Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062

Conference List

Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

December 2020, Volume 7, 2, pp 64-83

Plant Diversity and Regeneration Potentials in Protected Area Forests of Sierra Leone

Moses Fayiah


Shikui, Dong


Sanjah Singh


Roberto Xavier Supe Tulcan


Kadijatu Sheriff


Ibrahim Robinson Kargbo


Abdulai Barrie

Moses Fayiah 1 ,

Shikui, Dong 2
Sanjah Singh 3
Roberto Xavier Supe Tulcan 4
Kadijatu Sheriff 1 Ibrahim Robinson Kargbo 1 Abdulai Barrie 1 
  1. Department of Forestry, School of Natural Resources Management, Njala University, Sierra Leone. 1

  2. State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China; Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. 2

  3. Biodiversity and Climate Change Division, Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Dehradun, India. 3

  4. State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China. 4

Pages: 64-83

DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2020.72.64.83

Share :

Article History:

Received: 15 September, 2020
Revised: 08 October, 2020
Accepted: 30 October, 2020
Published: 18 November, 2020


Protected areas (PAs) around the globe are considered a reservoir for biodiversity conservation and an engine for ecosystem function and services. The regeneration potential of tropical forests in (PAs) is crucial to plant diversity survival and conservation, amid climate change in the 21st century. The PAs conservation and management status of Sierra Leone is uncertain. This study assessed the seedlings, saplings, and trees species diversity, abundance, richness and regeneration status of tropical forests in four PAs across Sierra Leone. We sampled 60 quadrats in total with each having a dimension of 20m × 20m. We found only a few new species with good regeneration potential in all the forest PAs were assessed, indicating that the resilience of these forests is quite low in the face of anthropogenic activities especially shifting cultivation and logging. Plant diversity index and soil factors were positively correlated, indicating that a decrease or increase in soil physical and chemical properties could affect speciation. The results show that diameter class distribution mainly falls within the 0-30cm category. Furthermore, abiotic factors (like precipitation and temperature), species richness, ecosystem complexity and over story were predicted to have influenced the regeneration and flora diversity of the PAs forests significantly. The results imply that PAs in Sierra Leone are going through serious exploitation and as such, plant diversity and richness is low and the regeneration ability is poor due to weak conservation strategies and approaches. It recommended that strategic planning and forest enrichment policies be instituted to mitigate future PAs forest exploitation.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies that investigate plant diversity, regeneration and soil properties across PAs in Sierra Leone. The research contributes to the existing literatures in PAs and their ecosystem characteristics. The article concludes that; PAs in Sierra Leone plant diversity and richness and regeneration ability is low.


Protected areas, Regeneration, Sierra Leone, Flora biodiversity, Seedlings, Saplings & Trees.


[1]          CBD-SL, "First national Report-Sierra Leone, on convention on biodiversity. Retrieved from . [Accessed 10 April 2019]," 2003.

[2]          GOSL-NBSAP, "Government of Sierra Leone‘s second national biodiversity strategy and action plan (NBSAP) 2017-2026. Retrieved from . [Accessed 28 February 2019]," 2017.

[3]          World Bank, "Sierra Leone biodiversity conservation project report. Retrieved from. [Accessed 18 April, 2019]," 2009.

[4]          G. Kier, J. Mutke, E. Dinerstein, T. H. Ricketts, W. Küper, H. Kreft, and W. Barthlott, "Global patterns of plant diversity and floristic knowledge," Journal of Biogeography, vol. 32, pp. 1107-1116, 2005.Available at:

[5]          C. Parmesan and M. E. Hanley, "Plants and climate change: Complexities and surprises," Annals of Botany, vol. 116, pp. 849-864, 2015.Available at:

[6]          I. Khaine, S. Y. Woo, M. Kwak, S. H. Lee, M. J. Sun, H. You, and H. C. Cheng, "Factors affecting natural regeneration of tropical forests across a precipitation gradient in myanmar," Forests, vol. 9, p. 143, 2018.Available at:

[7]          FAO, "Global forest resource assessment 2015," Country Report Sierra Leone; FAO: Italy, Rome2015.

