Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062

Conference List

Relevance of Stakeholders Theory, Organizational Identity Theory and Social Exchange Theory to Corporate Social Responsibility and Employees Performance in the Commercial Banks in Nigeria

Joseph Albasu


Jerome Nyameh

Joseph Albasu 1
Jerome Nyameh 2

  1. Leed University UK 1

  2. Department of Economics, Taraba State University, Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria 2

Pages: 95-105

DOI: 10.18488/journal.62.2017.45.95.105

Share :

Article History:

Received: 24 February, 2017
Revised: 20 April, 2017
Accepted: 22 June, 2017
Published: 03 August, 2017


The study examine the perceived impact of corporate social responsibility in the Nigerian commercial banks in order to investigate the two constructs of independent and dependent variable one study objective was formulated as (i) To investigate if internal CSR practices have influence on employees’ performance in the Nigerian banks. A qualitative method was adopted for the study because flexibility in data gathering was essential to understand the internal CSR practices of the banks. The sample population for the interviews was directors and executives of CSR from the main six banks operating in Nigeria based on their per-capital shares and nationwide presence.  The interview questions were opened ended in nature and structured based on the findings of literature on internal CSR and divided into sections. The Nvivo9 software was used to conduct the analysis of the data collected. The finding revealed that ta number of factors could contribute to the level at which internal CSR influence employee’s performance.

Contribution/ Originality


Corporate social responsibility, Employee’s performance, Commercial banks and Nigeria.



Aaronson, S.A., 2003. Corporate responsibility in the global village: The British role model and the American laggard. Business and Society Review, 108(3): 309-338. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher

Abraham, R.V., D.E. Rupp, C.A. Williams and J. Ganapathi, 1998. Corporate governance and social responsibility: A comparative analysis of the UK and The US. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 14(3): 147 - 158.

Aguilera, R.V., D.E. Rupp, C.A. Williams and J. Ganapathi, 2006. Corporate governance and social responsibility: A comparative analysis of the UK and the US. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 14(3): 147 - 158. View at Google Scholar 

Aguilera, R.V., D.E. Rupp, C.A. Williams and J. Ganapathi, 2007. Putting the S back in corporate social responsibility: A multi level theory of social change in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 32(3): 836-863. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher

Albinger, H.S. and S.J. Freeman, 2000. Corporate social performance and attractiveness as an employer to different job seeking  populations. Journal of Business Ethics, 28(3): 243-253. View at Google Scholar 

Amaeshi, K.M., B. Adi, C.O. Ogbechie and O.O. Amao, 2006. Corporate social responsibility in Nigeria: Western mimicry or indigenous influences? Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 24: 83-99. View at Google Scholar 

Aquinis, H., 2011. Public responsibility in the private corporation. Journal of Industrial Economics, 20(2): 135-145.

Auppperle, K.E., A.B. Carroll and J.D. Hatfield, 1985. An empirical examination of the relationship between corporate social responsibility and profitability. Academy of Management Journal, 28(2): 446-463. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher

Bauman, A. and J. Skitka, 2012. Corporate social responsibility as a source of employee satisfaction. Research in Organizational Behavior, 32(2012): 63–86. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher

Bhattacharya, C. and S. Sen, 1995. Doing better at doing good: When, why and how consumers respond to corporate social initiatives. California Management Review, 47(1): 9-24.

Bowling, N.A., K.J. Eschleman, Q. Wang, C. Kirkendall and G. Alarcon, 2010. A meta-analysis of the predictors and consequences of organization-based self-esteem. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(3): 601-626. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher

Carmelli, A., G. Gillat and D.A. Waldman, 2007. The role of perceived organizational performance in organizational identification, adjustment and job performance. Journal of Management Studies, 44(6): 972-992. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher

Carroll, A.B., 1979. A three-dimensional conceptual model of corporate performance. Academy of management Journal Review, 4(4): 497-505. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher

Carroll, A.B., 1999. Corporate social responsibility: Evolution of a definitional construction. Business and Society, 38(3): 268-295 View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher

Carroll, A.B., 2008. A  history of CSR: Concept and practices. In: Crane, A., Matten, D., McWilliams, A., Moon, J., & Siegel, D. (Eds), The Oxford  handbook of corporate social responsibility. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp: 19-45.

