Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062

Conference List

International Journal of Education and Practice

November 2013, Volume 1, 8, pp 87-100

Student-Teachers’ Attitudes toward Students with Disabilities: Associations with Contact and Empathy

Jason J. Barr

Jason J. Barr 1

  1. Associate Professor Monmouth University School of Education, USA 1

on Google Scholar
on PubMed

Pages: 87-100

DOI: 10.18488/journal.61/2013.1.8/

Share :


There is little research on student-teachers’ attitudes and contact with students with disabilities, and even fewer researchers have investigated student-teachers’ empathy. This study investigated the association between student-teachers’ contact with students with disabilities and their attitudes toward students with disabilities as well as the association between student-teachers’ attitudes toward students with disabilities and their level of empathy. Student-teachers’ contact with students with disabilities was not associated with their attitudes toward students with disabilities. However, higher student-teacher empathy was associated with attitudes that were more positive toward students with disabilities. While most educators would agree that future teachers should be exposed to as many diverse students as possible, this study points to an interpersonal quality that may play a more vital role in shaping future teachers’ attitudes toward students with disabilities. This affects how we prepare future teachers and highlights the need for empathy training for future teachers.
Contribution/ Originality


Empathy, Disabilities, Student-teachers, Attitudes, Contact


  1. Abbott, S. and R. McConkey, 2006. The barriers to social inclusion as perceived by people with intellectual disabilities. Journalof Intellectual Disabilities, 10(3): 275–287.
  2. Allport, G.W., 1954. The nature of prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.
  3. Antonak, R., 1982. Development and psychometric analysis of the scale of attitudes toward disabled persons. The Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 13(2): 22-29.
  4. Bacon, E.H. and J.B. Schultz, 1991. A survey of mainstreaming practices. Teacher Education and Special Education, 14(2): 144–149.
  5. Barr, J.J., 2011. The relationship between teachers' empathy and perceptions of school culture. Educational Studies, 37(3): 365-369.
  6. Barr, J.J. and K. Bracchitta, 2008. The effects of contact with individuals with disabilities: Positive attitudes and majoring in education. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 142(2): 225-243.
  7. Batson, D.C., 1991. The altruism question: Toward a social-psychological answer. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  8. Bauman, S. and A. Del Rio, 2006. Preservice teachers’ responses to bullying scenarios: Comparing physical, verbal, and relational bullying. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1): 219-231.
  9. Berry, R.A.W., 2008. Novice teacher’s conceptions of fairness in inclusion classrooms. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(5): 1149-1159.
  10. Branan, J.M., 1972. Negative human interaction. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 19(1): 81-82.
  11. Brandes, J.A. and H.M. Crowson, 2009. Predicting dispositions toward inclusion of students with disabilities: The role of conservative ideology and discomfort with disability. Social Psychology of Education, 12(2): 271-289.
  12. Branwhite, T., 1988. The pass survey: School-based preferences of 500+ adolescent consumers. Educational Studies, 14(2): 165-176.
  13. Brownlee, J. and S. Carrington, 2000. Opportunities for authentic experience and reflection: A teaching programme designed to change attitudes towards disability for pre-service teachers. Support for Learning, 15(3): 99-105.
  14. Burke, K. and C. Sutherland, 2004. Attitudes toward inclusion: Knowledge vs. Experience. Education, 125(2): 163-172.
  15. Cohen, J., 1988. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. 2nd Edn., Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  16. Conte, R., 1994. A mediational training program for parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Canadian Journal of Special Education, 9(3-4): 33-68.
  17. Cook, B.G., 2004. Inclusive teachers’ attitudes toward their students with disabilities: A replication and extension. The Elementary School Journal, 104(4): 307-320.
