woody Species of the Parklands in Two Phytogeographical Zones in Burkina Faso. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 6(2): 54-67. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2019.62.54.67
This study carries out in three villages belonging to the two phytogeographical zones (South-Sudanian and North-Sudanian sectors) in Burkina Faso. It intends to describe the floristic composition and calculate three main woody species density of the agroforestry parks in those two phytogeographical zones. The methodology consisted, on the one hand, to measure the area of fields and, on the other hand, the floristic species inventory. The results show that parklands in Bala (South-Sudanian phytogeographical zone) contains 14 species from 14 genus and 9 botanical families: Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae, Fabaceae-Faboideae-Mimosoideae, Bombacaceae, Anacardiaceae, Meliaceae Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Moraceae, and Verbenaceae. The parklands of Toessin and Bonogo (North-Sudanian sector) are rich of 51 species, 36 genus and 22 families which are, in additional to those cited in Bala Rubiaceae, Fabaceae-Faboideae, Ebenaceae Rhamnaceae, Balanitaceae, Anonnaceae, Myrtaceae, Bignoniaceae, Moringaceae, Apocynaceae, Sterculiaceae and Lythraceae. The calculation of trees density showed that the dominant woody species in the parks of Bala are in order of importance Vitellaria paradoxa, Parkia biglobosa and Tamarindus indica. Their maximum densities are respectively 66; 8 and 1 trees/ha. On the other hand, in Toessin and Bonogo, north-sudanian sector Lannea microcarpa, Vitellaria paradoxa, Parkia biglobosa predominate with maximum densities respectively from 34, 38 and 3 trees/ha.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature concerning floristic composition and density of the ligneous in the parklands. This study uses a new estimation methodology: measure, survey. This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated in these aspects. This study documents the knowledge on the ligneous and distribution.

Adoption and Perception of Farmers towards Attributes of Improved Teff (Quncho) Varieties: Evidence from Benishangul-Gumuz Region of Ethiopia

Pages: 68-82
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Adoption and Perception of Farmers towards Attributes of Improved Teff (Quncho) Varieties: Evidence from Benishangul-Gumuz Region of Ethiopia

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2019.62.68.82

Regasa Dibaba Wake , Afework Hagos Mesfin , Chilot Yirga , Endeshaw Habte

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Regasa Dibaba Wake , Afework Hagos Mesfin , Chilot Yirga , Endeshaw Habte (2019). Adoption and Perception of Farmers towards Attributes of Improved Teff (Quncho) Varieties: Evidence from Benishangul-Gumuz Region of Ethiopia. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 6(2): 68-82. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2019.62.68.82
Adoption and wider diffusion of improved Teff varieties (Quncho) are playing a vital role overriding present situation of food insecurity in many parts of Ethiopia. However, the use of improved teff varieties are constrained by various factors. Hence, in this study, an attempt was made to examine factors affecting the adoption and use of improved teff varieties (Quncho) regarding attributes of varietal preferences of small-holder farmers. A multi-stage random sampling technique was employed to select 249 sample households from Assosa district and Mao-Komo special district. Descriptive statistical tools like mean, percentage, frequency distribution and t-test were used to summarize the characteristics of the sampled households. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data collected during 2015/16 production season. About 58.23% of the sampled household were adopters while 41.77% of them didn’t adopt improved Teff varieties (Quncho) in the study area. The finding of this study suggest that farmers in the area seek specific varietal attributes, such as yield potential, tolerance to disease and lodging, better Teff grain price and color, etc. The farmers’ preferences with improved Teff varieties-specific characteristics significantly determine adoption decisions, which suggests the need to go beyond the commonly considered socio-economic, demographic and institutional factors in the adoption process. There is a need to target small-holder farmers’ characteristics, priorities and production constraints while improved Teff varietal developments considering users preferences. Therefore, the research centers and extension system has to give more attention to participatory research which considers farmers’ priorities and needs.
Contribution/ Originality
The contribution of this paper is to analyze the preferences and perception of small-holder farmers towards attributes of improved teff varieties adoption and infer farmers’ perception of the new agricultural technology packages. Thus, the paper's primary contribution is finding that investigating the farmers’ varietal trait preference and characteristics of varieties required by farmers that would enhance the acceptance of the technologies in the farming community.

