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Analysis of Credit Ratings Determinants: Evidences in Brazilian and American States

Nathalia Santos de Oliveira


Fabiano Guasti Lima


Carlos Alberto Grespan Bonacim


Rafael Confetti Gatsios


Alexandre Assaf Neto

Nathalia Santos de Oliveira 1 Fabiano Guasti Lima 1 Carlos Alberto Grespan Bonacim 1 Rafael Confetti Gatsios 1 ,
Alexandre Assaf Neto 5

  1. School of Economics, Business Administration and Accounting at Ribeirao Preto University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. 1

  2. Assaf Institute, Business Administration and Accounting at Ribeirao Preto University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. 5

Pages: 248-260

DOI: 10.18488/journal.62.2020.74.248.260

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Article History:

Received: 10 March, 2020
Revised: 13 April, 2020
Accepted: 15 May, 2020
Published: 01 June, 2020


This piece of work, due to its relevance, aims to analyze the methodology used in the determining of ratings, not only expanding the number of variables tested and broadening the discussion on rating determinants, but also using variables which solely measure the market, liquidity credit and operational risks. Thus, the risks mentioned were compared to the ratings set for each Brazilian state from 2013 to 2017 (post-adoption of the MCASP accounting standard for financial statements) and for each American state from 2006 to 2016 (the most recently published financial datum). In face of that, this work is different from the others because it seeks to broaden the researches and the methods used in public listed companies or in financial companies, in public finances of Brazilian and American states, a subject which is little approached in researches. The ordered logit model was used since the credit rating is considered latent variables, besides following an ordinal version. The study was carried out with 50 American states, 26 Brazilian states and 648 ratings altogether. The model proposed in this work proved to be efficient, being able to successfully estimate 64.10% of the sample of the Brazilian states and 68.50% of the sample of the American states. The results reached are specially relevant for stakeholders, who are able to analyze or manage their possible investments regarding risk and return.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature to answer which drivers explain the ratings of the Brazilian and American states. This paper is different from the others because it broadens the researches regarding credit ratings determinants since the method used by rating agencies is not transparent with regard to the rating definition process.


Credit risk, Credit rating, Rating agency, Operacional risk, Liquity risk, Ordered logit.


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This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

