Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062

Conference List

Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

June 2019, Volume 6, 2, pp 157-168

Growth and Yield Response of Shallot (Allium cepa var. aggregatum) Varieties to Intra-Row Spacing in Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia

K. Esuyawukal-Moges


Z. Biruk-Masrie

K. Esuyawukal-Moges 1

Z. Biruk-Masrie 2

  1. North Wollo Administrative Zone, Gidan District Office of Agriculture, Woldia, Ethiopia. 1

  2. College of Agriculture, Woldia University, Woldia, Ethiopia. 2

Pages: 157-168

DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2019.62.157.168

Share :

Article History:

Received: 09 September, 2019
Revised: 11 October, 2019
Accepted: 14 November, 2019
Published: 30 December, 2019


Shallot is an important crop as a condiment as well as a source of income for smallholder farmers in Ethiopia. However, the yield of the crop is constrained by a number of factors among which inappropriate plant spacing and lack of improved varieties are the bottlenecks of its productivity in the study area. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted at Densa, Eastern Amhara, and Ethiopia to evaluate the growth and yield response of shallot varieties to intra-row spacing. The treatments consisted of four intra-row spacings (5, 10, 15 and 20 cm) and three shallot varieties (Dz-sht-157-1B, Dz-sht-91-2B, and Yheras). These were laid out in randomized complete block design replicated three times. Data on growth and yield parameters were recorded and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results indicated that varying intra-row spacings from 5 to 20 cm increased significantly (P <0.01) all yield characters assessed in all the traits except cured bulb yield (t ha-1) which decreased as a result of increasing intra-row spacing from 5 to 20 cm. Highest total bulb yield (26.20 t ha-1) and marketable bulb yields (25.24 t ha-1) were recorded at the closest intra-row spacing (5 cm). Dz-sht-157-1B variety was superior in terms of leaf number per plant (35.82), average bulb weight (69.08 g), marketable yield (24.46 t ha-1) and total bulb yield (25.17 t ha-1). Hence, based on the result, Dz-sht-91-2B grown at 10 cm intra-row spacing should be adopted by farmers in study area. However, further investigations on multiplications and over years should be made to come up with complete recommendations.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by conducting a field experiment at Densa, Eastern Amhara, and Ethiopia to evaluate the growth and yield response of shallot varieties to intra-row spacing.


Dz-sht-157-1B, Dz-sht-91-2B, Growth, Intra-row spacing, Marketable yield, Shallot, Total bulb yield, Varieties, Yheras.



[1]          W. E. Splittstoesser, Vegetable growing handbook: Organic and traditional methods, 3rd ed. New York: Chapman and Hall, 1990.

[2]          Food and Agriculture Organization Statistical Data Base (FAOSTAT), "The agriculture data basehttp." Retrieved: [Accessed January 16, 2019], 2017.

[3]          A. Shimeles and D. Lemma, "The performance of true seed shallot lines under two methods of planting at different environments of Ethiopia," Research Journal of griculture and Environmental Management, vol. 4, pp. 174-179, 2015.

[4]          W. Kebede, "Shallot (Allium cepa var. ascalonicum): Responses to plant nutrients and soil moisture in a sub-humid tropical climate," Doctoral Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Acta Universitas Agriculturae Sueciae, Agraria 367, Alnarp, 2003.

[5]          Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia (CSA ), Report on areas and production of crops (private peasant holding, meher season).The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Central statistical Agency. Addis Ababa: Statistical Bulletin, 2017.

[6]          T. Getachew, D. Eshetu, and D. Tebikew, "Guidelines for shallot and garlic production," Debre-Ziet Agricultural Research Center, Debre-Ziet, Ethiopia, vol. 6, pp. 51-67, 2009.