Castello, I. and J.M. Lozano, 2011. Searching for new forms of legitimacy through corporate responsibility rhetoric. Journal of Business Ethics, 100(1): 11-29. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher

Cheney, S., 1983. The case study method for research in small-and medium-sized firms. International Small Business Journal, 15(1): 73-85.

Crowther, D. and B. Rayman, 2005. International dimensions of corporate social responsibility. ICFAI University Press, 1.

Dahlsrud, A., 2006. How corporate responsibility is defined: An analysis of 37 definitions. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 15(1-13).

Davenport, T.H., 2000. Working knowledge: How organizations manage what they know. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Donaldson, T. and L.E. Preston, 1995. The stakeholder theory of the corporation: Concepts, evidence and implications. Academy of Management Review, 20(1): 65-91. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher

Ekeh, P.P., 1974. Social exchange theory: The two traditions. Cambridge. MA: Harvard University Press.

European Union Commission (EUC), 2002. Deliberation on corporate social responsibility.

Fereday, W. and C. Muir, 2006. Business and society; corporate strategy, public policy, ethics. 7th Edn., New York: McGraw-Hill.

Fombrun, C., 2000. What`s in  a name? Reputation building and corporate strategy. Academy of Management Journal, 33(2): 233-258.

Frederick, W.C., J.E. Post and K. Davis, 1992. Business and society; corporate strategy, public policy, ethics. 7th Edn., New York: McGraw-Hill.

Freeman, R.E., 1984. Strategic management; a stakeholder approach. Pitman Publication.

Gottel, V., L. Mory and B.W. Wirtz, 2015. Factors of internal corporate social responsibility and the effect on organisational commitment. International Journal of Human Resource Management.

Gouldner, A.W., 1960. The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American Sociological Review, 25(2): 161-178. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher

Heiner, L. and F.Y. Boon, 2002. Differences in environmental reporting practises in the UK and the US: The legal and regulatory context. British Accounting Review, 35: 1-18.

Hillman, R., P. Paluru, E. Matusov and L. Lam, 2001. Catecholamine biosynthesis in early embryogenesis. A. Dros. Res. Conf. 42 : 711C. (Export to RIS).

Honders, H., 2007. Partnerships for corporate social responsibility; a review of concepts and strategic options. Management Decision, 46(1): 152-167.

Hopkins, H.A., 2003. Partnerships for corporate social responsibility; a review of concepts and strategic options. Management Decision, 46(1): 152-167.

Hsieh, N.H., 2006. Do multinational corporations have an ethical obligation to assist those in need, knowledge Wharton Feb 23rd.

Jones, B., R. Bowd and R. Tench, 2007. Perception and perspectives: Corporate social responsibility and the media. Journal of Communication Management, 11(4): 348-370. View at Google Scholar 

Maignan, I. and O.C. Ferrell, 2000. Nature of corporate responsibilities. Perspectives from American, French and German consumers. Journal of Business Research, 56(1): 55-67.

Maignan, I. and O.C. Ferrell, 2001. Antecedents and benefits of corporate citizenship: An investigation of French businesses. Journal of Business Research, 51(1): 37-51. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher

Maignan, I., O.C. Ferrell and G.T.M. Hult, 1999. Corporate citizenship: Cultural antecedents and business benefits. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27(4): 455-469. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher

Margolis, J.D. and J.P. Walsh, 2003. Misery loves companies: Whither social initiatives by business. Administrative Science Quarterly, 48(2): 268-305. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher

Mei Peng low, D. and D. McCabe, 1993. Introduction to the practice of statistics. New York: Freeman.

