The International Journal of Biotechnology

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2306-6148
Print ISSN: 2306-9864
Quick Submission    Login/Submit/Track

Recent Articles

Phytochemicals of Senna auriculata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae) Flowers as Potent Antibacterial and Antidiabetic Agents

Pages: 50-66
Find References

Finding References

Phytochemicals of Senna auriculata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae) Flowers as Potent Antibacterial and Antidiabetic Agents

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search

DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2020.92.50.66

Murugesan Sakthivadivel , Dhivya Bharathi , Ganesan Rithika , Jeyabharathi Sakthivadivel , Samuel Tennyson

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

Aba, P. E., & Asuzu, I. U. (2018). Mechanisms of actions of some bioactive anti-diabetic principles from phytochemicals of medicinal plants: A review. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 9(2), 85-96.

Alviano, D., & Alviano, C. (2009). Plant extracts: Search for new alternatives to treat microbial diseases. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 10(1), 106-121.Available at:

Amoussa, A., Bourjot, M., Lagnika, L., Vonthron-Sénécheau, C., & Sanni, A. (2016). Acthaside: A new chromone derivative from Acacia ataxacantha and its biological activities. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 16(1), 506-506.Available at:

Andallu, B. (2002). Control of hyperglycemic and retardation of cataract by mulberry (Morus indica. L) leaves in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 40(7), 791-795.

Araya-Cloutier, C., Den Besten, H. M., Aisyah, S., Gruppen, H., & Vincken, J.-P. (2017). The position of prenylation of isoflavonoids and stilbenoids from legumes (Fabaceae) modulates the antimicrobial activity against gram positive pathogens. Food Chemistry, 226, 193-201.Available at:

Bailey, C. J. (1999). New pharmacological approaches to glycemic control. Diabetes Reviews, 7(2), 94-113.

Baldeón, M. E., Castro, J., Villacrés, E., Narváez, L., & Fornasini, M. (2012). Hypoglycemic effect of cooked Lupinus mutabilis and its purified alkaloids in subjects with type-2 diabetes. Nutricion Hospitalaria, 27(4), 1261-1266.

Bauer, A. W., Kirby, W. M. M., Sherris, J. C., & Turck, M. (1966). Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 45, 493-496.Available at:

Borges, A., Ferreira, C., Saavedra, M. J., & Simoes, M. (2013). Antibacterial activity and mode of action of ferulic and gallic acids against pathogenic bacteria. Microbial Drug Resistance, 19(4), 256-265.Available at:

Brahmachari, H., & Augusti, K. (1961). Hypoglycaemic agents from Indian indigenous plants. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 13(1), 381-382.Available at:

Burt, S. (2004). Essential oils: Their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods—a review. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 94(3), 223-253.Available at:

Chanda, S., Dudhatra, S., & Kaneria, M. (2010). Antioxidative and antibacterial effects of seeds and fruit rind of nutraceutical plants belonging to the fabaceae family. Food & Function, 1(3), 308-315.Available at:

Cohen, M. L. (1992). Epidemiology of drug resistance: Implications for a post—antimicrobial era. Science, 257(5073), 1050-1055.Available at:

Cowan, M. M. (1999). Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 12(4), 564-582.Available at:

Daisy, P., Feril, G., & Kani, J. (2012). Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of various extracts of cassia auriculata linn. Bark on streptozotocin-induced diabetic wistar rats. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4(4), 312-318.

Dewanjee, S., Das, A. K., Sahu, R., & Gangopadhyay, M. (2009). Antidiabetic activity of Diospyros peregrina fruit: Effect on hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and augmented oxidative stress in experimental type 2 diabetes. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47(10), 2679-2685.Available at:

Divya, B., & Mini, S. (2011). In vitro radical scavenging activity of different extracts of butea monosperma bark. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, 3(3), 114-116.

Doshi, G. M., Shahare, M. D., Aggarwal, G. V., Pillai, P. G., & Desai, S. K. (2011). Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant methods of cassia auriculata. Der Pharmacia Lettre, 3, 297-305.