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( 280 ) Interfaces Between Road Infrastructure and Poverty in Africa: The Case of Malawi, 1994-2013
( 281 ) Food Security Amongst Small Grains and Long Grains Smallholder Farmers of Masvingo Province in Zimbabwe
( 284 ) Implications of Crude Oil Price Volatility and Parallel Exchange Rate Fluctuation on the Cost of Living in Nigeria
( 285 ) National Security and Democratization in Nigeria: The Case of Insurgence
( 286 ) The Link Between Agricultural Budgetary Allocation and Economic Growth in Nigeria
( 287 ) Evaluation of the Current Procurement Planning Process in a District Municipality
( 288 ) An Econometric Planning Model of Urban Forestry as a Measure of Sustainability: A Matrix of Action and Change
( 289 ) Technological Innovation in Central and Eastern Europe: What’s the Contribution of Innovation Policy?
( 290 ) Pollution Tax Under Imperfect Competition and Air Transport in a Domestic Economy
( 291 ) Financial Deepening, Interest Rate Spread and Economic Growth: New Evidence from Sub-Sahara Africa
( 292 ) Internationalization of State Multilatinas: A Multi-Case Study in The Oil Sector
( 293 ) Implications of Accountants Unethical Behavior and Corporate Failures
( 294 ) Relevance of Stakeholders Theory, Organizational Identity Theory and Social Exchange Theory to Corporate Social Responsibility and Employees Performance in the Commercial Banks in Nigeria
( 295 ) A Brief Survey of the House Allocation Problems
( 296 ) Public Sector Size and GDP Growth Nexus: Panel Data Estimation
( 298 ) Overview of the Most Common Types of Maladministration Raised at EU Level
( 299 ) Financial Tables Reports Gaps in Jordanian Islamic Banks
( 300 ) Analyzing Factors Affecting the Success of Social Media Posts for B2b Networks: A Fractional-Factorial Design Approach
( 301 ) The Influence of Communication, Work Motivation and Career Development on Elementary School Teacher’s Job Performance in Medan, Indonesia
( 302 ) Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on Banks Financial Performance in Nigeria: A Study of United Bank of Africa
( 303 ) Rural Roads Infrastructure and Agricultural Products Distribution: A Focus on Akure South Local Government Area, Ondo State, Nigeria
( 305 ) What Drives Banking Stability? Empirical Evidence from ECOWAS Countries
( 306 ) Construction and Application of Water Resource Accounting Information System in Taiwan
( 307 ) The Profitability of Momentum Strategies: Empirical Evidence from Damascus Securities Exchange (DSE)
( 308 ) Determinants of Rural Residential Solid Waste Collection Services in Lagos State
( 309 ) Is Alumni Salary an Appropriate Metric for University Marketers?
( 310 ) A Case Study of Local Government Implementation of the Ward Based Local Economic Development (LED) Program
( 311 ) Investigation on SMEs Features in Both China and Iran
( 312 ) The Effect of Work-Life Balance on Accounting Ethics
( 313 ) On the Prediction of the Inflation Crises of South Africa Using Markov-Switching Bayesian Vector Autoregressive and Logistic Regression Models
( 314 ) Military Regimes and Nigeria’s Economic Development, 1966-1999
( 316 ) Entrepreneurial Networking and Women Entrepreneurs’ Contribution to Employment Creation in Rivers State, Nigeria
( 317 ) Participatory Processes in Planning for Self-Help Housing Provision in South Africa: Policies and Challenges
( 318 ) The Moderating Effect of Governance Mechanisms on the Relationship Between Innovation Strategy and the Performance
( 319 ) An Investigation of the Relationship between Manufacturing Output and Economic Growth : Evidence from Nigerias Data Set
( 320 ) Under-Utilization of Female Capital: A Quantitative Study in Pakistani Perspective
( 321 ) The Role of Social Entrepreneurship in Pakistan and its Impact on Economy
( 322 ) Public-Private Partnership as a Strategy for E-Governance Funding in Africa: The Gains and the Pains
( 324 ) Employee Loyalty and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour in the Port Harcourt Area Command of the Nigeria Police Force
( 325 ) Effect of Institutional Factors on Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria
( 326 ) Does Gold Price Lead or Lags Islamic Stock Market and Strategy Commodity Price? A Study from Malaysia
( 327 ) Measuring and Assessing the State of Technological Innovations and the Level of Interaction between Rice Processors and Stakeholders in Rice Processing Industry in Nigeria