Nwosu, O., 2005. Reputation management; imperative of a new order. Financial Standard, June 20: 7.

Peterson, D.K., 2004. The relationship between perceptions of corporate citizenship and organizational commitment. Business and Society, 43(3): 269-319. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher

Rayton, 2007. Work engagement, psychological contract breach and job satisfaction. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(17).

Richardson, H., 2008. Valuing stakeholder engagement and sustainability reporting. Palgrave Macmillan Ltd.

Riordan, C.M., R.D. Gatewood and J.B. Bill, 1997. Corporate image: Employee reactions and implications for managing corporate social performance. Journal for Business Ethics, 16(4): 401-412. View at Google Scholar 

Ruf, F., M. Coughlan and P. Cronin, 2000. Step-by-step guide to critiquing research. Part2: Qualitative research. Dublin: University of Dublin, Trinity College.

Rupp, D.E., J. Gananpathy, R.V. Aguilera and C.A. Williams, 2006. Employees reactions to corporate social responsibility: An organizational justice framework. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(4): 537-543. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher

Siefurt, B., S. Morris and B. Bartkus, 2003. Comparing big givers and small giver: Financial correlates of corporate philanthropy. Journal of Business Ethics, 5(3): 195-211. View at Google Scholar 

Sims, R.L. and K.G. Kroeck, 1994. The influence of ethical  fit on employee satisfaction, commitment and turnover. Journal of Business Ethics, 13(12): 939-947. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher

Strand, R., R. Levine and D. Montgomery, 1981. Organizational entry preferences based on social and personnel policies: An information integration perspective. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 27(1): 50-68. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher

Swanson, D.L., 2008. Business citizenship outside and inside organizations. In: J. Andriof and M. McIntosh. Perspective on corporate  citizenship. Sheffield, UK:  Greenleaf  Publishing. pp: 104-116.

Swanson, D.L. and P. Niehoff, 2001. Business citizenship outside and inside organizations. In: J. Andriof and M. McIntosh. Perspective on Corporate Citizenship. Sheffield, UK: Greenleaf Publishing. pp: 104-116.

Terungwa, A., 2011. Corporate social responsibility in Nigerian banking system: The development of small and medium scale enterprises. World Journal of Social Sciences, 1(5): 12-27. View at Google Scholar 

Theofilou, D. and L. Watson, 2014. The joint effect of personality and workplace social exchange relationship in predicting tasks performance and citizenship performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(5): 1286-1292.

Turban, D.B. and D.W. Greening, 1997. Corporate social performance and organizational attractiveness to prospective employees. Academy Management Journal, 40(3): 658-672. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher

Turnbull, J.P., G. Khoury and J. Rostami, 1999. Corporate social responsibility: Turning words into action. The Conference Board of Canada Ottawa.

Waldman, D.W., D.S. Siegel and M. Javidhan, 2006. Components of CEO transformational leadership and corporate social responsibility. Journal of Management Studies, 43(8): 1703-1725. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher

Wood, D.J., 1991. Corporate social performance revisited. Academy of Management Review, 16(4): 691-718. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