[8]          R. Burgess, E. Miguel, and C. Stanton, "War and deforestation in Sierra Leone," Environmental Research Letters, vol. 10, p. 095014, 2015.Available at:

[9]          N. Norden, S. G. Letcher, V. Boukili, N. G. Swenson, and R. Chazdon, "Demographic drivers of successional changes in phylogenetic structure across life-history stages in plant communities," Ecology, vol. 93, p. 8, 2012.Available at:

[10]        P. S. Savill and J. E. D. Fox, The trees of Sierra Leone. Freetown Sierra Leone: Government Printing Press, 1967.

[11]        US-AID, "118/119 biodiversity and tropical forest assessment for Sierra Leone United States Aids. EPIQ IQC: EPP-I-00-03-00014-00, Task Order 02; Biodiversity Analysis and Technical Support Team. July 2007. Retrieved from:, " 2007.

[12]        B. Lemma, "Impact of exotic tree plantations on carbon and nutrient dynamics in abandoned farmland soils of southwestern Ethiopia1-42," PhD Dissertation. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, 2006.

[13]        R. A. Wadsworth and A. R. Lebbie, "What happened to the forests of Sierra Leone?," Land, vol. 8, p. 80, 2019.Available at:

[14]        O. G. A. Gordon, G. Karter, and D. C. Schwaar, "Vegetation and land use in Sierra Leone: A reconnaissance survey, Sierra Leone. Retrieved from [Accessed 30 January 2019]," 1979.

[15]        A. B. Karim and A. Okoni-Williams, "The potential effect of climate change on Sierra Leone’s biodiversity," A Report Commissioned by National Adaptation Programme of Action, Government of Sierra Leone (Unpublished)2005.

[16]        S. Jones, M. D. Burgess, F. Sinclair, J. Lindsell, and J. Vickery, "Optimal monitoring strategy to detect rule-breaking: A power and simulation approach parameterised with field data from Gola Rainforest National Park, Sierra Leone," Conservation and Society, vol. 15, pp. 334-343, 2017.

[17]        B. Wilebore, M. Voors, E. H. Bulte, D. Coomes, and A. Kontoleon, "Unconditional transfers and tropical forest conservation: Evidence from a randomized control trial in Sierra Leone," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, vol. 101, pp. 894-918, 2019.Available at:

[18]        M. B. Mascia and S. Pailler, "Protected area downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD) and its conservation implications," Conservation Letters, vol. 4, pp. 9-20, 2011.Available at:

[19]        M. M. Alemu, "Biodiversity and protected areas," Journal of Sustainable Development, vol. 9, pp. 67-72, 2016.

[20]        N. Dudley and S. Stolton, Defining protected areas: An international conference in Almeria, Spain. Switzerland: Gland, IUCN, 2008.

[21]        IUCN and UNEP, The world database on protected areas (WDPA). Cambridge, UK: UNEP-WCMC, 2009.

[22]        United Nations, "The millennium development goals report 2009," UN Department of Economic and Social Affair (Statistical Appendix). United Nations, New York, NY, U.S.A2009.

[23]        R. Dirzo, H. S. Young, M. Galetti, G. Ceballos, N. J. Isaac, and B. Collen, "Defaunation in the Anthropocene," Science, vol. 345, pp. 401-406, 2014.

[24]        FAO, Current issues in biodiversity conservation. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2002.

[25]        X. Ye, G. Liu, Z. Li, H. Wang, and Y. Zeng, "Assessing local and surrounding threats to the protected area network in a biodiversity hotspot: The Hengduan Mountains of Southwest China," PLoS One, vol. 10, p. e0138533, 2015.Available at:

[26]        K. S. Kanwal, S. Mahendra, S. L. Mahendra, and L. Yama, "Anthropogenic threats and floral biodiversity conservation of Tawang district of Arunachal Himalaya," presented at the National Symposium on Pteridological Studies in India, Perspectives and Modern Approaches in Relation to Environment & Climate Change (Conference February 2018), organized by Botanical Survey of India at Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India, 2018.