( 328 ) An Evaluation of Effectiveness of Oversight Committees: A Case of City of Johannesburg, Section 79 Committees
( 329 ) An Investigation into the Causes of Failures in Railway Infrastructure at Transnet Freight Rail - A Case of the Steel and Cement Business Unit
( 330 ) Macroeconomic Indicators and Capital Formation Growth in Nigeria: A New Evidence
( 331 ) Foreign Capital Inflows and Unemployment in Nigeria: A New Evidence from ARDL-Bounds Testing Approach
( 332 ) Social Protection and Agricultural Production in ECOWAS: The Youth Unemployment Question
( 333 ) Financial Market Predictions with Factorization Machines: Trading the Opening Hour Based on Overnight Social Media Data
( 334 ) Electronic Banking Innovations and Selected Banks Performance in Nigeria
( 335 ) The Effect of Internal and External Factors of Companies on Profitability and its Implications on Stock Price Index of State-Owned Banks
( 336 ) An Empirical Investigation into the Key Drivers of Economic Performance in the CEMAC Zone: A Panel Corrected Standard Errors Approach
( 337 ) Firm-Level Investment Decisions Under Uncertainty and Irreversibility in Zimbabwes Private Firms
( 338 ) Awareness on Air Pollution and Risk Preparedness among Residents in Kigali City of Rwanda
( 339 ) The Nexus between Urbanization, Energy Demand and Healthcare in Bangladesh
( 340 ) Leading Indicators and Financial Crisis: A Multi-Sectoral Approach Using Signal Extraction
( 341 ) Triple Hurdle Model with Zero Expenditures
( 342 ) Incorporating Islamic Ethic Elements into Marketing Mix Paradigm
( 344 ) Forecasting Equity Index Volatility: Empirical Evidence from Japan, UK and USA Data
( 345 ) Intention to Use E-Recruitment System: Empirical Evidence from Jobseekers in the Advertising Industry in Malaysia
( 346 ) Disaggregated Foreign Capital Inflows and Economic Growth in a Developing Economy: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria
( 347 ) Impact of Telecommunications Market Liberalization on Labor Productivity in Economic Community of West African States
( 348 ) Urban Population Growth and Environmental Sustainability in Nigeria
( 349 ) The Importance of Public Administration Towards Achieving Good Governance for Positive National Development by Using SmartPLS 3
( 350 ) Depositors Confidence and Mergers and Acquisitions: The Nigerian Banking Sector Experience
( 351 ) Assessment of Dual Carriageway for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
( 352 ) Industrialization and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Human Capital in Structural Transformation
( 353 ) Trade Policy and Democracy for Development in Central African Countries
( 354 ) Does Agricultural Sector Contribute to the Economic Growth in Case of Republic of Benin?
( 355 ) Determinants of Public Sector Corruption in Nigeria
( 356 ) Exchange Rate and Foreign Reserves Interface: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria
( 357 ) Impact of Participatory Decision Making on Organisational Goal Attainment
( 358 ) Conceptualisation of Lack of Discipline and Probity as the Main Cause towards Good Governance Practice
( 359 ) Forecasting Prices of Three Important Agricultural Crops in Bangladesh
( 360 ) Uncertainties in Global Economic Policy and Nigerias Export Earnings
( 361 ) Service Quality and Outpatients Satisfaction in Public Hospitals in Malaysia
( 362 ) Satisfaction with Applications Fuels the Growth of Mobile Wallet Use in Thailand
( 363 ) Public Health Expenditure, Economic Growth and Health Outcomes in Nigeria
( 364 ) Health Care Outcomes, Malnutrition and Food Security in Southern Africa Development Community: A Quantile Regression Approach
( 365 ) External Debt and Economic Growth: Two-Step System GMM Evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa Countries
( 366 ) Decision-Making on Working Capital Management, Based on Industry Differences
( 367 ) Investigate Airport Service Quality- A Case Study of Airports in Shanghai
( 368 ) An Entrepreneurship Research in Singapore: Basic Psychological Needs and Motivation
( 369 ) The Impact of Organisational Culture on Public Sector Performance: A Case Study of Local Authorities in Zimbabwe
( 371 ) The Roles of Labour Union in Nigeria Industrial Harmony and Development
( 372 ) Foreign Direct Investment in Zimbabwe: The Role of Uncertainty, Exports, Cost of Capital, Corruption and Market Size