Both authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

Related Article

( 1 ) Marxist Political Economy and the Crisis of Relevance in Contemporary World
( 2 ) The Effects of Changes in Accounting Standards on Value Relevance of Financial Statement Information of Malaysia and Nigeria Banks
( 3 ) Relevance of Stakeholders Theory, Organizational Identity Theory and Social Exchange Theory to Corporate Social Responsibility and Employees Performance in the Commercial Banks in Nigeria
( 5 ) Measuring and Assessing the State of Technological Innovations and the Level of Interaction between Rice Processors and Stakeholders in Rice Processing Industry in Nigeria
( 7 ) Organizational Commitment of White Collar Employees in Damansara Heights, Kuala Lumpur
( 8 ) The Role of Strategic Planning on the Management of Organizational Change
( 9 ) The Mediating Effect of Market Orientation on the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation Dimensions and Organizational Performance: A Study on Banks in Libya
( 10 ) How the Principles of the Sharing Economy Can Improve Organizational Performance of the US Public School System
( 12 ) Employee Loyalty and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour in the Port Harcourt Area Command of the Nigeria Police Force
( 13 ) Organizational Memory and Employee Performance in Federal Parastatals in Enugu State of Nigeria
( 14 ) Survey of Students’ Academic Achievement and Mathematics Identity-Formation
( 16 ) Development, Preference Change, and Inequality in an Integrated Walrasian-General-Equilibrium and Neoclassical-Growth Theory
( 18 ) Rethinking Port Role as Transport Corridor under Symbiosis Theory-Case Study of China-Europe Trade Transportation
( 19 ) The Climate Change Menace, Food Security, Livelihoods and Social Safety in Northern Ghana
( 20 ) Social Sustainability of High-Rise Buildings
( 21 ) Social Security; A Public Policy for Good Governance in Nigeria: The Role of Nigerian Legislature
( 22 ) Promoting Local Acceptability of International Oil Companies (IOCS) Through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): The Case of Tullow Oil in Ghana
( 23 ) The Wider Vision of Social Policy: Exploring the Ways of Curbing Violence against Women in Four Wards of Shamva North Constituency (Zimbabwe)
( 24 ) The Investment Performance of Socially Responsible Investment in Japan
( 26 ) Analyzing Factors Affecting the Success of Social Media Posts for B2b Networks: A Fractional-Factorial Design Approach
( 27 ) Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on Banks Financial Performance in Nigeria: A Study of United Bank of Africa
( 28 ) Social Protection Programmes, Agricultural Production and Youth Employment in Nigeria: Analysis from LSMS-ISA
( 29 ) The Role of Social Entrepreneurship in Pakistan and its Impact on Economy
( 30 ) Social Protection and Agricultural Production in ECOWAS: The Youth Unemployment Question
( 31 ) Financial Market Predictions with Factorization Machines: Trading the Opening Hour Based on Overnight Social Media Data
( 32 ) Does Social Barriers Influence Women's Intention toward Entrepreneurship?
( 33 ) The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure on Corporate Financial Performance
( 34 ) Perceived Poverty and Alleviation Efforts of Kogi State Community and Social Development Agencies in Kogi State: An Empirical Investigation
( 35 ) The Role of Social Security Program for Enhancing Seniors Longevity
( 36 ) Productive Welfare Policy: An Innovative Way in Social Safety Net in Malaysia
( 37 ) The Impact of Social Media on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence of Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and Pinterest
( 38 ) Testing the Random Walks in Korea Stock Exchange
( 39 ) The Effects of Exchange Rate Liberalization in Kenya on French Beans Exports
( 40 ) Exchange Rate Movements, Import And Economic Growth in Nigeria (1986-2010)
( 41 ) Impact of Food Beverage Price Index and Exchange Rate Volatility on Economic Growth