[27]        F. F. Baldwin and K. F. Beazley, "Emerging paradigms for biodiversity and protected areas," Land, vol. 8, pp. 1-12, 2019.Available at:

[28]        B. G. Mackey, J. E. Watson, G. Hope, and S. Gilmore, "Climate change, biodiversity conservation, and the role of protected areas: An Australian perspective," Biodiversity, vol. 9, pp. 11-18, 2008.Available at:

[29]        S. M. Hagerman and K. M. Chan, "Climate change and biodiversity conservation: Impacts, adaptation strategies and future research directions," Biological Reports, vol. 1, pp. 1-5, 2009.Available at:

[30]        UNEP, "Global environment outlook 6 regional assessments. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, Kenya. Retrieved from . [Accessed 10 April 2019]," 2016.

[31]        B. Spracklen, M. Kalamandeen, D. Galbraith, E. Gloor, and D. V. Spracklen, "A global analysis of deforestation in moist tropical forest protected areas," PLoS One, vol. 10, p. e0143886, 2015.Available at:

[32]        L. Braat, B. P. Ten, and T. Klok, "The cost of policy inaction: The case of not meeting the 2010 biodiversity target," presented at the Presentation at the CBD COP 9-Side Event of UNEP-FI and FFI, May 29, 2008, Bonn, Germany, 2008.

[33]        W. Xu, Y. Xiao, J. Zhang, W. Yang, L. Zhang, V. Hull, and S. Polasky, "Strengthening protected areas for biodiversity and ecosystem services in China," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 114, pp. 1601-1606, 2017.

[34]        J. Rockström, W. Steffen, K. Noone, Å. Persson, F. S. Chapin, E. F. Lambin, and H. J. Schellnhuber, "A safe operating space for humanity," Nature, vol. 461, pp. 472-475, 2009.

[35]        USAID, "Country profile Sierra Leone: Property rights and resource governance. Retrieved from [Accessed 20 April 2019]," 2010.

[36]        GOSL, "Government of Sierra Leone conservation and wildlife policy 2011 (Draft). Freetown Sierra Leone. Retrieved from . [Accessed 20 March 2019]," 2011.

[37]        O. Brown and A. Crawford, "Conservation and peace building in Sierra Leone," International Institute for Sustainable Development, 161 Portage Avenue East, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3B2012.

[38]        M. Fayiah, A. Otesile, and S. Mattia, "Review of challenges confronting the implementation and enforcement of environmental policies and regulations in Sierra Leone," International Journal of Advanced Research, vol. 6, pp. 530–541, 2018c.

[39]        X. Yang, D. Yan, and C. Liu, "Natural regeneration of trees in three types of afforested stands in the Taihang Mountains, China," PLoS One, vol. 9, p. e108744, 2014.Available at:

[40]        D. S. Rawat, S. S. Dash, B. K. Sinha, V. Kumar, A. Banerjee, and P. Singh, "Community structure and regeneration status of tree species in Eastern Himalaya: A case study from Neora Valley National Park, West Bengal, India," Taiwania, vol. 63, pp. 16-24, 2018.

[41]        Z. A. Malik and A. Bhatt, "Regeneration status of tree species and survival of their seedlings in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary and its adjoining areas in Western Himalaya, India," Tropical Ecology, vol. 57, pp. 677-690, 2016.

[42]        R. L. Chazdon and M. R. Guariguata, "Natural regeneration as a tool for large-scale forest restoration in the tropics: Prospects and challenges," Biotropica, vol. 48, pp. 716-730, 2016.Available at:

[43]        N. Dudley, "Guidelines for applying protected area management categories, Gland: IUCN, Switzerland. Retrieved from [Accessed 1 May 2019]," 2008.

[44]        R. Mishra, V. Upadhyay, and R. Mohanty, "Vegetation ecology of the similipal biosphere reserve, Orissa, India," Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, vol. 6, pp. 89-99, 2008.Available at:

[45]        R. Mishra., Ecology workbook: 244. New Delhi India: Oxford and IBH Publishing Company, 2013.