Evans, C. E., Banso, A., & Samuel, O. A. (2002). Efficacy of some nupe medicinal plants against Salmonella typhi: An in vitro study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 80(1), 21-24.Available at:

Gaikwad, S. B., Mohan, G. K., & Rani, M. S. (2014). Phytochemicals for diabetes management. Pharmaceutical Crops, 5(1), 11-28.

Godstime, O. C., Felix, E. O., Augustina, J. O., & Christopher, E. O. (2014). Mechanisms of antimicrobial actions of phytochemicals against enteric pathogens – a review. Journal of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Biological Sciences, 2(2), 77-85.

Govindappa, M. (2015). A review on role of plant (s) extracts and its phytochemicals for the management of diabetes. J Diabetes Metab, 6(7), 1-38.Available at:

Gupta, R., Sharma, A. K., Dobhal, M., Sharma, M., & Gupta, R. (2011). Antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of β-sitosterol in streptozotocin-induced experimental hyperglycemia. Journal of Diabetes, 3(1), 29-37.Available at:

Hakkim, F. L., Girija, S., Kumar, R. S., & Jalaludeen, M. (2007). Effect of aqueous and ethanol extracts of cassia auriculata L. flowers on diabetes using alloxan induced diabetic rats. International Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism, 15, 100-106.

Harborne, J. B. (1998). Phytochemical methods, a guide to modern techniques of plant analysis (3rd ed., pp. 279). London: Chapman and Hill Ltd.

Hatapakki, B., Suresh, H., Bhoomannavar, V., & Shivkumar, S. (2005). Effect of cassia auriculata linn flowers against alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Journal of Natural Remedies, 5(2), 132-136.

Inas, S. G., Ekram, S. A., Hoda, F. B., Ibrahim, M. F., & Somaia, A. N. (2011). Evaluation of antihyperglycemic action of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) and its effect on DNA damage, chromosome aberrations and sperm abnormalities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Global Veterinaria, 7(6), 532-544.

Iwu, M. W., Ducan, A. R., & Okungi, C. O. (1999). New antimicrobials of plant origin. In: Perspectives on new crops and new uses. Janik, J. (Ed.). (pp. 457-462). Alexandria: ASHS press.

Jones, G., McAllister, T., Muir, A., & Cheng, K.-J. (1994). Effects of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) condensed tannins on growth and proteolysis by four strains of ruminal bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol, 60(4), 1374-1378.Available at:

Jorge, A. P., Horst, H., de Sousa, E., Pizzolatti, M. G., & Silva, F. R. M. B. (2004). Insulinomimetic effects of kaempferitrin on glycaemia and on 14C-glucose uptake in rat soleus muscle. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 149(2-3), 89-96.Available at:

Jyothi, S., Chavan, S. C., & Somashekaraiah, B. (2012). In vitro and in vivo antioxidant and antidiabetic efficacy of cassia auriculata L. flowers. Global Journal of Pharmacology, 6(1), 33-40.

Kalaivani, A., Umamaheswari, A., Vinayagam, A., & Kalaivani, K. (2008). Anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant properties of cassia auriculata leaves and flowers on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Pharmacologyonline, 1, 204-217.

Kazmi, M. H., Malik, A., Hameed, S., Akhtar, N., & Ali, S. N. (1994). An anthraquinone derivative from cassia Italica. Phytochemistry, 36(3), 761-763.Available at:

Khameneh, B., Iranshahy, M., Soheili, V., & Bazzaz, B. S. F. (2019). Review on plant antimicrobials: A mechanistic viewpoint. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control, 8(1), 118.Available at:

Kotzekidou, P., Giannakidis, P., & Boulamatsis, A. (2008). Antimicrobial activity of some plant extracts and essential oils against foodborne pathogens in vitro and on the fate of inoculated pathogens in chocolate. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 41(1), 119-127.Available at:

Kumar, S., & Pandey, A. K. (2013). Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: An overview. Scientific World Journal, 1(1), 1-16.