( 42 ) Testing the Random Walk: The Case of Hong Kong Stock Exchange
( 43 ) Role of Foreign Investment and External Debt in Determination of Exchange Rate
( 44 ) The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the Debt, Liquidity, Growth, and Volume of Companies in Palestine Stock Exchange
( 45 ) Studying the Integration of Damascus Securities Exchange with Selected Stock Markets
( 46 ) The Effect of Exchange Rate Changes on Consumer Prices in Nigeria: Evidence from VECM Model
( 47 ) Dynamics of Inflation, Economic Growth, Money Supply and Exchange Rate in India: Evidence from Multivariate Analysis
( 48 ) Implications of Crude Oil Price Volatility and Parallel Exchange Rate Fluctuation on the Cost of Living in Nigeria
( 50 ) The Effects of Exchange Rate Variability on Trade Flows in Nigeria: A Cointegration Analysis
( 51 ) The Profitability of Momentum Strategies: Empirical Evidence from Damascus Securities Exchange (DSE)
( 52 ) Exchange Rate and Foreign Reserves Interface: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria
( 53 ) Impact of Exchange Rate Fluctuation on Selected Economic Sectors of the Nigerian Economy
( 54 ) The Colonialists & Indigenous Exchange Currency: Tracing the Genesis of Socioeconomic Woes in Postcolonial Nigeria
( 55 ) The Transitional Relationship between Economic Growth and Exchange Rate in Ghana: An Empirical Approach
( 56 ) Determinants of Exchange Rate in Nigeria: A Comparison of the Official and Parallel Market Rates
( 57 ) Exchange Rate Pass-through to Prices: VAR Evidence for Albania
( 58 ) Issues of Unemployment in Nigeria: Effect of Real Exchange Rate and Inflation Interaction
( 59 ) Exchange Rate Volatility, Foreign Exchange Market Intervention and Asymmetric Preferences
( 60 ) An Agnostic Analysis of Exchange Rate Movement in Ghana
( 61 ) An Empirical Investigation of Real Exchange Rate Responses to Foreign Currency Inflows: Revisiting the Dutch Disease Phenomenon in South Asia
( 62 ) Factors Affecting the Individual Stock Price Index (IHSI) Industrial Manufacturing Sector in Indonesia, Automotive Sub Sectors, and Components in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX)
( 63 ) Management of The CFA Franc: What are the Fundamentals of the Real Exchange Rate in West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)?
( 64 ) Determinants of Profitability and its Implications on Corporate Values (Studies at Ceramic, Porcelain and Glass Sub Sector Listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange, 2009 - 2018)
( 68 ) Contemporary Approach to Enhanced Road Transport System in Nigeria Through the Application of It-Based (Online) Bus Ticketing and Payment System
( 69 ) Making Poverty A History in Africa: The Role of the G8
( 70 ) External Factors Influencing on Industrial Building System (Ibs) in Malaysia
( 71 ) Consideration the Relationship Between Information Communications Technology and Economic Growth in Top 10 Economic
( 72 ) NGO Programming and Policy Advocacy in the Land Sector in Zimbabwe
( 74 ) How Telecommunication Development Aids Economic Growth: Evidence from Itu Ict Development Index (IDI) Top Five Countries for African Region
( 75 ) Kashmir Peasant Economy under Dogra’s: A Case Study of Agrarian Produce and Livestock 1885-1925 A.D
( 76 ) Driving Role of Institutional Investors in the Indian Stock Market in Short and Long-Run – An Empirical Study
( 77 ) An Enquiry into the Contributions of Microfinance Institutions Towards the Development of Small Scale Business in Nigeria
( 78 ) A Review on Criteria for Green Infrastructure to be Adopted by Local Authorities
( 79 ) Does the Mena Countries May Converge in GDP to Southern European One? The Effects of International Trade
( 80 ) An Inventory Model with Lost Sale is Time Dependent
( 81 ) Reminiscing Stock Splits Announcement: A Malaysian Case
( 82 ) The Sustainable Livelihoods Index: A Tool To Assess the Ability and Preparedness of the Rural Poor in Receiving Entrepreneurial Project