  18. Cook, B.G., D.L. Cameron and M. Tankersley, 2007. Inclusive teachers’ attitudinal ratings of their students with disabilities. Journal of Special Education, 40(4): 230-238.
  19. Cooper, B., 2010. In search of profound empathy in learning relationships: Understanding the mathematics of moral learning environments. Journal of Moral Education, 39(1): 79-99.
  20. Cortina, J.M. and R.S. Landis, 2009. When small effect sizes tell a big story, and when larger effect sizes don’t. In C.E. Lance & R.J. Vandenberg (Eds.), statistical and methodological myths andurban legends. New York: Routledge. pp: 287–336.
  21. Davis, M.H., 1980. A multidimensional approach to individual differences in empathy. Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10(1): 85.
  22. Davis, M.H., 1983. Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 44(1): 113-126.
  23. Davis, M.H. and S.L. Franzoi, 1991. Stability and change in adolescent self-consciousness and empathy. Journal of Research in Personality, 25(1): 70-87.
  24. Eisenberg, N., 1990. Prosocial development in early and mid-adolescence. In R. Montemayor, G. R. Adams, T. P. Gulotta, (Eds.), from childhood to adolescence, a transitional period. Advances in adolescent development. An annual book series. California: Sage Publication. 2.
  25. Eisenberg, N., 2006. Prosocial behavior. In G.G. Bear & K.M. Minke (Eds.), children’s needs III: Development, prevention, andintervention. Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists. pp: 313–324.
  26. Eisenberg, N. and R.A. Fabes, 1999. Emotion, emotion-related regulation, and quality of socioemotional functioning. In L. Balter& C Tamis-LeMonda (Eds.), child psychology: A handbook of contemporary issues. New York, NY: Psychology Press. pp: 318-335.
  27. Eisenberg, N. and P.H. Müssen, 1989. The roots of prosocial behavior in children. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  28. Ferguson, C.J., 2009. An effect size primer: A guide for clinicians and researchers. Professional psychology. Research and Practice, 40(5): 532–538. DOI 10.1037/a0015808.
  29. Findler, L., N. Vilchinsky and S. Werner, 2007. The multidimensional attitudes scale toward persons with disabilities. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 50(3): 166–176. DOI 10.1177/00343552070500030401.
  30. Fredrickson, B.L. and L.L. Carstensen, 1990. Choosing social partners: How old age and anticipated endings make people more selective. Psychology and Aging, 5(3): 335-347.
  31. Good, T.L. and J.E. Brophy, 2000. Motivation.  In T. Good & J. Brophy (Eds.), looking in classrooms. New York, NY: Longman. pp: 217-267.
  32. Harvey, D. and C. Green, 1984. Attitudes of New Zealand teachers, teachers in training and non-teachers toward mainstreaming. Journal of Educational Studies, 19(1): 34-44.
  33. Hastings, R. and S. Oakford, 2003. Student teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of children with special needs. Educational Psychology, 23(1): 87-94.
  34. Hoffman, M.L., 2000. Empathy and moral development: Implications for caring and justice. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  35. Hunt, B. and C. Hunt, 2000. Attitudes toward people with disabilities: A comparison of undergraduate rehabilitation and business majors. Rehabilitation Education 14(3): 269–283.
  36. Jahoda, A. and I. Markova, 2004. Coping with social stigma: People with intellectual disabilities moving from institutions and family home. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 48(8): 719–729.
  37. Jones, R.S., D. Wint and N.C. Ellis, 1990. The social effects of stereotyped behavior. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research, 34(3): 261-268.
  38. Kalyva, E. and I. Agaliotis, 2009. Can contact affect Greek children’s understanding of and attitudes towards peers with physical disabilities? European Journal of Special Needs Education, 24(2): 213–220.
  39. Kremer, J.F. and L.L. Dietzen, 1991. Two approaches to teaching accurate empathy to undergraduates: Teacher-intensive and self-directed. Journal of College Student Development, 32(1): 69-75.
  40. Lam, T.C.M., K. Kolomitro and F.C. Alamparambil, 2011. Empathy training: Methods, evaluation practices, and validity. Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation, 7(16): 162-200.
  41. Makas, E., 1993. Getting in touch: The relationship between contact with and attitudes towards people with disabilities.In M. Nagler (Ed.), perspectives on disability. Palo Alto, CA: Health Markets Research. pp: 121–136.
  42. McCaughey, T.J. and D.C. Strohmer, 2005. Prototypes as an indirect measure of attitudes toward disability groups. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 48(2): 89–99. DOI 10.1177/00343552050480020301.
  43. McDougall, J., D.J. DeWit, G. King, L.T. Miller and S. Killip, 2004. High school-aged youths attitudes toward their peers with disabilities: The role of school and student interpersonal factors. International Journal of Disability, Development, and Education, 51(3): 287–313. DOI 10.1080/1034912042000259242.
  44. McManus, J.L., K.J. Feyes and D.A. Saucier, 2010. Contact and knowledge as predictors of attitudes toward individuals with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 28(5): 579–590.
  45. Murphy, D.M., 1996. Implications of inclusion for general and special education. Elementary School Journal, 96(5): 469–493.
  46. Pettigrew, T.F. and L.R. Tropp, 2006. A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(5): 751–783. DOI 10.1037/0022-3514.90.5.751.
  47. Pruett, S.R., E.J. Lee, F. Chan, M.H. Wang and F.J. Lane, 2008. Dimensionality of the contact with disabled persons scale: Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Rehabilitation Counseling, 51(4): 210–221. DOI 10.1177/0034355207311310.
  48. Schultz, L.H., R.L. Selman and M.D. LaRusso, 2003. The assessment of psychosocial maturity in children and adolescents: Implications for the evaluation of school-based character education programs. Journal of Researchin Character Education, 1(2): 67-87.
  49. Scruggs, T.E. and M.A. Mastropieri, 1996. Teacher perceptions of mainstreaming/inclusion, 1958-1995: A research synthesis. Exceptional Children, 63(1): 59-75.
  50. Selman, R.L., 1980. The growth of interpersonal understanding. New York: Academic Press.
  51. Seo, W. and R.K. Chen, 2009. Attitudes of college students toward people with disabilities. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 40(4): 3–8.
  52. Sharp, S. and M. Hewstone, 2010. Impact of context effects on attitudes and contact: Evidence of the validity of self-reports of intergroup contact. Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 17(1): 5-15.
  53. Smart, J., 2008. Disability, society, and the individual. 2nd Edn., Austin, TX: ProEd.
  54. Stewart, C., 1990. Effect of practica types in preservice adapted physical education curriculum on attitudes toward disabled populations. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 10(1): 76–83.
  55. Tait, K. and N. Purdie, 2000. Attitudes toward disability: Teacher education for inclusive environments in an Australian university. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 47(1): 25-38.
  56. Tettegah, S., 2007. Preservice teachers’ victim empathy. Technology, Instruction, Cognitions, and Learning, 4(2): 41-68.
  57. Tettegah, S. and C.J. Anderson, 2007. Pre-service teachers' empathy and cognitions: Statistical analysis of text data by graphical models. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 32(1): 48-82.
  58. Thomas, A., 2001. The multidimensional character of biased perceptions of individuals with disabilities. Journal of Rehabilitation, 67(2): 3–9.
  59. US Department of Education, 2008. Thirtieth annual report to congress on the implementation of the individuals with disabilities education act. Washington, DC: Author.
  60. Wentzel, K.R., 1997. Student motivation in middle school: The role of perceived pedagogical caring. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89(3): 411-419.
  61. Yoon, J.S., 2004. Predicting teacher interventions in bullying situations. Education and Treatment of Children, 27(1): 37-45.
  62. Yuker, H., 1988. The effects of contact on attitudes toward disabled persons: Some empirical generalizations.  In H.Yuker (Ed.). Attitudes toward persons with disabilities.New York: Springer Publishing.
  63. Yuker, H., 1994. Variables that influence attitudes toward people with disabilities: Conclusions from the data. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 9(5): 3–22.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The author declare that there are no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.


Related Article

( 1 ) Student-Teachers’ Attitudes toward Students with Disabilities: Associations with Contact and Empathy
( 3 ) The Rwandan Secondary School Competence-Based Curriculum: Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes to Incorporate in the University of Rwanda-College of Education Programs to Align them with the Current Curriculum
( 4 ) Do Teachers Attitudes, Perception of Usefulness, and Perceived Social Influences Predict their Behavioral Intentions to Use Gamification in EFL Classrooms? Evidence from the Middle East
( 6 ) Evaluation of the Attitude of Candidate Preschool Teachers Towards Physical Exercise Subject
( 7 ) Using the Semantic Differential Method to Assess the Learning Motivation and Attitude of First-Year Students towards Chemistry in University of EMERCOM of Russia
( 8 ) Investigating Attitude towards Role Play and its Subjective Value in Predicting Arabic Language Proficiency among UiTM Students
( 9 ) Remediating Some Learning Difficulties of L200 Science Education Students of Modibbo Adama University of Technology in Some Physics Concepts Using Multiple Representations
( 10 ) Poster Presentations Improve Engineering Students’ Communication Skills
( 12 ) Comparative Analysis of Learning Styles of Students of USA and Bangladesh
( 13 ) Responsibility Formation in Medical Students in the Course of Foreign Language Study
( 14 ) Counselling Against Dropout among Secondary School Students in Edo State
( 15 ) Gender and Location Influence on Ghanaian Students’ Perceptions of Energy and Classroom Learning
( 16 ) “Students’ Perspective of Most To Least Preferred Parameters Affecting the Quality of Education in an Affiliated Undergraduate Engineering Institution in Haryana”
( 17 ) Using Cooperative E-Learning Teaching Strategy to Enhance Students’ Creativity in Secondary School Biology: A Study of Selected Schools in Nakuru County, Kenya
( 18 ) The Effect of Synchronous and Asynchronous Peer Feedback on Translation Students’ Vocabulary
( 19 ) Students’ Perception of Girlchild Affirmative Action in High Schools in Masvingo Urban, Zimbabwe
( 20 ) Coping in Silence: Challenges Faced By Pregnant-Students at the University of Cape Coast, Ghana
( 21 ) Development of Competence Balance-Oriented Integrative Thematic Learning Tools to Foster Critical Thinking Skill and Positive Character of Elementary School Students
( 22 ) Overcoming Domestic Labour among Secondary School Students in Kenya
( 23 ) Analysis of Integrated Science and Computer Science Students’ Academic Performances in Physics in Colleges of Education, Nigeria
( 24 ) Relationship between Selected Total Quality Management Practices Employed By Public Secondary Schools Principals and Students’ Performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education in Kiambu County, Kenya
( 25 ) How to reach and Teach African American Students in Today’s Schools
( 26 ) Challenges of Writing Dissertations: Perceptual Differences between Students and Supervisors in a Ghanaian Polytechnic
( 27 ) Drug Use and Anti-Social Behaviour as Correlates of Secondary School Students’ Achievement in Biology in Makurdi Local Government Area of Benue State
( 28 ) Marketing Strategies And Students’ Enrolment in Private Secondary Schools in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State, Nigeria
( 29 ) Self-Concept as a Correlate of Secondary School Students Academic Performance in Mathematics
( 30 ) Principals’ School Plant Management and Academic Performance of Biology Students in Public Secondary Schools in Uyo Senatorial District, Akwa Ibom State
( 31 ) Performance Quality Evaluation of Faculty Members at Al- Qassim University from their and their Students’ Perspectives and Proposing a Model for its Development in the Light of Total Quality Standards
( 32 ) A Case Study of Helping In-Service Science Teacher to Teach with the Science-Technology-Society Approach and its Influence on Students’ Scientific Argumentation
( 33 ) Influence of Laboratory Method on Students’ Mathematical Creativity in Yenagoa Local Government Area of Bayelsa State
( 34 ) Problems of Gifted Students at King Abdullah II Schools for Distinction: Students Perspective
( 35 ) The Impact of Text Type and Difficulty on Metacomprehension among 10th Grade Students
( 36 ) Preference of Learning Styles and its Relationship with Academic Performance among Junior Secondary School Students in Dutse Local Government Area, Jigawa State, Nigeria
( 37 ) Effects of Two Methods of Instruction on Students’ Critical Response to Prose Literature Text in English in Some Secondary Schools in Benin City
( 38 ) Technological Skills in the Academic Performance of Students
( 39 ) Entrepreneurial Behavior amongst Students of Community Colleges in Malaysia
( 40 ) Challenges and Opportunities Associated with Supervising Graduate Students Enrolled in African Universities
( 41 ) Hidden Experiences of Doctoral Students in Research Courses
( 42 ) Testing the Factorial Equivalence of the Collegiate Learning Assessment Performation Task Diagnostic Instrument Across Lower Class and Upper Class Predominantly Black College Students
( 43 ) Effects of Mentoring and Gender on the Achievement of Low-Performing Students in Biology
( 44 ) Appraisal of Government Feeding Programme on Increased School Enrollment, Attendance, Retention and Completion among Secondary School Students in Maiduguri, Borno State
( 45 ) Investigating Linguistic Errors in English Composition: A Case Study of Non-English Department EFL Undergraduate Students
( 46 ) A Study on the Relationship between Problem Solving Skills and Multiple Intelligences of High School Students
( 47 ) An Analysis of Common Errors in ESL Descriptive Writing among Chinese Private School Students in Malaysia
( 48 ) Predictors of the Drop in School Marks in Secondary School: Evidence for Effects of Students’ Socio-Demographic Background
( 49 ) The Decline in Science Students’ Enrolment in Nigerian Colleges of Education: Causes and Remedies
( 50 ) Effects of Utilizing the STAD Method (Cooperative Learning Approach) in Enhancing Students' Descriptive Writing Skills
( 51 ) Metadiscourse in the Academic Writing of Local and International Students at a University in Malaysia
( 52 ) Anxiety in Classroom Presentation in Teaching - Learning Interaction in English for Students of Indonesian Study Program at Higher Education
( 53 ) Factors Influencing Accounting Students Under-Performance: A Case Study in a Malaysian Public University
( 54 ) Trends in Reading Literary Fiction in Print and Cyber Media by Undergraduate Students of Hasanuddin University
( 55 ) Partnership as a Factor in the Effectiveness of Practice-Oriented Education of Students
( 57 ) Agribussiness Mobile Based Learning: ADIC Model to Support Students HOTS and Life Skill in Vocational School
( 58 ) Financial Literacy of Telebachillerato Students: A Study of Perception, Usefulness and Application of Financial Tools
( 59 ) Examining the Implications of Differentiated Instruction for High School Students’ Self-Actualization
( 60 ) Impact of Social Media on Social Value Systems among University Students in Saudi Arabia
( 61 ) Effectiveness of Gamification of Web-Based Learning in Improving Academic Achievement and Creative Thinking among Primary School Students
( 62 ) Forecasting the Results of Students Attending School in Vietnam by Geographical Area
( 63 ) Factors Affecting Students Choice of Higher Education Institution: A Malaysian Perspective
( 64 ) Effect of the Use of Video Compact Disc Instructional Package (VCDIP) on the Academic Performance of Junior Secondary School Business Studies Students in Imo State, Nigeria
( 66 ) Customs Administration Students Usage of Metacognitive Knowledge in their Internships
( 67 ) The Potential Use of Social Media on Malaysian Primary Students to Improve Writing
( 68 ) The Influence of Government Policy, Principle Leadership, and Participation of Parents on Strengthening Teacher Organizations (KKG/MGMP) and Development of Problem Solving in Students: Indonesia Case
( 69 ) Investigating the Aesthetic Domain of the “Early Childhood Education and Care Curriculum Framework” for Young Students in Taiwan
( 70 ) The Motivation and Experience of Distance Learning Engineering Programmes Students: A Study of Non-Traditional, Returning, Evening, and Adult Students
( 71 ) A Modified Roundtable Technique Based on Process Approach to Promote the Students Writing Achievements in Foreign Language Setting
( 72 ) The Effectiveness of a Cloud-Based Learning Program in Developing Reflective thinking Skills in Islamic Education among Students in UAE
( 73 ) The Influence of the Prevention, Advocacy, Distribution, Repair, and Adjustment Functions of Teacher Guidance and Counselling on the Psychosocial Conditions, Self-Reliance, and Competence of High School Students in DKI Jakarta Province
( 74 ) Effectiveness of E-Learning in Teaching Chemistry With Reference To Certain Selected Variables
( 76 ) The Method of Determining the Function of Traffic Costs for the Node with Unregulated Flows of Requests
( 77 ) The Importance-Performance Matrix Analysis in Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) With Smartpls 2.0 M3
( 78 ) The Importance of Computers with Matlab Software in the Teaching and Learning of Geometry in Space
( 81 ) Finite Difference Method Applied to an Unsteady Magnetohydrodynamic Newtonian Fluid with Wall Slip in Darcy-Forchheimer Porous Medium
( 83 ) MHD Flow of a Nanofluid at the Forward Stagnation Point of an Infinite Permeable Wall with a Convective Boundary Condition
( 84 ) Multi-Order Fractional Mathieu Equation with External Multi-Periodic Excitation
( 85 ) Analysis of an Eco-Epidemiological Model with Disease in the Prey and Predator
( 86 ) The Analysis of Entrepreneurship Program Within Higher Education (Institution Case Study of the Management of Business in Telecommunications and Informatics, Telkom University - Indonesia)
( 88 ) I am a College Graduate: Postsecondary Experiences as Described by Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders
( 89 ) The Power of Role-Playing in Counseling Children with Learning Difficulties in Inclusive Schools of Indonesia
( 90 ) Emotional Divorce and its Relationship with Psychological Hardiness
( 92 ) Integrals Involving H-Function And Some Commonly Used Functions
( 94 ) On the Starlikeness for Certain Analytic Functions
( 95 ) Spline Methods for a Class of Singularly Perturbed Boundary Value Problems
( 96 ) The Impact of Teacher-Pupil Ratio on Teaching-Learning Process in Primary Schools: Experiences from Tanzania
( 98 ) Tablet Technologies and Education
( 99 ) Representation of Science Process Skills in the Chemistry Curricula for Grades 10, 11 and 12 / Turkey
( 100 ) Using Jigsaw Technique as an Effective Way of Promoting Co-Operative Learning Among Primary Six Pupils in Fijai
( 102 ) Solution of Np-Complete Problems on the Landauer’s Computer
( 103 ) Explicit Numerical Solution of High - Dimensional Advection - Diffusion
( 104 ) Mathematical Analysis of the Impact of Real Exchange Rate on Output Growth and Inflation: The Case of Tanzania Zanzibar
( 105 ) Discrimination and Classification of Poultry Feeds Data
( 109 ) Collocation Approximation Methods for the Numerical Solutions of General nth Order Nonlinear Integro-Differential Equations by Canonical Polynomial
( 111 ) Teacher CPD across Borders: Reflections on How a Study Tour to England Helped to Change Practice and Praxis among Jamaican Teachers
( 112 ) Incorporating Error Analysis Approach into the Teaching of Practical Chemistry in Senior Secondary Schools in Makurdi Nigeria: Any Effect on Achievement?
( 114 ) Reflective Practice in Teacher Education in Ghana
( 116 ) Learning Analytics in Practice: Development and Implementation of A Support System to the Management of the Teaching Activity
( 119 ) Contrastive Linguistic English Phonology Vs. Arabic Phonology
( 120 ) Education and Poverty Alleviation: Problems and Prospects
( 121 ) Factors Affecting Knowledge Sharing Behavior in Academic Communities: Grounded Theory
( 123 ) Teacher Preparation Programs and Technology Integration: Best Practices for Curriculum Design
( 124 ) Notes on Q-Intuitionistic Fuzzy Subsemiring of a Semiring
( 125 ) On Mathematical Model for the Study of Traffic Flow on the High Ways
( 126 ) Positioning Mauritius as a Knowledge Hub in the Context of Globalisation
( 127 ) Key Challenges of Work-Based Learning Application in Teaching and Learning Strategies for Accounting Programs
( 129 ) Teachers’ Perception on Laws and Education in Nigeria
( 131 ) Improving SME’s Capacity through Learning and New Technologies
( 132 ) Applied Optimization and Approximation
( 134 ) Career/Vocational Guidance/Counselling: A Tool for Functional Education and Graduate Employability
( 135 ) Application of PBL Method in Beverage Technology Teaching
( 136 ) On Statistical Definition of Free and Fair Election: Bivariate Normal Distribution Model
( 137 ) Developing Pre-Service Teachers Awareness and Change of Gender-Oriented Perceptions
( 138 ) Quality Assurance in Curriculum Implementation of Accounting Courses in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions
( 139 ) The Bounds of Time Lag and Chemotherapeutic Efficacy in the Control of HIV/AIDS
( 140 ) Alternative Way of Statistical Data Analysis: L-Moments and Tl-Moments of Probability Distribution
( 142 ) A Steady MHD Boundary-Layer Flow of Water-Based Nanofluids over a Moving Permeable Flat Plate
( 143 ) Upgraded Harmony Search Algorithm for Solving Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch Problem
( 146 ) A Critical Review of the School-Based Assessment in Brunei Darussalam
( 148 ) Student- Teacher and Student- Student Interaction in Second Language Teaching- Learning Environment: A Micro-Teaching Case Study
( 149 ) Episodic Memories among First and Fourth Graders Early Childhood University Student Teachers, Concerning Teachers’ Behaviors: A Mixed Method Approach
( 151 ) Relationship between Self-Efficacy Belief and Academic Achievement of Distance Learners in National Teachers Institute (NTI) Adamawa State, Nigeria
( 152 ) Teaching of Mathematics and Physics in Secondary School through Research and Study Paths
( 154 ) Regulatory Roles of the National Universities Commission and the Quality of Nigerian University Education
( 155 ) Contiguous Function Relations and an Integral Representation for Appell k-Series F_(1,k)
( 156 ) A Genralist Predator Prey Mathematical Model Analysis on A Cusp Point and Bogdanov-Takens Bifurcation Point
( 157 ) Effective Use of Teaching Methodologies in Science, Technology and Mathematics (STM) Classrooms in Nigeria: A Panacea to Vision 20:2020
( 158 ) The Potential of E-Learning in Meeting the Needs of Migrant Communities
( 159 ) Effects of Self-Management and Social Skills Training On the Reduction of Adolescents’ Conduct Disorder
( 160 ) Managing the Nigerian Tertiary Education for National Transformation through Effective Continuous Staff Training and Development (CSTD)
( 161 ) Information and Communication Technology challenges and Strategies among Office Technology and Management Educators in Nigerian Polytechnics
( 162 ) Assessing School Leadership Challenges in Ghana Using Leadership Practices Inventory
( 166 ) Availability and Use of Instructional Materials in the Teaching of Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Primary Schools in Nandi North District, Kenya
( 169 ) Performance Accountability in Higher Education (Case Study on the Performance Accountability at Andalasuniversity West Sumatera - Indonesia)
( 170 ) Teachers’ Maxims in English Language Teaching; a Challenge in Education for Social Transformation in Kenya
( 172 ) Digitization and Preservation as Means of Accessing Information in Nigerian University Libraries: A Case Study of Bayero University, Kano and Kashim Ibrahim Library, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
( 173 ) Mainstreaming ICT Mobile in Teaching Large Classes in Higher Learning Institutions in Tanzania: The Case of Ardhi University
( 174 ) The Training Dilemma: Three Teachers’ Views of CPD
( 175 ) Self-Efficacy of English Listening Skills in Japanese College EFL Learners
( 176 ) Reconceptualising Student Success
( 178 ) Building a Project Culture through Research and Innovation Training of Future PhDs in Ukraine
( 179 ) On the Component Analysis and Transformation of An Explicit Fifth – Stage Fourth – Order Runge – Kutta Methods
( 180 ) Mathematical & Spatial Relationship between Dome and Al- Mousala in Congregational Mosques (An Analytical Study of Basic Dimension of Central Dome Pattern)