[7]          T. Tekalign, Y. Abdissa, and L. M. Pant, "Growth, bulb yield and quality of onion (Allium cepa L.) as influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on vertisol. II: Bulb quality and storability," African Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 7, pp. 5980-5985, 2012.Available at:

[8]          A. Shimeles, "The performance of true seed shallot lines under different environments of Ethiopia," Journal of Agricultural Sciences, vol. 59, pp. 129-139, 2014.Available at:

[9]          A. Dereje, D. Belew, and G. Tabor, "Influence of bulb topping and intra row spacing on yield and quality of some shallot (Allium Cepa Var. Aggregatum) varieties at Aneded woreda, Western Amhara," African Journal of Plant Science, vol. 6, pp. 90-202, 2012.Available at:

[10]        Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MOARD), Crop variety register book. Addis Ababa: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, 2016.

[11]        K. Yemane, D. Belew, and F. Abay, "Effect of intra-row spacing on yield and quality of some onion varieties (Allium cepa L.) at Aksum, Northern Ethiopia," African Journal of Plant Science, vol. 7, pp. 613-622, 2013.Available at:

[12]        Gidan Woreda Agriculture Office (GWAO), "Annual report," Submitted to North Wollo Adminstrative Zone, Woldia, Ethiopia. Ref. No. 3722008.

[13]        D. Lemma and Z. Yayeh, "Varietal development on vegetable crops. .In: Herath, E., Lemma D. (Eds.), Horticultural Research and Development in Ethiopia," in Proceeding of the 2nd Horticultural Workshop, IAR, Addis Ababa, 1994, pp. 110-130.

[14]        D. Lemma and A. Shimeles, "Research experience in onion production," Research Report Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization, vol. 55, pp. 10-20, 2003.

[15]        T. Getachew and Z. Asfaw, "Achievements in shallot and garlic research in Ethiopia," Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia2004.

[16]        M. Tendaj, "Shallot production and research in Poland," Vegetable Crops Research Bulletin, vol. 62, pp. 55-60, 2005.

[17]        S. Ege, "North Wolo 1:100,000." “Topographic and administrative map of North Wolo Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Norway: Trondheim”, NTNU. Retrieved: http://www.ACYBGNRgWu4tyb_Q9A1Itjf9biihGQ4LHw:1570328449613&q, 2002.

[18]        K. Seifu, Groundwater in Ethiopia: Features, numbers and opportunities. Verlag Berlin Heidelberg: Springer, 2013.

[19]        Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), Released crop varieties and their recommended cultural practices. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Progress Report, 2004.

[20]        D. o. A. IPGRI, International plant genetic resources institute, Rome, Italy; European cooperatives programme for crop GeneticsNetwork (EC/GP). Taiwan: Asian Vegetables Research and Development, 2001.

[21]        SAS, SAS Institute Inc. What’s new in SAS@ 9.2. Cary, North Carolina, USA: SAS Institute Inc, 2009.

[22]        B. Sara, M. Daniel, G. Solomon, and S. Weldemariam, "Effect of intra-row spacing on growth and yield components of Adama red onion (Allium cepa L.) Cultivar Under Irrigation in Fiche, North Shoa Ethiopia," Journal of Harmonized Research in Applied Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 231-240, 2015.

[23]        B. N. Fikadu, "Effect of spacing and nitrogen fertilizer on the yield and yield component of shallot (Allium ascalonium L.)," Journal of Agronomy, vol. 14, pp. 220-226, 2015.Available at:

[24]        A. Karaye and A. Yakubu, "Influence of intra-row spacing and mulching on weed growth and bulb yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in Sokoto, Nigeria," African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 5, pp. 260-264, 2006.

[25]        W. Tegbew, "Yield and yield components of onion (Alliumcepa Var.cepa) cultivars as influenced by population density," MSc. Thesis Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies of Haramaya University, Ethiopia, 2011.

[26]        R. Ngullie and P. Biswas, "Effect of plant and row spacing on growth and yield of onion under Mokokchung district of Nagaland," International Journal of Plant Sciences (Muzaffarnagar), vol. 12, pp. 28-35, 2017.Available at:

[27]        K. Saurabh, R. B. Ram, K. Sachin, M. L. Meena, and K. Satyendra, "Effect of spacing and different cultivars on growth and yield of onion under Lucknow conditions (Allium cepa L.)," International Journal of Pure & Applied Bioscience, vol. 5, pp. 612-616, 2017.Available at:

[28]        A. Geremew, T. Abdisa, K. Tolesa, and A. Chali, "Effect of intra-row spacing on yield of three onion (Allium cepa l.) varieties at Adami Tulu agricultural research center (mid rift valley of Ethiopia)," Journal of Horticulture and Forestry, vol. 2, pp. 7-11, 2010.

