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Journal of Food Technology Research

June 2020, Volume 7, 1, pp 125-135

Effects of Melon Seed or Soybean Meal Supplementation on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Incompletely Peeled Cassava Garri

Agbara, Gervase Ikechukwu

,

Ibekwe, Paulina Chikaodili

Agbara, Gervase Ikechukwu 1 ,

Ibekwe, Paulina Chikaodili 1 
  1. Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. 1

Pages: 125-135

DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.125.135

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Article History:

Received: 19 March, 2020
Revised: 27 April, 2020
Accepted: 29 May, 2020
Published: 30 June, 2020


Abstract:

In this present study, completely peeled (CP) and Incompletely peeled (IP)cassava roots were used to produce garri, other portions were supplemented with soybean (S) or Melon seed (MS) meals at 10% level and garri were produced, a total of nine which were subjected to physicochemical and sensory analysis using standard procedures and the results presented as mean±SE. The moisture, crude protein, crude fat, total ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents varied significantly (P<0.05) from 9.75-15.16%, 1.40-9.71%, 0.70-3.35%, 1.60-2.36%, 2.13-3.45% and 68.97-81.03% respectively. Significance increase was observed in ash, fibre, protein and fat contents of IP garri especially the seed meal treated. Calcium (45-87mg/100g), Phosphorous, Iron and Zinc contents were generally low but Calcium, Potassium and Phosphorous were greater in the IP garri than in the Cp garri, and the values of all the mineral elements were enhanced in the treated garri. The bacteria counts, fungi counts, coliform and staphylococcus aureus load were far below the approved permissible safe limits for ready-to-eat foods however, the E.coli observed in two garri samples could be attributed to post-toasting cross contamination. CP garri had the highest water absorption capacity (4.51%), the swelling index of CP (5.78%), IP (5.90%), and CP+IP (5.76%) were relatively high, and decreased on supplementation with seed meal. The PH of the various garri were slightly acidic especially the untreated garri. The cyanide contents of the various garri (0.11-0.34mg/100g) were low perhaps due to sweet cassava variety used in this study. The sensory properties of the either eba or soaked garri were well appreciated, however the texture of all eba made from IP were softer and stickier. This study has proved that complete removal of the cassava peel for garri production leads to nutrient depletion in a nutrient deficient staple and the waste accumulation constitutes environmental hazard.
Contribution/ Originality
The study proved conclusively wasteful peeling away of the cassava root cortex before garri production is unnecessary, increases cost of labour and create environmental pollution and it also depletes the mineral and the dietary fiber contents of the garri; moreover fortification with seed oil meal enhanced the nutrient density of all types of garri however higher oil contents of modified garri reduced water absorption and swelling capacities which are not desired by consumers.

Keywords:

Garri, Oilseed meal, Cassava peel, Eba, Cyanide, Fermentation.

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Funding:

This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Acknowledgement:

Both authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

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( 186 ) Evaluation of Leaf-Water Relation Traits, as Selection Criterion for Developing Drought Resistant Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Genotypes
( 188 ) Evaluation of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Varieties against Faba Bean Gall Disease in North Shewa Zone, Ethiopia
( 189 ) Impact of Subclinical Mastitis on Reproductive Performance of Dairy Animals
( 190 ) Evaluation of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna Subterranea (L) Verdc.) Varieties for Adaptation to Rainforest Agroecological Zone of Delta State, Nigeria
( 191 ) Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance Analysis in Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Genotypes in Northwestern Ethiopia
( 192 ) Modelling and Optimization of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Paddy Pre-Treatments for Optimum Chemical Property using Response Surface Methodology
( 193 ) Phenotypic Performance Evaluation of Improved Tef (Eragrostis tef L) Genotypes in North Gondar
( 194 ) Principal Component Analysis for the Quantification of Soil Horizon Carbon Stocks in Relation to Soil Bulk Density
( 195 ) Two Stubborn Storage Insect Pests, Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais: Biology, Food Security Problems and Control Strategies
( 196 ) An Assessment of Food Hygiene Practices among Food Vendors in Some Selected Basic Schools in the Birim Central Municipality
( 197 ) Penman and Thornwait Equations for Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration Under Semi-Arid Environment
( 198 ) Understanding Mcdonalds Nutrition Facts using Discriminant Analysis and Neural Network
( 199 ) Application of Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) in Development of Suitability Model for Rice Production in Taraba State
( 201 ) Rural Population Perceptions on Anti-Silting Managements in Kebili Governorate, South Tunisia
( 202 ) Color-Based Forest Cover Type Image Segmentation using K-Means Clustering Approach
( 205 ) Comparing the Molluscicidal Action of Metaldehyde, Oxamyl, Potassium Nitrate and a Botanical Insecticide for Managing Limacolaria Spp Infesting Banana Plantations in Cameroon
( 206 ) Market Participation and Food Security Status of Bio-Fortified Cassava Processors in South Western Nigeria
( 207 ) Growth Performance of Kit Rabbits Fed Concentrate Diet Supplemented with Varying Foliage Leaf Meals
( 208 ) Evaluation of Bread Making Performance of Some Wheat Flour Brands Available in Nigerian Markets as Affected by Cassava or Sweet Potato Flour Inclusion
( 209 ) Processing and Storage Impact on Carotenoid Contents and Functional Properties of Yellow Cassava Traditional Food Products
( 210 ) Essential and Toxic Metals Determination in Imported and Fresh Beef Cattle Meat Sold in Erbil Markets
( 212 ) Quality Attributes of Yam (Dioscorea rotundata) Flour as Affected by Some Processing Parameters
( 214 ) Challenges of Groundwater Development for Towns and Big Cities Water Supply in Rift Valley Areas
( 216 ) The Role of Drones as an Enabler for the 4th Agricultural Revolution
( 218 ) Breeding for Weevil (Sitophilus Zeamais Motschulsky) Resistance in Maize (Zea mays L)
( 219 ) Contributing Factors of Boro-Rice Production in Hakaluki Haor of Bangladesh
( 220 ) The Effect of Land-Use on Herbaceous Production and Grazing Capacity in the Molopo District of the North West Province, South Africa