[46]        A. Saxena, S. Singh, and J. Singh, "Population structure of forests of Kumaun Himalaya: Implications for management," Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 19, pp. 307-324, 1984.

[47]        P. Haase, J. D. Tonkin, S. Stoll, B. Burkhard, M. Frenzel, I. R. Geijzendorffer, and W. H. McDowell, "The next generation of site-based long-term ecological monitoring: Linking essential biodiversity variables and ecosystem integrity," Science of the Total Environment, vol. 613, pp. 1376-1384, 2018.Available at:

[48]        D. Norris, M.-J. Fortin, and W. E. Magnusson, "Towards monitoring biodiversity in amazonian forests: How regular samples capture meso-scale altitudinal variation in 25 km 2 plots," PLoS One, vol. 9, p. e106150, 2014.Available at:

[49]        N. C. Kenke, D. A. Peltzer, D. Baluta, and D. Pirie, "Increasing plant diversity does not influence productivity: Empirical evidence and potential mechanisms," Community Ecology, vol. 1, pp. 165-170, 2000.Available at:

[50]        S. Singh, A. Verma, and R. Naik, "Study on regeneration of tree species in TFRI campus plantations, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh," Indian Journal of Tropical Biodiversity, vol. 25, pp. 20-30, 2017.

[51]        U. Shankar, "A case of high tree diversity in a sal (Shorea robusta)-dominated lowland forest of Eastern Himalaya: Floristic composition, regeneration and conservation," Current Science, vol. 81, pp. 776-786, 2001.

[52]        M. L. Jackson, Soil chemical analysis. New Delhi, India: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, 1973.

[53]        M. C. Amacher, K. P. O'Neil, and C. H. Perry, "Soil vital signs: A new soil quality index (SQI) for assessing forest soil health," Res. Pap. RMRS-RP-65WWW. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 240 West Prospect Road  Fort Collins, CO 80526 U.S.A2007.

[54]        G. Mandal and S. P. Joshi, "Invasion establishment and habitat suitability of Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson over time and space in the Western Himalayan forests of India," Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity, vol. 7, pp. 391-400, 2014.Available at:

[55]        S. Singh., Z. A. Malik, and C. M. Sharma, "Tree species richness, diversity, and regeneration status in different oak (Quercus spp.) dominated forests of Garhwal Himalaya, India," Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity, vol. 9, pp. 293-300, 2016.Available at:

[56]        G. V. Laurin, J. C. W. Chan, Q. Chen, J. A. Lindsell, D. A. Coomes, L. Guerriero, and R. Valentini, "Biodiversity mapping in a tropical West African forest with airborne hyperspectral data," PLoS one, vol. 9, p. e97910, 2014.Available at:

[57]        I. Kargbo, "Volume estimation of merchantable trees of Kambui North forest Kenema District Sierra Leone," A Dissertation Submitted to the School of Agriculture in Partial Fulfilment for the Award of Higher Diploma in Forestry, Njala University, Sierra Leone. (Unpublished), 2009.

[58]        E. Bendu, "Plant species diversity determination at Kasewe forest reserve Moyamba District, Kori Chiefdom Southern Sierra Leone," A Thesis Submitted to the Department of Forestry, School of Forestry and Horticulture, Njala University, for the Fulfilment of Higher Diploma in Forestry Sierra Leone (Unpublished), 2014.

[59]        H. Pereki, K. Wala, T. Thiel-Clemen, M. P. B. Bessike, M. Zida, M. Dourma, and K. Akpagana, "Woody species diversity and important value indices in dense dry forests in Abdoulaye Wildlife Reserve (Togo, West Africa)," International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 5, pp. 358-366, 2013.

[60]        M. Appiah, "Trees population inventory, diversity and degradation analysis of a tropical dry deciduous in Afram Plains Ghana," Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 295, pp. 145-154, 2013.Available at:

[61]        A. P. Koroma, "Causes of forest loss and degradation and issues of unsustainable forestry in Sierra Leone," Technical Report (Unpublished)2004.