[29]        U. Aliyu, A. Dikko, M. Magaji, and A. Singh, "Nitrogen and intra-row spacing effects on growth and yield of onion (Allium cepa L.)," Plant Science, vol. 3, pp. 188-193, 2008.Available at:

[30]        S. Abubaker, "Effect of plant density on flowering date, yield and quality attribute of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under center pivot irrigation system," American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 666-668, 2008.

[31]        S. Tibebu, M. Tora, A. Shumbulo, and S. Urkato, "The effect of variety, nitrogen and phousphorous fertilization on growth and bulb yield of onion (Allium Cepa L.) at Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia," Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, vol. 4, pp. 89-97, 2014.

[32]        A. L. Broome, "Biomass and photosynthetic efficiency of Allium species grown in elevated carbon dioxide levels, with different plant densities and harvest schemes," A Dissertation in Agronomy Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Texas Technology University, 2009.

[33]        S. Agele, I. Maraiyesa, and I. Adeniji, "Effects of variety and row spacing on radiation interception, partitioning of dry matter and seed set efficiency in late season sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in a humid zone of Nigeria," African Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 2, pp. 80-88, 2007.

[34]        M. H. Kabir and M. A. R. Sarkar, "Seed yield of mungbean as affected by variety and plant spacing in Kharif-I season," Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University, vol. 6, pp. 239-244, 2008.

[35]        A. Seck and A. Baldeh, "Studies on onion bulb yield and quality as influenced by plant density in organic and intensive cropping systems in the Gambia (West Africa)," in African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, 2009, pp. 169 -173.

[36]        L. H. Carlson, D. Kirby, B. Kliewer, and C. Thompson, "Evaluation of cultural practices to control hollow heart in premier russet," University of California Intermountain Research and Extension Center, Research Progress, No 121, 2009.

[37]        M. S. Jilani, A. Ghaffoor, K. Waseem, and J. I. Farooqi, "Effect of different levels of nitrogen on growth and yield of three onion varieties," International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, vol. 6, pp. 507-510, 2004.

[38]        M. S. Jilani, M. Q. Khan, and S. Rahman, "Planting densities effect on yield and yield components of onion (Allium cepa L.)," Journal of Science Agricultural Researh, vol. 47, pp. 397-404, 2009.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


Competing Interests:


Related Article

( 1 ) Effect of Different Concentrations of Vermicompost (Biohumus) On the Root Collar Diameter and Height Growth in the Seedlings of Anatolian Black Pine
( 2 ) The Influence of Probiotics and Antibiotic Growth Promoter on Growth Performance and Hemato-Biochemical Parameters in Broilers
( 3 ) Comparative Growth Analysis and Yield Performance of Glycine Max under Jatropha Curcas Based Agrisilviculture System of Agroforestry in the Northern Part of Bangladesh
( 4 ) Effect of Whole Inedible Date and Amino Acid Supplementation on Growth Performance of Ross 308 Broiler Chicks
( 5 ) In Vitro Differential Effect of Nerve Growth Factor on Functional Parameters of Murrah Buffalo Spermatozoa in Low and High Fertile Groups
( 6 ) Genotypic Difference in Growth and Yield Related Traits of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Varieties at Southern Tigray
( 7 ) Study on Agronomic Evaluation of Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum, Mill.) Varieties for Phonological, Growth and Yield Characters
( 8 ) Comparative Effect of Organic and In-Organic Fertilizer Treatment on the Growth and Tuberyeild of Sweet Potato (Ipomea Batata L)
( 9 ) The Effects of Magnetic Field on Germination of Seeds and Growth of Seedlings of Stone Pine
( 10 ) Comparing Post-Partum Growth by Body Weight between Sex and Litter Size of Agouti (Dasyprocta Leporina) Offspring from Birth to 360 Days Old
( 11 ) Effect of Integrated Application of Poultry Manure and Chemical NP Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Yield Components of Highland Maize Variety on Vertisol at Ambo University on Station, Ethiopia
( 12 ) Evaluation of Different Tillage Practices on Growth and Yield of Fluted Pumpkin Telfairia Occidentalis in Uyo, Southeastern Nigeria
( 13 ) Accelerating Agricultural Productivity to Enhance Economic Growth in Botswana
( 14 ) Growth and Survival Parameters and Blood IgG and Total Protein Levels of Calves Born in the First Production Year of Brown Swiss and Simmental Cows
( 15 ) Diversity and Growth Characteristics of Tree Species in the Botanical Gardens, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
( 16 ) Influence of Biochar and Poultry Manure on Weed Infestation and Growth of Arabica Coffee (Coffea Arabica) Seedlings
( 17 ) Effect of Planting Date on Growth and Yield of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subtermnea (L) Verdc.) Varieties in Rainforest Zone of Delta State
( 18 ) Growth and Yield Response of Shallot (Allium cepa var. aggregatum) Varieties to Intra-Row Spacing in Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia
( 19 ) Estimation of Water Stress in Guinea and Sudano-Sahelian Ecological Zones of Nigeria Under Climate Change and Population Growth
( 20 ) Growth Performance of Kit Rabbits Fed Concentrate Diet Supplemented with Varying Foliage Leaf Meals
( 21 ) Interactive Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Rhizobium on Growth and Nutrient Content of Arachis hypogaea
( 22 ) Study of Heavy Metals Variability and their Effect on Plant Growth in Kanzenze River of Upper Akagera Catchment, Rwanda
( 23 ) Effect of Different Sources of Fertilizers on the Yield and Yield Components of Wheat Variety Kohat-2000 Under Rainfed Conditions of Kohat During 2012
( 24 ) GGE and Ammi Biplot Analysis for Field PEA Yield Stability in Snnpr State, Ethiopia
( 25 ) Effect of Different Types of Surfectants on Zinc Efficiency in Spinach Yield
( 26 ) Evaluation of Field Pea (Pisum Sativum L) Genotypes Performance for Yield and Yield Components at Five Growing Environments of Southern Ethiopia
( 27 ) Characterization and Association among Yield and Yield Related Traits in Sunflower (Helianthus Annus L) Genotypes
( 28 ) Association between Yield Components of Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor L. (Moench) Under Different Watering Intervals
( 29 ) Effect of Sowing Date on Maize Seed Yield and Quality: A Review
( 31 ) Correlation between Milk Yield, Somatic Cell Count and Milk Quality in Dairy Farming
( 32 ) Stover Yield and Chemical Composition in Some Sorghum Varieties in Gadarif State, Sudan
( 33 ) Genotype X Environment Interaction and Stability Analysis for Yield and Yield Related Traits of Desi-Type Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.) In Ethiopia