Kumaran, A., & Karunakaran, R. J. (2007). Antioxidant activity of cassia auriculata flowers. Fitoterapia, 78(1), 46-47.Available at:

Latha, M., & Pari, L. (2003). Antihyperglycaemic effect of cassia auriculata in experimental diabetes and its effects on key metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 30(1-2), 38-43.Available at:

Liu, X., Kim, J.-k., Li, Y., Li, J., Liu, F., & Chen, X. (2005). Tannic acid stimulates glucose transport and inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. The Journal of Nutrition, 135(2), 165-171.Available at:

López, P. M. G., De La Mora, P. G., Wysocka, W., Maiztegui, B., Alzugaray, M. E., Del Zotto, H., & Borelli, M. I. (2004). Quinolizidine alkaloids isolated from lupinus species enhance insulin secretion. European Journal of Pharmacology, 504(1-2), 139-142.Available at:

Madureira, A. M., Ramalhete, C., Mulhovo, S., Duarte, A., & Ferreira, M.-J. U. (2012). Antibacterial activity of some African medicinal plants used traditionally against infectious diseases. Pharmaceutical Biology, 50(4), 481-489.Available at:

Manogaran, S., & Sulochana, N. (2004). Anti-inflammatory activity of cassia aauriculata. Ancient Science of Life, 24(2), 65-67.

Mishkinsky, J., Joseph, B., Sulman, F., & Goldschmied, A. (1967). Hypoglycaemic effect of trigonelline. The Lancet, 290(7529), 1311-1312.Available at:

Mishkinsky, J., Goldschmied, A., Joseph, B., Ahronson, Z., & Sulman, F. (1974). Hypoglycaemic effect of trigonella foenum graecum and lupinus termis (leguminosae) seeds and their major alkaloids in alloxan-diabetic and normal rats. International Pharmacodynamics and Therapy Archives, 210(1), 27-37.

Moyo, B., Masika, P. J., & Muchenje, V. (2012). Antimicrobial activities of moringa oleifera lam extracts. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(11), 2797-2802.

Mukherjee, P. K., Maiti, K., Mukherjee, K., & Houghton, P. J. (2006). Leads from Indian medicinal plants with hypoglycemic potentials. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 106(1), 1-28.

Murugan, T., Wins, J., & Murugan, M. (2013). Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical constituents of leaf extracts of cassia auriculata. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 75(1), 122-125.Available at:

Oonmetta-aree, J., Suzuki, T., Gasaluck, P., & Eumkeb, G. (2006). Antimicrobial properties and action of galangal (Alpinia galanga linn.) on staphylococcus aureus. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 39(10), 1214-1220.Available at:

Pari, L., & Latha, M. (2002). Effect of cassia auriculata flowers on blood sugar levels, serum and tissue lipids in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Singapore Medical Journal, 43(12), 617-621.

Perumal Samy, R., & Gopalakrishnakone, P. (2010). Therapeutic potential of plants as anti-microbials for drug discovery. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 7(3), 283-294.Available at:

Piddock, L., & Wise, R. (1989). Mechanisms of resistance to quinolones and clinical perspectives. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 23(4), 475-480.

Prasad, M. A., Zolnik, C. P., & Molina, J. (2019). Leveraging phytochemicals: The plant phylogeny predicts sources of novel antibacterial compounds. Future Science OA, 5(7), FSO407.Available at:

Qais, N., Jahan, S., & Shajib, M. S. (2018). A review on anti-diabetic plants. Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 17(1), 139-152.

Rajasekaran, R., & Gebrekidan, Y. (2018). A review on antibacterial phytochemical constitutions present in aerva lanata and their mode of action against bacterial biofilm. International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives, 9(1), 16-30.

Reichling, J., Schnitzler, P., Suschke, U., & Saller, R. (2009). Essential oils of aromatic plants with antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and cytotoxic properties–an overview. Complementary Medicine Research, 16(2), 79-90.Available at:

Riguera, R. (1997). Isolating bioactive compounds from marine organisms. Journal of Marine Biotechnology, 5, 187-193.

Saleem, M., Nazir, M., Ali, M. S., Hussain, H., Lee, Y. S., Riaz, N., & Jabbar, A. (2010). Antimicrobial natural products: An update on future antibiotic drug candidates. Natural Product Reports, 27(2), 238-254.