( 83 ) Study of the Relationship between Economic Growth and Inflation: Application to the Countries of the South Side of the Mediterranean: A Panel Data Approach
( 84 ) A Study of Transnational and Transformation Leadership Styles and Factors Affect The Leadership Style
( 86 ) Rate of Return Would Not Increase To the Extent of Annuity Saving Discount
( 87 ) Government Borrowing Behaviour: Implications for Private Sector Growth in Nigeria
( 88 ) Earnings Management and Stock Market Returns
( 89 ) The Recruitment of Migrant Workers in the Food Service Industry in Malaysia. A Study of Old Town White Coffee and Pappa Rich Kopitiam
( 90 ) Quality Management Practices towards Customer Satisfaction in Local Authority Public Services Website
( 91 ) Consideration the Effects of Water Sector Investment on Economic Growth in Iran
( 92 ) A Theoretical Review on Critical Success Factors (CSFS) of Entrepreneurship Programs in Community College
( 93 ) Influence Internship Learning Effect in Business Service Sector: Using Internship Self-Efficacy as the Mediator Variable
( 94 ) The Impact of Dividend Policy on Shareholders’ Wealth before and After Financial Melt down: Evidence from FMCG Sector in India
( 95 ) Stock Market Performance and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria Employing Vector Error Correction Model Framework
( 96 ) Factors Impacting on SMEs Internationalization: Dairy Industry in Zimbabwe
( 97 ) The Biodiesel Market in Brazil and the Prospects for the Sector
( 98 ) A Mixed-Methods Study to Explore Stage of Readiness and Intention of Micro and Small Enterprises to Adopt Mobile Money in Indonesia
( 99 ) Attributes Influencing Strategic Alignment in the Service Sector: An Indonesian Banking Sector Case Study
( 100 ) Workplace Bullying: Modelling Construct Validity in an Australian Public Sector Workforce
( 101 ) The Effect of Selected Financial Ratios on Profitability: An Empirical Analysis of Listed Firms of Cement Sector in Saudi Arabia
( 102 ) Stock Market Index Prediction with Neural Network during Financial Crises: A Review on Bist-100
( 103 ) The Total Factor Productivity of Libyan Banks, 2004 – 2010
( 104 ) The Life-Time of Tomorrow Party of Japan and Its Negative Impacts on the Anti-Nuclear Movements in Japan’s Politics
( 105 ) Exploration of Suitability of Situational Leadership in the Oil and Gas Sector
( 106 ) Estimating Value at Risk for Sukuk Market Using Generalized Auto Regressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity Models
( 108 ) Rural - Urban Balance as a Measure of Socio-Economic Development with Special Reference to Iran
( 109 ) Measuring the Quality of Islamic Banks Services and Its Impact on Customers Satisfaction A Survey Study on the Islamic Banks Customers in Lattakia-Syria
( 110 ) A Negative Rational Pigs Game and its Applications to Website Management
( 111 ) The Internal Branding Process: Customer Reprofiling and Brand Positioning (Empirical Study on Traditional Snack Food in Bandung-Indonesia)
( 112 ) Appointment of Directors and Performance of Deposit Money Banks in Sub Saharan Africa: Do We Need More Executive or Non-Executive Directors?
( 113 ) Managing Public Perception towards Local Government Administration
( 115 ) Market Share and Profitability Relationship: A Study of the Banking Sector in Nigeria
( 116 ) Effect of Media Transportation and Advertising Transportation on Customers Responsiveness
( 117 ) The Effect of Personal Factors on the Customer Rating of the Quality of Services of the Islamic Banks Operating in the Syrian Coast
( 118 ) A Factor Analysis Approach Towards a Study of the Factors Affecting Students’ Choice of Higher Education Institution: A Case Study of a Private Institution (Twintech International University College of Technology)
( 119 ) Does the Holiday Effect Differ from Religious to Non-Religious Holidays? Empirical Evidence from Egypt
( 120 ) Auditing Procedures and Process in the Public Sector
( 121 ) Rice Farmer and Capital Formation: A Case Study of Rice Farmer's Credit Cooperative in Itoikin, Ikosi-Ejirin LCDA, Lagos State