[62]        GOSL, "Government of Sierra Leone forestry policy of 2010. Freetown Sierra Leone. Retrieved  from [Accessed 30 March, 2019]," 2010.

[63]        M. Fayiah, A. K. Swarray, S. Singh, and B. Chin, "Floristic biodiversity and stem volume of Kambui Forest Reserve, Kenema District, Sierra Leone," International Journal of Advanced Research, vol. 6, pp. 424-440, 2018a.Available at:

[64]        S. Mattia, O. Omiyale, and S. Sesay, "Productivity and tree species richness in mixed forest of national agricultural training centre (NATC), Njala University," Journal of Sustainble Environmental Management, vol. 7, pp. 93 – 104, 2015.

[65]        A. Bangura, "A comparative assessment of two vegetation’s within Njama Community, Moyamba District," A Thesis Submitted to the School of Natural Resources Management Njala University in Partial Fulfilment for the Award of B.Sc. in Forestry Degree, Sierra Leone (Unpublished), 2013.

[66]        R. Gatti, G. Laurin, and R. Valentini, "Tree species diversity of three Ghanaian reserves," IForest, vol. 10, pp. 362-368, 2017.Available at:

[67]        M. Fayiah. and A. Koroma, "The assessment of trees species diversity in Taia Riverine forest along with the Njala community, Moyamba District, Sierra Leone," Journal of Sustainable Environmental Management, vol. 7, pp. 11-20, 2015.

[68]        H. I. Aigbe, T. O. Adeyemo, and B. A. Oyebade, "Assessment of tree biodiversity of two tropical rainforest in Cross River State, Nigeria," International Journal of Science and Engineering Research, vol. 6, pp. 2229-5518, 2015.

[69]        M. Lemenih, T. Gidyelew, and D. Teketay, "Effects of canopy cover and understory environment of tree plantations on richness, density and size of colonizing woody species in southern Ethiopia," Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 194, pp. 1-10, 2004.Available at:

[70]        M. Fayiah.., M. K. Swarray, A. Otesile, and B. Chen, "Comparative study of the regeneration potential of Kasewe and Taia Riverine Forests, Moyamba District, Sierra Leone," presented at the 40th Annual Conference of Forestry Association of Nigeria (FAN) March 12-16, 2018 Edo State Nigeria, 2018b.

[71]        S. Palpurina, V. Wagner, H. von Wehrden, M. Hájek, M. Horsák, A. Brinkert, and P. Hájková, "The relationship between plant species richness and soil pH vanishes with increasing aridity across Eurasian dry grasslands," Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol. 26, pp. 425-434, 2017.Available at:

[72]        J. Rocky and C. Mligo, "Regeneration pattern and size-class distribution of indigenous woody species in exotic plantation in Pugu Forest Reserve, Tanzania," International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 4, pp. 1-14, 2012.

[73]        C. G. Jones, J. H. Lawton, and M. Shachak, "Organisms as ecosystem engineers," Oikos, vol. 69, pp. 373-386, 1994.Available at: 10.2307/3545850.

[74]        L. Poorter, F. Bongers, R. S. van Rompaey, and M. de Klerk, "Regeneration of canopy tree species at five sites in West African moist forest," Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 84, pp. 61-69, 1996.Available at:

[75]        T. C. Whitmore, Tropical rain forests of the far East. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 1975.