Savoia, D. (2012). Plant-derived antimicrobial compounds: Alternatives to antibiotics. Future Microbiology, 7(8), 979-990.Available at:

Shanmugasundaram, R., Devi, K., Soris, T., Maruthupandian, A., & Mohan, V. (2011). Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidaemic and antioxidant activity of senna auriculata (L.) Roxb. Leaves in alloxan induced diabetic rats. International Journal of PharmTech Research, 3(2), 747-756.

Sharma, B., Salunke, R., Balomajumder, C., Daniel, S., & Roy, P. (2009). Anti-diabetic potential of alkaloid rich fraction from capparis decidua on diabetic mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 127(2), 457-462.

Shava, C., Mutsaka, P., Moyo, B., Sithole, S., Chitemerere, T., & Mukanganyama, S. (2016). Antibacterial and anticancer properties of dolichos kilimandscharicus (Fabaceae). Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature, 6(2), 112-135.Available at:

Simoes, M., Bennett, R. N., & Rosa, E. A. (2009). Understanding antimicrobial activities of phytochemicals against multidrug resistant bacteria and biofilms. Natural Product Reports, 26(6), 746-757.Available at:

Solórzano-Santos, F., & Miranda-Novales, M. G. (2012). Essential oils from aromatic herbs as antimicrobial agents. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 23(2), 136-141.Available at:

Sona, P. S. (2010). Nanoparticulate drug delivery system for the treatment of diabetes. Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures, 5(2), 411-418.

SPSS. (2010). IBM SPSS statistics for windows, version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.

Stavri, M., Piddock, L. J., & Gibbons, S. (2007). Bacterial efflux pump inhibitors from natural sources. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 59(6), 1247-1260.Available at:

Sujith, P., & Senthilkumar, P. K. (2012). Bactericidal activity of extracts of different flowering stages of cassia auriculata and screening of its amino acids. International Journal of Microbiological Research, 3(2), 144-148.

Sumathy, R., Sankaranarayanan, S., Bama, P., Ramachandran, J., Vijayalakshmi, M., & Deecaraman, M. (2013). Antibacterial & antioxidant activity of flavanoid rich fraction from the petals of cassia auriculata–an in-vitro study. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5(3), 492-497.

Surana, S., Gokhale, S., Jadhav, R., Sawant, R., & Wadekar, J. B. (2008). Antihyperglycemic activity of various fractions of cassia auriculata linn. in alloxan diabetic rats. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 70(2), 227-229.Available at:

Tamura, T., Ozawa, M., Tanaka, N., Arai, S., & Mura, K. (2016). Bacillus cereus response to a proanthocyanidin trimer, a transcriptional and functional analysis. Current Microbiology, 73(1), 115-123.Available at:

Thambidurai, M., Rajesh, P., & Kannan, V. R. (2010). In-vitro anti-oxidant and anti-microbial study on cassia auriculata linn. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 1(2), 1-7.

Thulasi, G., & Amsaveni, V. (2012). Antibacterial activity of Cassia auriculata against ESBL producing E. coli from UTI patients. International Journal of Microbiological Research, 3(1), 24-29.

Tomoko, N., Takashi, A., & Hiromu, Y. (2000). Antibacterial activity of extracts prepared from tropical and subtropical plants on methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Health Sciences, 48(3), 273-276.

Trease, G., & Evans, W. (1989). Pharmacognosy (pp. 161-163). Aberdeen, Great Britain: University Press.

Vedavathy, S., & Rao, K. (1991). Antipyretic activity of six indigenous medicinal plants of Tirumala Hills, Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 33(1-2), 193-196.Available at:

Venkatesh, S., Reddy, B. M., Reddy, G. D., Mullangi, R., & Lakshman, M. (2010). Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of helicteres isora roots in alloxan-induced diabetic rats: A possible mechanism of action. Journal of Natural Medicines, 64(3), 295-304.Available at:

Vogel, A. L. (1978). Text book of practical organic chemistry (pp. 1363). London: The English Language Book Society and Longman 

WHO. (1980). Expert committee on diabetes mellitus second report (Vol. 61). Technical Report Series 646. World Health Organization. Geneva.

WHO. (1999). Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Report of a WHO Consultation. Part 1: Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Wink, M. (2013). Evolution of secondary metabolites in legumes (Fabaceae). South African Journal of Botany, 89, 164-175.Available at:

Yahaya, A., & Idris, A. (2017). Antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of carica papaya on some enteric bacterial isolates of public health importance. Greener Journal of Biological Sciences, 7(1), 1-7.