( 34 ) Effect of Intra Spacing on Yield and Yield Components of Carrot (Daucus Carrota L.Sub Sp. Sativus)
( 39 ) Heterosis for Nitrogen Fixation and Seed Yield and Yield Components in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
( 40 ) Molecular Characterization of Parental Lines of Rice Aiming to Address High Yield and Nutritional Quality Under Drought and Cold Stress Condition
( 41 ) Harvesting Date Influences Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Yield and Quality of Based-Products
( 42 ) Uncertainty Analysis and Calibration of Swat Model for Estimating Impacts of Conservation Methods on Streamflow and Sediment Yield in Thika River Catchment, Kenya
( 43 ) The Impact of Intensive Utilization of Cultivated Land on Grain Yields: A Case Study of Shandong Province in China
( 44 ) Genotype-Environment Interactions and Yield Stability of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp) in Lomami Province, Central Part of Democratic Republic of Congo
( 45 ) Effect of Blended Fertilizer and Lime Application on Yield of Finger Millet, and Soil Properties of Acidic Soils in Western Ethiopia
( 46 ) Physiological Aspects of Yield Variation among Seven Groundnut Genotypes Cultivated under Rain-Fed Conditions
( 49 ) Root Density, Distribution and Yield Relationships of High Yielding Sugarcane Varieties Under Sandy Soil Condition
( 50 ) Insect Activities and their Impact on the Yield of Abelmoschus esculentus L ( Malvaceae) in Bambili ( Mezam - Cameroon)
( 51 ) On-Farm Evaluation of Conservation Agriculture Practice on Weed Control and Yield of Wheat in Northern Bangladesh
( 52 ) Olfactory Response of an Assassin Bug, Rhynocoris Longifrons (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae) To the Hexane Extracts of Different Agricultural Insect Pests
( 53 ) Effect of Temperature and Time on the Physical Properties of Bread Produced from Wheat – Cocoyam Flour Using Response Surface Methodology
( 54 ) Runoff Response to Climate Variability: An Analysis of Thika River Basin in Kenya Using Hydrological Simulation Model (Hysim)
( 55 ) Changes in Certain Agronomic Characteristics of Table Grape Cultivar Alphonse Lavallee’ in Response to Water Deficit under the Different Rootstock Effect
( 56 ) Response of Intraspecific Crosses in F1 and their Deterioration in F2 Generation of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
( 57 ) Purple-Blue Pigmentation Production as a Sign of Immune Response by Bleached Corals to Avoid Stress Caused by Elevated Sea Surface Temperature
( 59 ) Phototactic Response of Two Spotted Cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus De Geer) to Electric Bulb Light Colours and Types
( 60 ) Modelling and Optimization of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Paddy Pre-Treatments for Optimum Chemical Property using Response Surface Methodology
( 62 ) Efficacy of Allicin (Allium Sativum Linn.) Against Bipolaris Sorokiniana in Barley Plants
( 64 ) Performance Evaluation of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Varieties at Benatsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, Ethiopia
( 69 ) Effect of Domestic Cooking on Physicochemical Parameters, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Properties of Algerian Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L. Var. Marmande)
( 72 ) Antioxidant Activity of Eight Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum L.) Varieties Grown in Algeria
( 73 ) Study on Adaptability of Released Midland Maize Varieties around South Ari Woreda, South Omo Zone, Southern Nation Nationality Peoples Region, Ethiopia
( 74 ) Performance Evaluation and Adaptation of Lentil Varieties in Lemu, Gumur and Damot Gale Districts of Southern Ethiopia
( 76 ) Evaluation of Improved Varieties of Teff in West Belessa, Northwest Ethiopia
( 79 ) Feeding Potential of Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus on Different Date Palm, Phoenix Dactylifera Varieties Under Field Conditions
( 80 ) Adaptation Study of Mung Bean (Vigna Radiate) Varieties in Raya Valley, Northern Ethiopia
( 82 ) The Quality of Fried Chips Varies with Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Varieties and Soaking Regime
( 83 ) Adoption and Perception of Farmers towards Attributes of Improved Teff (Quncho) Varieties: Evidence from Benishangul-Gumuz Region of Ethiopia