Optimal Rate of Nitrogen and Intra-Row Spacing for Economical Production of Onion under Irrigated Farming System in Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia

Pages: 83-94
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Optimal Rate of Nitrogen and Intra-Row Spacing for Economical Production of Onion under Irrigated Farming System in Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2019.62.83.94

Alebachew Merawie , Melkamu Alemayehu , Biruk Masrie

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Alebachew Merawie , Melkamu Alemayehu , Biruk Masrie (2019). Optimal Rate of Nitrogen and Intra-Row Spacing for Economical Production of Onion under Irrigated Farming System in Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 6(2): 83-94. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2019.62.83.94
Onion is one of the most important cash crops produced by smallholder farmers mainly during the irrigation season. However, the productivity of onion in Amhara Region is very low which is mainly associated with improper agronomic practices. This research was therefore conducted to increase the productivity of onion by identifying the optimum rate of nitrogen and intra-row spacing for economical production of the crop in Alawuha Small-Scale Irrigation Scheme. Four rates of nitrogen (0, 41, 82, 123 kg ha-1) and three intra-row spacing (6, 8, 10 cm) in factorial combination were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Results indicated that nitrogen and intra-row spacing significantly influenced most of the growth and phenological parameters of onion where application of 123 kg ha-1 nitrogen increased leaf number by 67.3% and prolonged days to maturity of onion by about 7 days compared to the respective control plants. Similarly, nitrogen rate and intra-row spacing significantly affected bulb yield of onion where the highest marketable bulb yield (37.48 t ha-1) was recorded by application of 123 kg ha-1 on plants spaced at 6 cm intra-row spacing which was statistically similar with those yield (35.07 t ha-1) recorded with the combination of 82 kg ha -1 nitrogen and 6 cm intra-row spacing. Application of 123 kg ha-1 nitrogen on plants spaced at 6 cm intra-row spacing is recommended for production of onion in Alawuha Small-Scale Irrigation Scheme as it recorded the highest net benefit (Eth-Birr 429,569) with relatively high marginal rate of return.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the influence of nitrogen rate and intra-row spacing on the bulb yield of onion in Amhara Region. Therefore, the findings of the present study will contribute to the improvement of production and productivity of onion in Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia.

Risk Factors for the Contamination of Wild Stomoxys niger niger Macquart 1851 (Diptera: Muscidae) with the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

Pages: 95-108
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Risk Factors for the Contamination of Wild Stomoxys niger niger Macquart 1851 (Diptera: Muscidae) with the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2019.62.95.108

Sevidzem Silas Lendzele , Mamoudou Abdoulmoumini , Simon Dickmu , Alfons Renz , Acapovi-Yao Genevieve Lydie , Jacques Francois Mavoungou , Rebecca Garabed

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Sevidzem Silas Lendzele , Mamoudou Abdoulmoumini , Simon Dickmu , Alfons Renz , Acapovi-Yao Genevieve Lydie , Jacques Francois Mavoungou , Rebecca Garabed (2019). Risk Factors for the Contamination of Wild Stomoxys niger niger Macquart 1851 (Diptera: Muscidae) with the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 6(2): 95-108. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2019.62.95.108
The study aimed at detecting the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA in Stomoxys niger niger and cattle. Flies were collected using a Vavoua trap pitched 50m from the center of the herd and by net-catches on clinically sick (n=5) and symptomless cattle (n=5). Vesicular Epithelia Tissues (VETs) from sick cattle were analyzed by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt RT PCR) and serum from randomly selected animals without clinical signs was examined by serological test (NSP-ELISA Kit) for the presence of FMDV antibodies. Of a total of 568 Stomoxys trapped using the Vavoua trap, two species were identified namely 196 S. niger niger (34.51 %, 9. 33 Snn/t/d), 101 S. omega (17.78%, 4.80 so/t/d) and 271 non-biting Musca sp. (47.71%, 12.90 m/vavoua and day). The dissected mouth and legs of each fly caught were screened for FMDV using the rt RT PCR. FMDV RNA was found in the epithelial vesicles of all clinically sick animals (n=5, with mean Ct of 27.98456) and 3 out of 5 were serologically positive in the clinically in-apparent cattle group. The overall S. n. niger (most abundant species) contamination rate with the FMDV irrespective of collection method was 40.3 % with females (49.0 %) being slightly more contaminated than males (21.7%) (OR =0.45, P= 0.1506) and legs being more often positive than mouth-parts (P=0.02002). Flies were contaminated less frequently on animals without clinical signs than those on animals with clinical signs, but this difference was not significant (P=0.69680).
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated on the mechanical transmission potential of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease by an African stable fly (Stomoxys niger niger). The FMD virus carrier status of wild S. n. niger was associated with the fly collection method, sex and anatomical part.

