The study developed Teacher Classroom Autonomy Scale (T-CARS) and estimated the validity and reliability of the scale as well as establishing the scale factor structure. The study adopted a survey design. The population comprised secondary school teachers in southwestern Nigeria and a sample of 1440 teachers that were selected from 72 secondary schools using multistage sampling procedure. Two instruments, T-CARS and School Participant Empowerment Scale (SPES) were used for data collection. Data were analysed using factor analysis and reliability analysis. The results showed that the 40-items T-CARS have seven factors of teacher classroom autonomy that accounted for 91.46% of the total scale variance and significantly converge with the SPES (r = 0.611). The internal consistency of the scale was r=0.913 (Cronbach), and r=0.736 (Spearman Split-half), p< 0.05. The study concluded that the T-CARS developed in this study is reliable, valid and suitable to measure teacher classroom autonomy in Southwestern Nigeria.
The study generated appropriate, valid and reliable items with which teacher classroom autonomy can be measured. It also provided information on ways through which school administrators; teachers and other stakeholders can ensure that teachers have good institutional knowledge in order to effectively address imagined constraints on teaching and learning.
Adewolu, B.A., 2006. The development and validation of a teacher efficacy scale for Nigerian secondary school teachers. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Education, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Cattell, R.B., 1966. Psychology: The science of mind and behaviour. London: Hodder and Stoughter.
Charters, W.W., 1974. Sense of teacher work autonomy: Measurement & finding. Eugene: University of Oregon, Project MITT, Center for Educational Policy and Management.
Coombs, C.H., R.M. Daves and A. Tuersky, 1970. Mathematical psychology: An elementary introduction. Engle Wood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice – Hall.
Deci, E.L. and R.M. Ryan, 1985. Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum, 3: 182—187.
Devellis, R., 1991. Scale development; theory and applications. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Erpelding, C.J., 1999. School vision, teacher autonomy, school climate, and student achievement in elementary schools. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Northern Iowa, 1999). Dissertation Abstracts International, 60 (05A), 1405.
Gibson, S. and M. Dembo, 1984. Teacher efficacy: A construct validation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(1): 63-75.
Gnecco, D.R., 1983. The perception of autonomy and job satisfaction among elementary teachers in Southern Maine. (Doctoral Dissertation, Vanderbilt University, 1983). Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (04A), 0931.
Govaerts, S.O. and J. Gregoire, 2008. Debt and construct validation of academic emotion scale. International Journal of Testing, 8(1): 34-54.
Hoyle, E., 1980. Professionalization and deprofessionalization in education. In Hoyle, E. and Mogramy, J. (Eds). World Year book of education. New York: Jacob Cagan/Nichols Publishing Company.
Kaiser, H.F., 1960. The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20(1): 141-151.
Kenny, B., 1993. For more autonomy. System, 21(4): 431-442.
Kumar, P. and D.N. Mutha, 1976. Teacher effectiveness scale. Agra: Agra Psychological Research Cell.
Little, D., 1995. Learning as dialogue: The dependence of learner autonomy on teacher autonomy. System, 23(2): 175-182.
Losos, L.W., 2000. Comparing the motivation levels of public, private, and parochial high school teachers. (Doctoral Dissertation, Saint Louis University, 2000). Dissertation Abstracts International, 61 (05A), 1742.
Maslow, A.H., 1943. A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4): 370-396.
Melenyzer, B.J., 1990. Teacher empowerment: The discourse, meaning, and social actions of teachers. Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Council on States on in-Service Education, Orlando, FL.
Nero, A.B., 1985. Intrinsic/extrinsic motivational factors and perceived need deficiencies as a function of job level in an urban school district. (Doctoral Dissertation, Memphis State University, 1985). Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (10A), 2880.
Pearson, L.C. and B.C. Hall, 1993. Initial construct validation of the teaching autonomy scale. Journal of Educational Research, 86(3): 172-177.
Pitt, A. and A. Phelan, 2008. Paradoxes of autonomy in a professional life. Changing English, 15(2): 189–197.
Popham, W.J., 2002. Indices of adequacy for criterion referenced test items. In W.J. Popham (Eds). Criterion – referenced measurement. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Educational Technology Publications. pp: 79 – 98.
Porter, L.W., 1963. Job Attitude management: II. Perceived importance of needs as a function of job level. Journal of Applied Psychology, 47(2): 141-148.
Reeve, J., E. Bolt and Y. Cai, 1999. Autonomy-supportive teachers: How they teach and motivate students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(3): 537–548.
Sarantakos, S., 2005. Social research. 3rd Edn., Melbourne: Macmillan Education.