[76]        A. K. Bose, A. Weiskittel, R. G. Wagner, and C. Kuehne, "Assessing the factors influencing natural regeneration patterns in the diverse, multi-cohort, and managed forests of Maine, USA," Journal of Vegetation Science, vol. 27, pp. 1140-1150, 2016.Available at:

[77]        M. Borja, "Climate change and forest natural regeneration in Mediterranean mountain areas," Forest Research, vol. 3, pp. 1-2, 2014.Available at:

[78]        T. Hengl, J. Mendes de Jesus, G. B. Heuvelink, M. Ruiperez Gonzalez, M. Kilibarda, A. Blagotić, and B. Bauer-Marschallinger, "SoilGrids250m: Global gridded soil information based on machine learning," PLoS one, vol. 12, p. e0169748, 2017.Available at:

[79]        C. Folberth, R. Skalský, E. Moltchanova, J. Balkovič, L. B. Azevedo, M. Obersteiner, and M. Van Der Velde, "Uncertainty in soil data can outweigh climate impact signals in global crop yield simulations," Nature Communications, vol. 7, pp. 1-13, 2016.Available at:

[80]        C. Gol, M. Cakir, and A. Baran, "Comparison of soil properties between pure and mixed Uludag Fir (Abies nordmanniana ssp. bornmülleriana Mattf.) stands in Ilgaz Mountain national park," Ekoloji, vol. 19, pp. 33-40, 2010.Available at:

[81]        S. V. Ollinger, M. L. Smith, M. E. Martin, R. A. Hallett, C. L. Goodale, and J. D. Aber, "Regional variation in foliar chemistry and N cycling among forests of diverse history and composition," Ecology, vol. 83, pp. 339-355, 2002.Available at:[0339:rvifca];2.

[82]        N. Kanagaraj, R. Kaleeswari, and M. Tilak, "Impact of altitudes on soil characteristics in dry deciduous forest ecosystem, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India," International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, vol. 6, pp. 2218-2224, 2017.Available at:

[83]        T. Hengl, J. M. de Jesus, R. A. MacMillan, N. H. Batjes, G. B. Heuvelink, E. Ribeiro, and M. G. Walsh, "SoilGrids1km—global soil information based on automated mapping," PLoS One, vol. 9, p. e105992, 2014.Available at:

[84]        R. D. Finaly, "Interactions between soil acidification, plant growth and nutrient uptake in ectomycorrhizal associations of forest trees," Ecology Bulletin, vol. 44, pp. 197-214, 1995.Available at:

[85]        T. Medinski, "Soil chemical and physical properties and their influences on plant species richness in arid Southern-West Africa," A Thesis Submitted for the Award of the Degree of Master of Science in Conservation Ecology. University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2007.

[86]        M. Huston, "Soil nutrients and tree species richness in Costa Rican forests," Journal of Biogeography, vol. 7, pp. 147-157, 1980.Available at:

[87]        D. Amara, MK, A. Kamara, and E. Momoh, "Soil fertility status of three chiefdoms in Pujehun District of Southern Sierra Leone," Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences, vol. 4, pp. 461-464, 2013.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


This research was financially supported by the grants from the Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research Program (2019QZKK0307), National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFC0501906), Qinghai Provincial Key R&D program (2019-SF-145 & 2018-NK-A2), Qinghai innovation platform construction project (2017-ZJ-Y20). The authors would also thank the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


Many thanks is extended to Mr M. Swarray (Botanist) attached to the Gola Rainforest National Park in Sierra Leone for trees species identification. Many more thanks is extended to authors field researchers assistants, Mr. Mohamed Shaw, Salia P. Sannoh, Mr. Edward H. Sama and Mr. Musa M. Swarray for their support in collecting data in the field.