( 85 ) The Effect of Varieties and Fungicide Spray Frequencies on Septoria Leaf Blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola) Epidemics on Bread Wheat in Western Amhara, Ethiopia
( 86 ) Evaluation of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Varieties against Faba Bean Gall Disease in North Shewa Zone, Ethiopia
( 87 ) Sources of Resistance to Stem Rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in Improved Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum l.) Varieties of Ethiopia
( 88 ) Evaluation of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna Subterranea (L) Verdc.) Varieties for Adaptation to Rainforest Agroecological Zone of Delta State, Nigeria
( 91 ) Monte Carlo Modeling for Aflatoxin B1 Distribution in Pistachio Samples: A Prerequisite for Sampling Plan Validation
( 92 ) Farmer’s Decision To Practice Crop Rotation in Arsi Negelle, Ethiopia: What are the Determinants?
( 93 ) Storage Stability of Intermediate Moisture Cauliflower Brassica Oleracea, Var, Botrytis Cabbage Brassica Oleracea, Var, Capitata Using Radiation as Hurdle Technology
( 94 ) Nutritional, Functional and Sensory Properties of Biscuit Produced from Wheat-Sweet Potato Composite
( 95 ) Effect of Some Botanicals against Termites, Macroterms Spp. (Isoptera: Termitidae) Under Laboratory Conditions
( 97 ) Effect of Disc and Tilt Angles of Disc Plough on Tractor Performance under Clay Soil
( 99 ) Protective Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobrochus Maculatus (F.) Infestation in Stored Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.)
( 100 ) Screening of Mycotoxins Producer Fungal and Aflatoxins Level in Dried and Smoked Fish (Clarias Sp.) and (Oreochromis Sp.) from Lake Fitri - Chad
( 101 ) Curative Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobruchus Maculatus F. Infested Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.) Grain in Storage
( 102 ) Impact of Abattoir Effluent on Soil Chemical Properties in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria
( 103 ) Soil Respiration, Microbial Biomass and Ratios (Metabolic Quotient and Mbc/Toc) As Quality Soil Indicators in Burnt and Unburnt Aleppo Pine Forest Soils
( 105 ) Effects of Cotton Gin Trash Level on the Performance of Desert Lambs in New Halfa Area, Kassala State, Sudan
( 107 ) Review: Plant Resistance to Agriculture Insect Pests
( 108 ) Analysis of Rainfall and Temperature Variability to Guide Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolar) Production in Miesso Areas, Eastern Ethiopia
( 109 ) Survey on Economical Important Fungal Diseases of Tomato in Sub-Zoba Hamemalo of Eritrea
( 110 ) Studies on Seasonal Performance of Newly Developed Bivoltine Silkworm (Bombyx Mori L) Hybrids Tolerant To Bmnpv and Effect of Temperature on Disease Induction
( 111 ) Frequency of Gastrointestinal Parasites and Egg per Gram Faeces Count of Nematodes in Black Bengal Goat under Field Condition in West Bengal, India
( 112 ) Constraints to Brood and Sell Poultry Production among Farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria
( 113 ) Evaluation of In Vitro Protocols for Elimination of Banana Streak Virus from Tissue Cultured Explants in Banana Seedling Production
( 114 ) Variation in Density and Shrinkage between Sawmill and Hand Processed Khaya Senegalensis Woodin Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria
( 115 ) Effect of Using Different Pre-Storage Warming Times on Hatchability of White Hisex Breeders’ Eggs
( 116 ) Evaluation of the Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobialproperties of Extracts from Chrysophyllum Albidum (African Star Apple) Leaf
( 117 ) Combined Microbial Inoculation as a Promising Approach to Enhance Promiscuous Soybean Nodulation and Nitrogen Content in Sudan Savanna
( 119 ) Cholesterol Content of Bull Spermatozoa Alters Survival at Ultra-Low Temperatures
( 120 ) Chemical Analysis of Acacia Ehrenbergiana (Salam) Tree Fruits (Seed and Pods) As Dry Season Supplement For Livestock in Arid and Semi –Arid Lands of Sudan
( 121 ) Effects of Degasified Extender on Quality Parameters of Cryopreserved Bull Spermatozoa
( 122 ) Bioaccumulation of Hydrocarbon, Heavy Metals and Minerals in Tympanotonus Fuscatus from Coastal Region of Bayelsa State, Nigeria
( 124 ) Analysis of Consumer Willingness to Pay for Genetically Modified Maize Food in Swaziland