( 122 ) Internationalization of State Multilatinas: A Multi-Case Study in The Oil Sector
( 124 ) Public Sector Size and GDP Growth Nexus: Panel Data Estimation
( 126 ) On the Prediction of the Inflation Crises of South Africa Using Markov-Switching Bayesian Vector Autoregressive and Logistic Regression Models
( 127 ) Entrepreneurial Networking and Women Entrepreneurs’ Contribution to Employment Creation in Rivers State, Nigeria
( 128 ) Participatory Processes in Planning for Self-Help Housing Provision in South Africa: Policies and Challenges
( 129 ) Scenario Economic Impact Analysis of Offshore Fishing Tournaments in Ocean City
( 130 ) Effect of Institutional Factors on Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria
( 131 ) Does Gold Price Lead or Lags Islamic Stock Market and Strategy Commodity Price? A Study from Malaysia
( 132 ) An Investigation into the Causes of Failures in Railway Infrastructure at Transnet Freight Rail - A Case of the Steel and Cement Business Unit
( 133 ) Macroeconomic Indicators and Capital Formation Growth in Nigeria: A New Evidence
( 135 ) The Effect of Internal and External Factors of Companies on Profitability and its Implications on Stock Price Index of State-Owned Banks
( 136 ) An Empirical Investigation into the Key Drivers of Economic Performance in the CEMAC Zone: A Panel Corrected Standard Errors Approach
( 137 ) Leading Indicators and Financial Crisis: A Multi-Sectoral Approach Using Signal Extraction
( 138 ) Incorporating Islamic Ethic Elements into Marketing Mix Paradigm
( 139 ) Intention to Use E-Recruitment System: Empirical Evidence from Jobseekers in the Advertising Industry in Malaysia
( 140 ) The Importance of Public Administration Towards Achieving Good Governance for Positive National Development by Using SmartPLS 3
( 141 ) Depositors Confidence and Mergers and Acquisitions: The Nigerian Banking Sector Experience
( 142 ) Does Agricultural Sector Contribute to the Economic Growth in Case of Republic of Benin?
( 143 ) Determinants of Public Sector Corruption in Nigeria
( 144 ) Impact of Participatory Decision Making on Organisational Goal Attainment
( 145 ) Conceptualisation of Lack of Discipline and Probity as the Main Cause towards Good Governance Practice
( 146 ) The Impact of Organisational Culture on Public Sector Performance: A Case Study of Local Authorities in Zimbabwe
( 147 ) Sectoral Credit Allocation of Deposit Money Banks and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria
( 148 ) Foreign Direct Investment - Growth Linkage in Sub-Saharan Africa: Is Governance a Mediating Factor?
( 149 ) An Empirical Assessment of the Impact of Access to Credit on Farm Output: A Case Study of Sefwi-Wiawso Municipality Ghana
( 150 ) Factors that Influence Profitability of General Insurance Issuers in Indonesia
( 152 ) Determinants of Banks Profitability & Liquidity and the Role of BASEL III in Islamic & Conventional Banking Sector of Pakistan: A Case Study of NBP
( 153 ) Factors Influencing Human Capital in Ready Made Garments Industry in Bangladesh
( 154 ) Analysis of the Effects of Pull and Push Factors on Brain Drain: An Example of Turkey
( 155 ) Analysis of Environmental Factors Affecting Manufacturing Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in Kogi State Nigeria
( 156 ) Regime Changes in the Volatility of Stock Markets
( 157 ) Optimal Stock Portfolio Issuers of Building Construction Registered in LQ45 Based on the Markowitz Approach
( 158 ) Estimating the Economic Determinants of Technical Efficiency of Bioenergy in EU-28: An Application of Tobit Analysis
( 160 ) The Effect of Selected Factors on Tax Revenue Mobilization in Ethiopia: The Case of Amhara Region
( 161 ) Deterrents to the Success of Micro and Small Enterprises in Ethiopia: The Case of Amhara Region MSEs
( 162 ) Assessing the Perceived Value of Customers for being Satisfied towards the Sustainability of Hypermarket in Malaysia
( 163 ) Family Leadership and Small to Medium Sized Enterprises Research and Development Investments