( 373 ) Profitability of Commercial Bank on Interest Rate Deregulation
( 374 ) Gamification on Sales Force Performance in Nigeria Bottling Company
( 375 ) Foreign Direct Investment - Growth Linkage in Sub-Saharan Africa: Is Governance a Mediating Factor?
( 377 ) Factors that Influence Profitability of General Insurance Issuers in Indonesia
( 378 ) An Investigation of the Impact of Organisational Structure on Organisational Performance
( 379 ) Impact of Exchange Rate Fluctuation on Selected Economic Sectors of the Nigerian Economy
( 381 ) Determinants of Banks Profitability & Liquidity and the Role of BASEL III in Islamic & Conventional Banking Sector of Pakistan: A Case Study of NBP
( 382 ) Impact of Asymmetric Government Spending on Real Balances Demand
( 383 ) Factors Influencing Human Capital in Ready Made Garments Industry in Bangladesh
( 384 ) Investigating the Impact of Business Alignment on Job Gratification in an Organization: The Case of a University in Egypt
( 385 ) External Debt and Nigeria's Sovereignty
( 386 ) The Colonialists & Indigenous Exchange Currency: Tracing the Genesis of Socioeconomic Woes in Postcolonial Nigeria
( 387 ) Migration as a Livelihood Strategy: The Case of Internal Migration in Ghana
( 388 ) Impact of Network Finance Development on Inflation: Evidence from Chinese Market
( 389 ) Profitability Behavior of Plastic Industries in Indonesia
( 390 ) An Empirical Evaluation of Cashless Systems Implementation in Ghana
( 391 ) Correlation between Financial Difficulties and Financing Strategies among Market Stallholders in Batangas City
( 392 ) Africa's Human Capital Development: Is Public Finance Management an Effective Strategy?
( 395 ) Regime Changes in the Volatility of Stock Markets
( 396 ) The Transitional Relationship between Economic Growth and Exchange Rate in Ghana: An Empirical Approach
( 397 ) Optimal Stock Portfolio Issuers of Building Construction Registered in LQ45 Based on the Markowitz Approach
( 399 ) The Impact of Military Spending on Economic Wellbeing in Nigeria
( 400 ) Does Social Barriers Influence Women's Intention toward Entrepreneurship?
( 401 ) The Effect of Selected Factors on Tax Revenue Mobilization in Ethiopia: The Case of Amhara Region
( 402 ) Deterrents to the Success of Micro and Small Enterprises in Ethiopia: The Case of Amhara Region MSEs
( 403 ) The Relationship between Financial Development, Economic Growth, and Inflation: Evidence from Southeast Asia
( 404 ) The Mediating Effect of Financial Self-Efficacy on the Financial Literacy-Behavior Relationship: A Case of Generation Y Professionals
( 405 ) Determinants of Corporate Tax Avoidance Strategies among Multinational Corporations in Malaysia
( 406 ) Study on the Effect of Foreign Investment on Anhuis Industrial Structure Optimization
( 408 ) Activity Cost Management and its Effect on Enterprise Productivity
( 409 ) Exploring the Asymmetric Linkage between Commodity Prices and Fiscal Performance in Nigeria
( 410 ) Assessing the Perceived Value of Customers for being Satisfied towards the Sustainability of Hypermarket in Malaysia
( 411 ) Effects of Socio-Cultural Diversity on the Performance of Private Health Care Organizations in Kogi State
( 412 ) Organizational Memory and Employee Performance in Federal Parastatals in Enugu State of Nigeria
( 414 ) The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure on Corporate Financial Performance
( 415 ) Family Leadership and Small to Medium Sized Enterprises Research and Development Investments
( 417 ) Rethinking Port Role as Transport Corridor under Symbiosis Theory-Case Study of China-Europe Trade Transportation
( 418 ) Determinants of Exchange Rate in Nigeria: A Comparison of the Official and Parallel Market Rates
( 419 ) Exchange Rate Pass-through to Prices: VAR Evidence for Albania
( 420 ) Can Small-Cap Active Funds Substantially Outperform the Market Over Time?
( 421 ) Analyzing the Financial Soundness of Kuwaiti Banks Using CAMELS Framework
( 422 ) Growing and Building: Collaboration of Urban Poverty Reduction Strategy
( 423 ) Issues of Unemployment in Nigeria: Effect of Real Exchange Rate and Inflation Interaction
( 424 ) Challenges and Opportunities of Investment to the People of Sebeta Town, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
( 425 ) Fiscal Reaction Functions and Public Debt Sustainability in Nigeria: An Error Correction Mechanism Approach
( 427 ) Exchange Rate Volatility, Foreign Exchange Market Intervention and Asymmetric Preferences