Related Article

( 1 ) Efficacy of Allicin (Allium Sativum Linn.) Against Bipolaris Sorokiniana in Barley Plants
( 2 ) Ethnomedicinal Survey of Plants Used In Treating Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Abia State, Nigeria
( 3 ) Review: Plant Resistance to Agriculture Insect Pests
( 4 ) Evaluation of In Vitro Protocols for Elimination of Banana Streak Virus from Tissue Cultured Explants in Banana Seedling Production
( 5 ) Effect of Ethanol and Petroleum Ether Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants on Sclerotiumrolfsii, Causal Agent of Postharvest Rot of Yam (Dioscorea Spp.)
( 6 ) The Particle Size and Thermal Properties of Flour from three Plantain (Musa Paradisiaca) Cultivars Grown in Nigeria
( 7 ) Management of Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Javanica Infecting Sunflower by Some Composted Plant or Animal Residues as Soil Amendments in Egypt
( 8 ) Effect of a Plant Extract in Several Traits of Plymouth Rock Barred Hens and Pullets Challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium in a Rural Village in Central Mexico
( 9 ) Duration of Freezing Influences Sensory Attributes of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Plantain (Musa paradisiaca AAB)
( 10 ) Patterns of Plant Community Formation and Vegetation Structure in the Afro- Alpine Vegetation of Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia
( 11 ) Evaluation of Repellency of Plant-Derived Insecticide against Brinjal and Pepper Pest Populations
( 12 ) Effect of Planting Date on Growth and Yield of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subtermnea (L) Verdc.) Varieties in Rainforest Zone of Delta State
( 13 ) Chemical Changes Associated with Repetitive Re-Use of Vegetable Oil during Deep Frying of Bean Cake, Plantain and Yam
( 14 ) Comparing the Molluscicidal Action of Metaldehyde, Oxamyl, Potassium Nitrate and a Botanical Insecticide for Managing Limacolaria Spp Infesting Banana Plantations in Cameroon
( 15 ) Study of Heavy Metals Variability and their Effect on Plant Growth in Kanzenze River of Upper Akagera Catchment, Rwanda
( 16 ) Plant Diversity and Regeneration Potentials in Protected Area Forests of Sierra Leone
( 17 ) Diversity, Use Pattern and Management of Forest Resources in the Eastern Himalaya: A Case Study of Mizoram, India
( 18 ) Tree Species Diversity and Productivity Relationship in the Central Region of Bangladesh
( 19 ) Diversity and Growth Characteristics of Tree Species in the Botanical Gardens, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
( 22 ) Climate Relevant Emissions from Animal Production and Reduction Potentials
( 23 ) Storage Effects on Microbiological and Some Antioxidant Potentials of Partially Substituted Bread Produced from Wheat Flour and Fresh Coconut Meat
( 26 ) Urban Area - Review of Protective Forest Management
( 27 ) Effects of Cotton Gin Trash Level on the Performance of Desert Lambs in New Halfa Area, Kassala State, Sudan
( 28 ) Economics of Sheep Production in Zuru Local Government Area of Kebbi State Nigeria
( 29 ) Analysis of Rainfall and Temperature Variability to Guide Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolar) Production in Miesso Areas, Eastern Ethiopia
( 30 ) Analysis of Determinants of Demand and Supply of Maize in Aniocha North Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria
( 31 ) Analysis of Fresh Fish Marketing in Ngaski Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria
( 32 ) Profitability of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPS) Production and Marketing in Zuru Local Government Area, Kebbi State: A Case for Honey
( 33 ) Assessment of Veterinary Inspection Practices on Quality of Beef Produced In Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
( 34 ) Farmers Assessment of the Training and Visit Extension System in Niger State: Evidence from Fadama Ii & Iii in Mokwa Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria
( 35 ) Effects of Ebola (EVD) Outbreak on Bush Meat Marketing and Consumption in Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
( 36 ) Gender Issues of Labour Participation in Vegetable Production in Ikorodu Local Government Area of Lagos State
( 37 ) Productivity of Farmland Values in Food Crop Production in the Natural Disasters Prone Areas of Imo State, Nigeria
( 38 ) Determinants of Farmers' Use of Land Reclamation Practices in Oil Producing Areas of Imo State, Nigeria: Application of Multivariate Logistic Analysis
( 39 ) Perception of Cassava Farmers of Climate Change on Cassava Production in Ido Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
( 40 ) Attitude of Youth to Agriculture as Career in Iwo and Aiyedire Local Government Areas of Osun State, Nigeria
( 41 ) Attitude of Youths to Agriculture as Career in Iwo and Aiyedire Local Government Areas of Osun State, Nigeria
( 42 ) Ectoparasitosis in Domesticated Turkeys (Meleagris Gallopavo) in Jere Area, Borno State, Nigeria
( 43 ) Adoption Impact of Improved Cowpea Variety in Selected Areas of Chattogram District of Bangladesh