( 165 ) Challenges and Opportunities of Investment to the People of Sebeta Town, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
( 166 ) The Trajectory and Diaspora of Women Imprisonment: An Analysis
( 167 ) Consumers’ Behavioural Intention to Adopt Mobile Banking in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa Using an Extension of Technology Acceptance Model: Lessons from Zimbabwe
( 168 ) Value for Money (VFM) Audit and Public Sector Performance in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria
( 169 ) Multivariate Analysis in Formulation of the Benefit-Cost Index Related to the Sugarcane Production System in the Quirinopolis Municipality Productive Center, Goias, Brazil
( 170 ) What are the Contextual Influences of Bank Criminality in Osun East Senatorial District?
( 171 ) Analysing the Financial Strength of Nigeria: An Approach to Estimate the Index of Financial Safety
( 172 ) Trade Union Performance and Industrial Relations Climate in the Nigerian Petroleum Sector
( 173 ) Nexus between Non-Oil Sectoral Contribution and Economic Growth in Nigeria 1981-2018
( 176 ) Effect of Brand Enhancement on Buying Behavior towards the Sport Sponsorship Companies in Riyadh, KSA
( 177 ) Efficiency of Microfinance (MF) Institutions in Bangladesh: A Study on Top 10 MF Institutions
( 178 ) Critical Review of Literature on Brand Equity and Customer Loyalty
( 179 ) Factors Influencing on Human Resources Development in SMEs Service Enterprises in Industry 4.0: The Case of Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam
( 180 ) Analysis of Causal Nexus between Defense Spending and Economic Growth in Nigeria: A Toda-Yamamoto Approach
( 181 ) Determinant of Tax Revenue Effort in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis
( 182 ) Effect of Savings Deposit Rate on Stock Market Capitalization in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation
( 183 ) The Relationship between Creative Accounting Risks and Auditing Risks from the Perspective of External Auditors in Saudi Arabia
( 185 ) Self-Efficacy and Entrepreneurial Mindset: Towards Societal Re-Engineering
( 186 ) Developing a Conceptual Model for Antecedents of Resistance to Change towards Sustainable Construction Practices
( 187 ) Importance of Corporate Governance Quality and Voluntary Disclosures of Corporate Governance Information in Listed Malaysian Family Controlled Businesses
( 188 ) The Association Between Corporate Risk Disclosure and Firm Performance in Emerging Country – The Case of Egypt
( 190 ) Corporate Funding and Sustainability of Non- Governmental Organizations in Africa
( 191 ) Implications of Accountants Unethical Behavior and Corporate Failures
( 194 ) Determinants of Corporate Tax Avoidance Strategies among Multinational Corporations in Malaysia
( 221 ) Moderating Effect of Demographics on Monetary Motivation and Employees Job Performance Relationship: Evidence from Malaysia
( 222 ) Organisational Politics – Causes and Effects on Organisation and Employees
( 224 ) Improved Performance Through Empowerment of Small Industry
( 225 ) Teachers Characteristics and Students’ Performance Level in Senior Secondary School Financial Accounting
( 226 ) Conceptual Framework of Green Infrastructure Performance Evaluation for Local Authority
( 230 ) The Influence of Information Technology and Communication Supply Chain Management Performance for Greater SME Manufacturing in Aguascalientes
( 231 ) Leveraging Telematics for Optimal Fleet Performance
( 232 ) Share Options, Share Award and Firm’s Performance: Evidence from Malaysian Public Listed Companies
( 233 ) The Effect of Outsourcing on Anglogold Ashanti Obuasi Mines Performance
( 237 ) Emotional Workgroup Performance and Group Effectiveness Egyptian Context
( 238 ) The Indirect Impact of Overconfidence on the Performance of Tunisian Firms Through their Financing Structure
( 241 ) The Influence of Communication, Work Motivation and Career Development on Elementary School Teacher’s Job Performance in Medan, Indonesia