( 428 ) Consumers’ Behavioural Intention to Adopt Mobile Banking in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa Using an Extension of Technology Acceptance Model: Lessons from Zimbabwe
( 429 ) Value for Money (VFM) Audit and Public Sector Performance in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria
( 431 ) Seasonal Assessment of Relative Humidity, Ambient Air Temperature and CO2 Concentration Level in School Buildings of Kigali-Rwanda
( 433 ) How can Female Executives Shape the Effectiveness of Executive Compensation?- A Multi-Dimensional Approach
( 435 ) Does External Borrowing Affect Economic Growth? A Revisit of the Age-Long Debate for Nigeria
( 436 ) What are the Contextual Influences of Bank Criminality in Osun East Senatorial District?
( 437 ) Determinant of MSMEs Performance and its Impact on Province GRDP in Indonesia
( 438 ) Innovations Dissemination Approaches among Government Co-Operative Supporting Organisations in Tanzania
( 439 ) The Effectiveness of the Production of Healthy Rice in Comparison with other Rice Varieties in the Upper Northern Region of Thailand
( 441 ) Perceived Poverty and Alleviation Efforts of Kogi State Community and Social Development Agencies in Kogi State: An Empirical Investigation
( 442 ) Analysing the Financial Strength of Nigeria: An Approach to Estimate the Index of Financial Safety
( 443 ) Determinants of Financial Performance and its Impact on the Growth of Islamic Bank Assets on Indonesia
( 444 ) The Role of Social Security Program for Enhancing Seniors Longevity
( 445 ) Trade Union Performance and Industrial Relations Climate in the Nigerian Petroleum Sector
( 446 ) Externality Effects of Sachet and Plastic Bottled Water Consumption on the Environment: Evidence from Benin City and Okada in Nigeria
( 447 ) Nexus between Non-Oil Sectoral Contribution and Economic Growth in Nigeria 1981-2018
( 448 ) Re-Engineering Nigerian Economy through Human Capital Development: A Case of Manufacturing Firms In Southern Part of Nigeria
( 450 ) The Impact of Land Price Movements on the Properties in Croatia
( 451 ) An Empirical Investigation of Real Exchange Rate Responses to Foreign Currency Inflows: Revisiting the Dutch Disease Phenomenon in South Asia
( 452 ) Financial Inclusion and Poverty Alleviation: The Contribution of Commercial Banks in West Africa
( 453 ) Factors Affecting the Individual Stock Price Index (IHSI) Industrial Manufacturing Sector in Indonesia, Automotive Sub Sectors, and Components in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX)
( 454 ) Management of The CFA Franc: What are the Fundamentals of the Real Exchange Rate in West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)?
( 455 ) Evaluating the Model of Demand for Money in Nigeria
( 456 ) Intellectual Property Rights, Human Capital and Innovation in Emerging and Developing Countries
( 457 ) Entrepreneurship Training for Mitigating Unemployment in Nigeria: How have the Tertiary Institutions Fared?
( 458 ) Evaluating the Effectiveness of CAPM and APT for Risk Measuring and Assets Pricing
( 459 ) Innovation Strategy and Sustainability of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in South East Nigeria
( 460 ) Do Derivative Instruments Increase Firm Risk for Indonesia Non-Financial Companies?
( 461 ) State and Evolution of Public and Private Research and Development in Bulgarian Agriculture
( 462 ) Inflation, Oil Revenue, and Monetary Policy Mix in an Oil-Dependent Economy: Empirical Insights from the Case of Nigeria
( 463 ) Effect of Brand Enhancement on Buying Behavior towards the Sport Sponsorship Companies in Riyadh, KSA
( 464 ) Efficiency of Microfinance (MF) Institutions in Bangladesh: A Study on Top 10 MF Institutions
( 465 ) Does Capital Structure Affect the Profitability of Listed Family and Non-Family Firms? Evidence from Bangladesh
( 466 ) Critical Review of Literature on Brand Equity and Customer Loyalty
( 467 ) Factors Influencing on Human Resources Development in SMEs Service Enterprises in Industry 4.0: The Case of Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam
( 468 ) Is Loyalty Still the Same? An Investigation of the Antecedents of Loyalty
( 469 ) Investigating the Environmental Effects of Economic Growth in African Economies
( 472 ) Effect of Savings Deposit Rate on Stock Market Capitalization in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation