Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062

Conference List

Journal of Food Technology Research

December 2019, Volume 6, 2, pp 57-71

Traditional Technologies and Probiotic Properties of Bacillus Strains Isolated from Kawal -A Chad Traditional Fermented Food Condiment

Abakar Idriss L


Abdelsalam Tidjani


Essodolom Taale


Abdoullahi Hissein O


Abel Tankoano


Savadogo Aly

Abakar Idriss L 1 Abdelsalam Tidjani 2
Essodolom Taale 3
Abdoullahi Hissein O 4
Abel Tankoano 1 Savadogo Aly 1 ,

  1. LABIA, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Applied Immunology, Joseph KIZERBO University, Burkina Faso. 1

  2. Faculty of Human Health Sciences (FSSH), Laboratory of Research in Food Science and Nutrition (LaRSAN), University of NDjamena, Chad. 2

  3. Higher Institute of Agricultural Trades (ISMA) / University of Kara, Togo. 3

  4. LABIA, Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry and Immunology of Joseph KIZERBO University, Burkina Faso, Faculty of Human Health Sciences (FSSH), Laboratory of Research in Food Sciences and Nutrition (LaRSAN), University of NDjamena, Chad, Faculty of Exa 4

Pages: 57-71

DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2019.62.57.71

Share :

Article History:

Received: 02 August, 2019
Revised: 04 September, 2019
Accepted: 10 October, 2019
Published: 21 November, 2019


Kawal is a condiment produced by the traditional fermentation of Sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) leaves. Many people from the different part of Chad use it for flavoring as well as a substitute of meat. The fermentation techniques used in kawal production are often applied on a small scale and still mainly at the household level, characterized by the use of simple and rudiment equipment. This study was conducted firstly to investigate the Kawal traditional methods production. Secondly, to evaluate probiotic potential of Bacillus species isolated in order to develop starter cultures for kawal production. Protease, amylase and phytase activities of Bacillus strains were screened. The candidate were screened in vitro for antimicrobial activity against, Micococcus luteus LMG3293, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Salmonella spp. Biofilm synthesis, Antibiotics sensitivity, tolerance to simulated gastric and intestinal juice were also evaluated. The majority of selected strains formed bio?lms, produced amylase and protease, some of the strain produced phytase by forming clearing zones around the growth of the colonies. For biochemical conditions for simulated gastric and intestinal juice, among the selected strains tested, some had the highest survival in simulated gastric juice and better viability in simulated intestinal juice. The selected strains showed sensitive to a panel of antibiotics and they presented resistance to penicillin G, oxacycline and bacitracin. Some strains showed an inhibitory effect on all of the indicator bacteria tested. Overall, some of these selected strains could be used as potential microbial starters for the controlled fermentation of kawal.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies, which have investigated the traditionnel technologies, and probiotic properties of Bacillus strains isolated from kawal, towards use as a starter culture for fermenting Sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) leaves.


Kawal, Bacillus, Senna obtusifolia, Fermented food, Traditional, Probiotic.


Algadi, M. and N. Yousif, 2015. Anti-nutritional factors of green leaves of cassia obtusifolia and kawal. Journal of Food Processing & Technology, 6(9): 1-3.Available at:

AlGburi, A., A. Volski, C. Cugini, E.M. Walsh, V.A. Chistyakov, M.S. Mazanko, A.B. Bren, L.M. Dicks and M.L. Chikindas, 2016. Safety properties and probiotic potential of Bacillus subtilis KATMIRA1933 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B-1895. Advances in Microbiology, 6(6): 432-352.Available at:

Amoa-Awua, W.K., N.N. Terlabie and E. Sakyi-Dawson, 2006. Screening of 42 bacillus isolates for ability to ferment soybeans into dawadawa. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 106(3): 343-347.Available at:

Barbosa, T.M., C.R. Serra, R.M. La Ragione, M.J. Woodward and A.O. Henriques, 2005. Screening for bacillus isolates in the broiler gastrointestinal tract. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71(2): 968-978.Available at:

Borresen, E.C., A.J. Henderson, A. Kumar, T.L. Weir and E.P. Ryan, 2012. Fermented foods: Patented approaches and formulations for nutritional supplementation and health promotion. Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture, 4(2): 134-140.Available at:

Charteris, W., P. Kelly, L. Morelli and J. Collins, 1998. Development and application of an in vitro methodology to determine the transit tolerance of potentially probiotic lactobacillus and bifidobacterium species in the upper human gastrointestinal tract. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 84(5): 759-768.Available at:

Chen, Y., F.C. Tenover and T.M. Koehler, 2004. Β-lactamase gene expression in a penicillin-resistant bacillus anthracis strain. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 48(12): 4873-4877.Available at:

Coonrod, J.D., P.J. Leadley and T.C. Eickhoff, 1971. Antibiotic susceptibility of bacillus species. The Journal of Infectious Diseases: 102-105.Available at:

Desmazeaud, M. and T.M. Cogan, 1996. Role of cultures in cheese ripening. Dairy starter cultures.  New York: VCH Publishers. Inc. pp: 207-231.

Ehon, A.F., R.E. Krabi, A.A. Assamoi and L. Niamke, 2015. Preliminary technological properties assessment of bacillus spp. Isolated from traditional cassava starters used for attieke production. European Scientific Journal, 11(9): 1857- 7431.

Fakhry, S., I. Sorrentini, E. Ricca, M. De Felice and L. Baccigalupi, 2008. Characterization of spore forming bacilli isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 105(6): 2178-2186.Available at:

Franz, C.M., M. Huch, J.M. Mathara, H. Abriouel, N. Benomar, G. Reid, A. Galvez and W.H. Holzapfel, 2014. African fermented foods and probiotics. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 190(2014): 84-96.Available at: .

Gupta, R.K., S.S. Gangoliya and N.K. Singh, 2015. Reduction of phytic acid and enhancement of bioavailable micronutrients in food grains. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(2): 676-684.Available at:

Hong, H.A., L.H. Duc and S.M. Cutting, 2005. The use of bacterial spore formers as probiotics. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 29(4): 813-835.Available at:

Huang, Y. and M.C. Adams, 2004. In vitro assessment of the upper gastrointestinal tolerance of potential probiotic dairy propionibacteria. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 91(3): 253-260.Available at:

Ibrahim, S.E., H.B. El Amin, H.E. N. and A.M.E. Sulieman, 2012. Amylase production on solid state fermentation by bacillus spp. Food Public Health, 2(1): 30-35.Available at:

Jena, P.K., D. Trivedi, K. Thakore, H. Chaudhary, S.S. Giri and S. Seshadri, 2013. Isolation and characterization of probiotic properties of lactobacilli isolated from rat fecal microbiota. Microbiology and Immunology, 57(6): 407-416.Available at:

Ketiku, A. and V. Oyenuga, 1972. Changes in the carbohydrate constituents of cassava root-tuber (manihot utilissima pohl) during growth. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 23(12): 1451-1456.Available at:

Korzybski, T., Z. Kowszyk-Gindifer and W. Kurylowicz, 1978. Antibiotics isolated from the genus bacillus (bacillaceae). Antibiotics-Origin, Nature and Properties, 3(1978): 1529-1661.

Latorre, J.D., X. Hernandez-Velasco, R.E. Wolfenden, J.L. Vicente, A.D. Wolfenden, A. Menconi, L.R. Bielke, B.M. Hargis and G. Tellez, 2016. Evaluation and selection of bacillus species based on enzyme production, antimicrobial activity, and biofilm synthesis as direct-fed microbial candidates for poultry. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 3: 95.Available at:

Marshall, E. and D. Mejia, 2011. Traditional fermented food and beverages for improved livelihoods. FAO Diversification Booklet, 21(2011): 1810-0775.

Mbaiguinam, M., Y. Mahmout, M. Tarkodjiel, B. Delobel and J.-M. Bessiere, 2005. Constituents of Kawal, fermented Cassia obtusifolia leaves, a traditional food from Chad. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4(10): 1080-1083.

Merghni, A., N. Leban, A. Behi and A. Bakhrouf, 2014. Evaluation of the probiotic properties of Bacillus spp. strains isolated from Tunisian hypersaline environments. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 8(4): 398-405.Available at:

Mishra, V. and D. Prasad, 2005. Application of in vitro methods for selection of lactobacillus casei strains as potential probiotics. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 103(1): 109-115.Available at:

Mohamadou, B.-A., C.M. Mbofung and D. Thouvenot, 2008. Bacterial fermentation induced mineral dynamics during the production of mbuja fromhibiscus sabdariffa seeds in earthen-ware pots. Annals of Microbiology, 58(3): 447-451.Available at:

Nakamura, T., T. Suzuki, J. Tokuda, N. Kato, Y. Sakai, D. Mochizuki and H. Takahashi, 2000. Patent and trademark office. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent No. 6,140,077.

Nitiema, L.W., A. Savadogo, J. Simpore, D. Dianou and A.S. Traore, 2012. In vitro antimicrobial activity of some phenolic compounds (coumarin and quercetin) against gastroenteritis bacterial strains. Int J Microbiol Res, 3(3): 183-187.Available at: 10.5829/idosi.ijmr.2012.3.3.6414.

Nuha, M., A. Isam and E. Elfadil, 2010. Chemical composition, antinutrients and extractable minerals of sicklepod (cassia obtusifolia) leaves as influenced by fermentation and cooking. International Food Research Journal, 17(3): 775-785.

Oguntoyinbo, F.A., G.-S. Cho, B. Trierweiler, J. Kabisch, N. Rösch, H. Neve, W. Bockelmann, L. Frommherz, D.S. Nielsen and L. Krych, 2016. Fermentation of African kale (Brassica carinata) using L. Plantarum BFE 5092 and L. fermentum BFE 6620 starter strains. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 238: 103-112.Available at:

Olmos, J. and J. Paniagua-Michel, 2014. Bacillus subtilis a potential probiotic bacterium to formulate functional feeds for aquaculture. J Microb Biochem Technol, 6(7): 361-365.Available at:

Ouoba, L., K. Rechinger, V. Barkholt, B. Diawara, A. Traore and M. Jakobsen, 2003. Degradation of proteins during the fermentation of african locust bean (parkia biglobosa) by strains of bacillus subtilis and bacillus pumilus for production of soumbala. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 94(3): 396-402.Available at:

Parkouda, C., L. Thorsen, C.S. Compaoré, D.S. Nielsen, K. Tano-Debrah, J.S. Jensen, B. Diawara and M. Jakobsen, 2010. Microorganisms associated with maari, a baobab seed fermented product. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 142(3): 292-301.Available at:

Philippon, A., J. Dusart, B. Joris and J.M. Frère, 1998. The diversity, structure and regulation of β-lactamases. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 54(4): 341-346.Available at:

Prieto, M., L. O'Sullivan, S. Tan, P. McLoughlin, H. Hughes, M. Gutierrez, J. Lane, R. Hickey, P. Lawlor and G. Gardiner, 2014. In vitro assessment of marine bacillus for use as livestock probiotics. Marine Drugs, 12(5): 2422-2445.Available at:

Quax, W., 1997. Merits of secretion of heterologous proteins from industrial microorganisms. Folia Microbiologica, 42(2): 99-103.Available at:

Sarkar, P., B. Hasenack and M. Nout, 2002. Diversity and functionality of Bacillus and related genera isolated from spontaneously fermented soybeans (Indian Kinema) and locust beans (African Soumbala). International Journal of Food Microbiology, 77(3): 175-186.Available at:

Savadogo, A., A. Tapi, M. Chollet, B. Wathelet, A. Traoré and P. Jacques, 2011. Identification of surfactin producing strains in Soumbala and Bikalga fermented condiments using polymerase chain reaction and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry methods. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 151(3): 299-306.Available at:

Steinkraus, K., 2018. Handbook of indigenous fermented foods revised and expanded. Food science and technology. 2nd Edn.: CRC Press.

Taalé, E., A. Savadogo, C. Zongo, M. Somda, S. Sereme, S. Karou, I. Soulama and A. Traore, 2015. Characterization of Bacillus species producing Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) isolated from fermented food in Burkina Faso. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Science, 2(4): 279-290.

Wafula, E.N., C.M. Franz, S. Rohn, M. Huch, J.M. Mathara and B. Trierweiler, 2016. Fermentation of african indigenous leafy vegetables to lower post-harvest losses, maintain quality and increase product safety. African Journal of Horticultural Science, 9.

Wang, C.-Y., P.-R. Lin, C.-C. Ng and Y.-T. Shyu, 2010. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the feces of breast-fed infants and Taiwanese pickled cabbage. Anaerobe, 16(6): 578-585.Available at:

Weber, D.J., S.M. Saviteer, W.A. Rutala and C.A. Thomann, 1988. In vitro susceptibility of bacillus spp. To selected antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 32(5): 642-645.Available at:

Zweerink, M.M. and A. Edison, 1987. Difficidin and oxydifficidin: Novel broad spectrum antibacterial antibiotics produced by bacillus subtilis. The Journal of Antibiotics, 40(12): 1692-1697.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


This study received financial support from our Laboratory.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

Related Article

( 1 ) Preservative Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Ginger in Wara - A West African Traditional Soft (Unripened) Cheese
( 2 ) Small-Scale Milk Processing, Utilization and Marketing of Traditional Dairy Products in Bahir Dar Zuria and Mecha Districts, Northwestern Ethiopia
( 3 ) The Evaluation of Some Dietary Fiber Rich by-Products in Ice Creams Made from the Traditional Pudding - Kesme Muhallebi
( 4 ) Traditional Technologies and Probiotic Properties of Bacillus Strains Isolated from Kawal -A Chad Traditional Fermented Food Condiment
( 5 ) Processing and Storage Impact on Carotenoid Contents and Functional Properties of Yellow Cassava Traditional Food Products
( 7 ) Utilization of Food Processing Technologies by Women Farmers in Umuahia Agricultural Zone, Abia State, Nigeria
( 8 ) The Influence of Probiotics and Antibiotic Growth Promoter on Growth Performance and Hemato-Biochemical Parameters in Broilers
( 9 ) Role of Probiotics in Animal Nutrition
( 10 ) Probiotic Supplementation in Poultry Production as an Alternative to Antibiotic Feed Additive
( 12 ) Nutritional Properties of Some Novel Selected Fish Species in Khuzestan Province, Iran
( 13 ) Nutritional, Functional and Sensory Properties of Biscuit Produced from Wheat-Sweet Potato Composite
( 14 ) Impact of Abattoir Effluent on Soil Chemical Properties in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria
( 15 ) Physico-Chemical Properties of Honey Produced In Masha, Gesha, and Sheko Districts in Southwestern Ethiopia
( 16 ) Evaluation of the Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobialproperties of Extracts from Chrysophyllum Albidum (African Star Apple) Leaf
( 17 ) Microbiological Profile, Shelf Stability and Some Physicochemical Properties of Fermented Flour from Different Sweet Potato Cultivars
( 18 ) The Particle Size and Thermal Properties of Flour from three Plantain (Musa Paradisiaca) Cultivars Grown in Nigeria
( 19 ) Effect of Domestic Cooking on Physicochemical Parameters, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Properties of Algerian Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L. Var. Marmande)
( 20 ) Effect of Temperature and Time on the Physical Properties of Bread Produced from Wheat – Cocoyam Flour Using Response Surface Methodology
( 21 ) Effect of Jameed Form on the Chemical Composition, Rheological and Microbial Properties
( 22 ) Assessment of the Physical and Chemical Properties of Three Contrasting Soils Under Different Land Use Systems
( 23 ) Effect of Substrates on Nutritional Composition and Functional Properties of Pleurotus Ostreatus
( 24 ) Effect of Blended Fertilizer and Lime Application on Yield of Finger Millet, and Soil Properties of Acidic Soils in Western Ethiopia
( 25 ) Effect of Tuber Sections, Heat Treatment and Rehydration with Process Chemicals on the Physicochemical Properties of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea Batatas L. (Lam)) Flour