( 125 ) Microbiological Profile, Shelf Stability and Some Physicochemical Properties of Fermented Flour from Different Sweet Potato Cultivars
( 126 ) Exposure of Medium Dose Gamma Rays and Storage Conditions Influenced the Weight Loss and Ripening of Alphonso Mango
( 127 ) “Evaluation of Phytochemical Constituents of the Fruits of Cucumis Sativus Linn. For their Hepatoprotective Activity by Molecular Docking Studies”
( 129 ) Management of Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Javanica Infecting Sunflower by Some Composted Plant or Animal Residues as Soil Amendments in Egypt
( 130 ) Effect of Contamination by Fungi and Yeast on the Physiochemical Characteristics of Gum Arabic Stored in Semi-Desert Climate of Khartoum City, Sudan
( 132 ) The Domestic Livestock Resources of Turkey: Social Aspects, Genetic Resources and Conservation of Companion Animal Cats (Felis Catus)
( 133 ) Straw Composting with Biological Agent Inoculation and Application Biofertilizer to Increase Rice Production
( 135 ) Mobile Food Consumption Monitoring Application
( 138 ) Evaluation of Selected Botanical Extracts against Mendi Termite Macrotermes subhyalinus (Isoptera: Termitidae), under Laboratory Condition
( 139 ) The Evaluation of the Agriculture of Hazelhazelnut in Duzce According to Climate Parameters
( 140 ) The Domestic Livestock Resources of Turkey: Silkworm (Bombyx Mori, L. 1758) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) Lines and their Conservation
( 142 ) Mechatronics and Precision Livestock Farming in Mexican Animal Production
( 143 ) Stage Specific Life Table of Invasive Pest Mealybug, Phenacoccus Solenopsis (Tinsley) Under Cotton Field Conditions
( 145 ) A Tobit Analysis of Propensity to Discontinue Adoption of Yam Minisett Technology among Farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria
( 146 ) Molecular Studies on E.Coli Isolate from Milk of Mastatic Cattle with Special Reference to Associated Biochemical Changes in Kaliobea Governorate
( 147 ) Helminths and Protozoa of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Ruminants in Tanzania
( 150 ) Rural Farmers’ Coping Strategies to Effects of Climate Change on Watermelon Production in Igboora, Oyo State, Nigeria
( 151 ) Productivity Analysis of Labor for Use on Potatoes
( 152 ) Investigating Constraints to Poultry Management Practices among Smallholder Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria
( 153 ) Effects of Different Storage Conditions on Rooting and Shooting Performance of Grapevine (Vitis Vinifera L.) Cuttings in Hydroponic Culture System
( 154 ) Edible Films and Coatings: A Good Idea From Past to Future Technology
( 155 ) Pulsing Preservatives to Prolong Vase Life of Cut Rose Flowers in Bahir Dar, Northwestern Ethiopia
( 156 ) Study of Factors Linked to the Variation in Rentability in the Farming of Broiler Chickens in Northeast Algeria
( 157 ) Social, Economical and Environmental Issues of Floriculture Sector Development in Ethiopia
( 158 ) Gross Morphology and Morphometric Studies of Digestive Tract of Barn Owl (Tyto alba)
( 159 ) A Pictorial Guidebook on Poultry Diseases; Diagnostic Techniques and their Effective Treatment
( 160 ) Social, Economical and Environmental Issues of Floriculture Sector Development in Ethiopia
( 161 ) Attitude of Youth to Agriculture as Career in Iwo and Aiyedire Local Government Areas of Osun State, Nigeria
( 162 ) Assessment of Technical Efficiency of Layer Production in Mampong Municipality: Stochastic Frontier Approach
( 163 ) Attitude of Youths to Agriculture as Career in Iwo and Aiyedire Local Government Areas of Osun State, Nigeria
( 164 ) Importance of Arginine as Immune Regulator in Animal Nutrition
( 165 ) Insecticide Spraying Regime to Control Insect Pest of Cowpea: Management and Monitored Application of Cypermethrin in Lomami Province, DR Congo
( 167 ) Floristic Composition and Density of Main Woody Species of the Parklands in Two Phytogeographical Zones in Burkina Faso
( 169 ) Effect of Tuber Sections, Heat Treatment and Rehydration with Process Chemicals on the Physicochemical Properties of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea Batatas L. (Lam)) Flour
( 170 ) Ectoparasitosis in Domesticated Turkeys (Meleagris Gallopavo) in Jere Area, Borno State, Nigeria
( 171 ) Probiotic Supplementation in Poultry Production as an Alternative to Antibiotic Feed Additive