Effect of Seed Rate and Cultivar on Productivity of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in New Halfa Locality, Sudan

Pages: 109-114
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Effect of Seed Rate and Cultivar on Productivity of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in New Halfa Locality, Sudan

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2019.62.109.114

E. M. Eldey , A. M. El Naim , T. I. Ali

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E. M. Eldey , A. M. El Naim , T. I. Ali (2019). Effect of Seed Rate and Cultivar on Productivity of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in New Halfa Locality, Sudan. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 6(2): 109-114. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2019.62.109.114
An experiment was conducted for two winter seasons during 2016/017 - 2017/018 at the Experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kassala (New Halfa), Sudan to investigate the effect of seed rate and Variety of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on grain productivity under New Halfa environment. The treatments consisted of three seed rates (119kg/ ha, 143kg/ ha and 167kg/ ha) and two cultivars (Condor (early mature) and Bohin (medium mature). A complete randomized block design (CRBD) with four replications was used. The results revealed that the lesser seed rate (119 kg/ ha) had a lower grain yield compared with the mid seed rates (143kg ha-1) or highest seed rate (167kgha-1). Cultivars had significant differences in the total seed yield. Condor gave the highest seed yield. It could be concluded that the seed rate of 143 kg or 167 kg/ha recommended to improved seed yield in New Halfa area of Sudan.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the effect of seed rate and Variety of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on seed yield under New Halfa environment, Sudan.

Comparative Larvicidal Efficacy of Carica Papaya Leaves and Seed Extract on Mosquito Larval Population in Rice Fields in Bida Metropolis, Niger State

Pages: 115-120
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Comparative Larvicidal Efficacy of Carica Papaya Leaves and Seed Extract on Mosquito Larval Population in Rice Fields in Bida Metropolis, Niger State

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2019.62.115.120

Adamu, B.B , Ayisa T.T , Ideh, R.R , Oyedokun, N

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Adamu, B.B , Ayisa T.T , Ideh, R.R , Oyedokun, N (2019). Comparative Larvicidal Efficacy of Carica Papaya Leaves and Seed Extract on Mosquito Larval Population in Rice Fields in Bida Metropolis, Niger State. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 6(2): 115-120. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2019.62.115.120
This study elucidates the susceptibility of leaf and seed extract of Carica papaya on mosquito population breeding in rice fields. The study was conducted in Bida, Niger State using two rice fields sampled for two weeks. Mosquito immature stages (Larvae) were used throughout for the experiment. The leaf and seed extract of Carica papaya were prepared on instars and evaluated Larva stages were evaluated in the laboratory. Mosquito instars larvae stages (L3-L4) were exposed to a concentration of 10mg/ml, 20mg/ml, 30mg/ml, 40mg/ml, and 50mg/ml of each prepared Larvicide, (Leave and seed extract of Carica papaya) within 24hours, the percentage mean survival of the Larvae were recorded. At a concentration of 10mg/ml, 100% of the Larvae died within 3 to 12hours of exposure to seed and leave extract of Carica papaya. The mosquito growth and development were inhibited. However, both the leave and seed of Carica papaya can be used to control mosquito breeding in anthropogenic habitats of which the seed of Carica papaya is the most effective, especially in rice fields.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes to existing literature by the ways to control mosquito larvae infested farmlands using Carica papaya seeds extract. It employs sequential estimation formula which determines the concentration of extracts which mosquito larvae are susceptible.