( 27 ) Effect of Boiling and Roasting on the Nutrients, Phytochemical and Functional Properties of Red and Green Cultivars of D. Bulbifera Flours
( 28 ) Effects of Melon Seed or Soybean Meal Supplementation on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Incompletely Peeled Cassava Garri
( 29 ) Proximate and Sensory Properties of Moi-Moi Developed from Cowpea and Avocado Pear Seed Flour Blends
( 31 ) Assessment of the Processing Effects of Fresh Solanum Anguivi Berries on Biochemical Contents and Functional Properties of Powder
( 34 ) Occurrence and Anti-Fungal Sensitivity Testing of Candida Species Isolated from Canine Conjunctivitis
( 36 ) Quality Characteristics of High-Oleic Sunflower Oil Extracted from Some Hybrids Cultivated Under Egyptian Conditions
( 38 ) Screening of Mycotoxins Producer Fungal and Aflatoxins Level in Dried and Smoked Fish (Clarias Sp.) and (Oreochromis Sp.) from Lake Fitri - Chad
( 39 ) Effect of Fungi and Manure on Cadmium Content and Biomass of Maize Grown In Cadmium Contaminated Tailing from Bangka Indonesia
( 40 ) Climate Relevant Emissions from Animal Production and Reduction Potentials
( 41 ) Evaluation of In Vitro Protocols for Elimination of Banana Streak Virus from Tissue Cultured Explants in Banana Seedling Production
( 43 ) Farmers Assessment of the Training and Visit Extension System in Niger State: Evidence from Fadama Ii & Iii in Mokwa Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria
( 44 ) Bioaccumulation of Hydrocarbon, Heavy Metals and Minerals in Tympanotonus Fuscatus from Coastal Region of Bayelsa State, Nigeria
( 48 ) Synthesis of Biodiesel from Tropical Almond (Terminalia Catappa) Seed Oil
( 51 ) Comparing Post-Partum Growth by Body Weight between Sex and Litter Size of Agouti (Dasyprocta Leporina) Offspring from Birth to 360 Days Old
( 52 ) Molecular Studies on E.Coli Isolate from Milk of Mastatic Cattle with Special Reference to Associated Biochemical Changes in Kaliobea Governorate
( 53 ) Palm Kernel Separation Efficiency and Kernel Quality from Different Methods Used in Some Communities in Rivers State, Nigeria
( 54 ) Sooty Mold on Lemon Trees - First Recording from El-Beida City, Libya
( 55 ) Isolation and Screening of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria from Rhizosphere of Tea (Camellia Sinensis L.) on Andisols
( 56 ) Edible Films and Coatings: A Good Idea From Past to Future Technology
( 57 ) Agronomic Practices of Maize and Farm Nutrient Status in Bako Tibe District, West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia: Lesson from Agronomic Panel Survey
( 58 ) Adoption and Perception of Farmers towards Attributes of Improved Teff (Quncho) Varieties: Evidence from Benishangul-Gumuz Region of Ethiopia
( 60 ) Vegetable Farmers Knowledge and Safety Practices towards Pesticides: Results from Field Observation in Southeastern DR Congo
( 61 ) Death in the Mouth: The Current Status of Pesticide Residues in Cured Fish from Selected Markets in Rivers State Nigeria
( 62 ) Quality Attributes of Cheese Produced from Goat’s Milk Supplemented with Coconut Milk
( 64 ) Economic Benefits of Waste Management Based on Cocoa Farming System in Rural Area: Evidence from East Kolaka District of Southeast Sulawesi Province
( 65 ) Storage Effects on Microbiological and Some Antioxidant Potentials of Partially Substituted Bread Produced from Wheat Flour and Fresh Coconut Meat
( 67 ) Germination Effects of Purposive Bruchid Screening of African Ebony (Dalbergia Melanoxylon) Seeds In the Arid and Semi-Arid Region of South Eastern Kenya
( 68 ) Fetal Maceration in Crossbred Holstein Frisian Heifer-A Case Report
( 69 ) Risk Factors for the Contamination of Wild Stomoxys niger niger Macquart 1851 (Diptera: Muscidae) with the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus
( 70 ) Potential Economic Benefit and Producers’ Willingness to Adopt Bt-Brinjal in Bangladesh: An Ex-Ante Analysis