( 181 ) Riccatis Equation. Asymptotics of Exact Solution
( 182 ) MHD Mixed Convective Heat and Mass Transfer through a Stratified Nanofluid Flow Over a Thermal Radiative Stretching Cylinder
( 185 ) Quality Assurance in Higher Education Using Business Intelligence Technology
( 186 ) Disaster Management: Planning and Communication Approaches Used in Organizations in Kenya
( 188 ) The Implication of Customer Service in Higher Education: Review Paper
( 189 ) Properties of Permutation Groups Using Wreath Product
( 190 ) The (F/G)-Expansion Method and Travelling Wave Solutions of Nonlinear Evolution Equations
( 191 ) New Features of Sprint Technological Development and Stagnant Causes and Countermeasures of Men’s 100-Meter Sprint in China
( 192 ) Retracted: Applications of Mathematical Modeling for Sensitivity and Sustainability in Supply Chain Flexibility
( 193 ) Cubic Dual Ideals in BCK-Algebras
( 194 ) Internationalizing Teacher Education: A U.S. – Vietnam Case Study
( 196 ) Development of a Rating Scale for Measuring Teacher Classroom Autonomy in Secondary Schools in Southwestern Nigeria
( 199 ) A Simple Criterion for the Non-Existence of Limit Cycles of a Lienard System
( 200 ) The Hartman-Wintner Law of the Iterated Logarithm for Noncommutative Martingales
( 201 ) Factors that Influence Teachers’ Perceptions of Information Communication and Technology (ICT) in Mathematics Teaching in Kenyan Secondary Schools
( 202 ) Optimal Solution of Balanced and Unbalanced Fuzzy Transportation Problem Using Hexagonal Fuzzy Numbers
( 204 ) Skills that Matter and Will Last a Lifetime
( 205 ) Managing Academic Service Delivery in South-South Nigerian Universities for National Education Transformation
( 206 ) Role of Attitude, Interest and Peer Pressure in Academic Outcomes of Girls in Gem Sub - County, Kenya
( 207 ) The Ethics of Teachers’ Practices During Evaluations at University Level: The Case of the University of Maroua
( 209 ) An Investigation into the Challenges Faced by a Funding Agency in Designing and Implementing a Succession Planning Programme
( 210 ) Benchmarking in Physical Education Teacher Education Program
( 211 ) Repositioning School Based Teacher Management in Kenya: Global Practices and Approaches
( 212 ) Impact of Classroom Environment on Childrens Social Behavior
( 213 ) Advanced Education and Training Programs to Support Renewable Energy Investment in Africa
( 214 ) The Extent to Which Parental Involvement Influences Transition of Pupils from Lower to Upper Primary in Manga District Schools
( 217 ) Optimal Solution of Balanced and Unbalanced Fuzzy Transportation Problem Using Hexagonal Fuzzy Numbers
( 219 ) Dx-Schemes and Jets in Conformal Gravity Using Integral Transforms
( 221 ) Consistency of a Mixture Model of Two Different Distributions Approach to the Analysis of Buying Behaviour Data
( 222 ) On the Numerical Solution of Two Dimensional Schrodinger Equation
( 223 ) Social Studies Teachers' Performance in the Context of the Knowledge Society at Saudi Arabian Schools
( 224 ) Effective Application of Local Teaching Aids for Cost Control in Learning Islamic Studies in Nasarawa State, Nigeria
( 225 ) Educationally Game-Based Learning Encourages Learners to be Actively Engaged in their Own Learning
( 227 ) On Adomian Polynomials and its Applications to Lane-Emden Type of Equation
( 229 ) The Impact of Powerpoint Use on Teacher Sense of Efficacy
( 230 ) The Representation of Gender in a Popular Primary School EFL Textbook Series in China
( 231 ) Do Preschool Teachers' Education Affect their Classroom Practices and Career Paths?
( 233 ) Statistical Inference for Discretely Observed Diffusion Epidemic Models
( 235 ) Traveling Wave Solutions for the Nonlinear Fractional Sharma-Tasso-Olever Equation
( 236 ) Period Monotonicity for Weight-Homogeneous Differential Systems
( 237 ) Challenges to E-Learning in Public Secondary Schools in Edo State in The 21st Century
( 238 ) Global Readiness among Preschools Children in Malaysia
( 239 ) Perceptions of the Open Distance and E-Learning Model at a South African University