No any video found for this article.
Murugesan Sakthivadivel , Dhivya Bharathi , Ganesan Rithika , Jeyabharathi Sakthivadivel , Samuel Tennyson (2020). Phytochemicals of Senna auriculata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae) Flowers as Potent Antibacterial and Antidiabetic Agents. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 9(2): 50-66. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2020.92.50.66
Contrary to the synthetic drugs, phytochemical constituents of plant origin possess an enormous therapeutic potential as antibacterial and antidiabetic agents. The phytochemicals of Senna auriculata floral extracts and avaram tea were screened and tested for antibacterial and antidiabetic properties respectively. Antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion method at 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00% concentrations against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Overall results indicated maximum antibacterial activity at the lowest concentration (0.25%) by the petroleum ether, acetone, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and their respective zone of inhibition values were 32, 28, 22 and 15mm; at the highest concentration (1.00%) it was exhibited against Staphylococcus aureus for all extracts except for methanol against Klebsiella pneumonia and the values were 36, 34, 30 and 19mm respectively. Experiments were carried with male albino wistar mice treated with streptozotocin to study the antidiabetic property for a period of 21 days. The body weight of mice after treatment decreased on Day 7 when compared to Day 3 and then increased on Day 14 and 21. The blood glucose level decreased right from Day 3 to 21. Further, it is suggested that the molecular basis for the modes of action of plant-based antibiotics and antidiabetics be ascertained and determined.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents and highlights Avaram tea as a potential antidiabetic agent as the flowers of Senna auriculata is prescribed for diabetes in traditional practices in Siddha, besides its phytochemical compounds with proven antibacterial action.

Effects of Genetically Modified (GM) Maize Adoption in Small Scale Farms on Cropping Systems of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Pages: 67-80
Find References

Finding References

Effects of Genetically Modified (GM) Maize Adoption in Small Scale Farms on Cropping Systems of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search

DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2020.92.67.80

Tendayi Lovemore Kadango , Yoseph Assefa , Stephano Mnkeni

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

Abate, T., van Huis, A., & Ampofo, J. (2000). Pest management strategies in traditional agriculture: An African perspective. Annual Review of Entomology, 45(1), 631-659.Available at:

Adesina, A. A., & Baidu-Forson, J. (1995). Farmers' perceptions and adoption of new agricultural technology: Evidence from analysis in Burkina Faso and Guinea, West Africa. Agricultural Economics, 13(1), 1-9.Available at:

Aliber, M., & Hall, R. (2012). Support for smallholder farmers in South Africa: Challenges of scale and strategy. Development Southern Africa, 29(4), 548-562.Available at:

Altieri, M. A. (2000). The ecological impacts of transgenic crops on agroecosystem health. Ecosystem Health, 6(1), 13-23.

Ammann, K. (2005). Effects of biotechnology on biodiversity: Herbicide-tolerant and insect-resistant GM crops. TRENDS in Biotechnology, 23(8), 388-394.Available at:

Asefa, Y., & Van den Berg, J. (2009). Genetically modified maize: Adoption practices of small-scale farmers in South Africa and implications for resource poor farmers on the continent. Aspects of Applied Biology, 96, 215-223.

Assefa, Y. (2015). Potential new pests in the neighbourhood: Diversity and abundance of sugarcane stem borers in the pondoland region of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the South African Sugarcane Technologists’ Association.

Bailey, R., Willoughby, R., & Grzywacz, D. (2014). On trial: Agricultural biotechnology in Africa. Chatham House. . [Accessed, June, 2015].

Bowman, D., May, O., & Creech, J. (2003). Genetic uniformity of the US upland cotton crop since the introduction of transgenic cottons. Crop Science, 43(2), 515-518.Available at:

Brown, S. A., & Venkatesh, V. (2005). Model of adoption of technology in households: A baseline model test and extension incorporating household life cycle. MIS Quarterly, 29(3), 399-426.Available at:

Brush, S. (2000). Genes in the field: On farm conservation of crop diversity. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers.

Daberkow, S. G., & McBride, W. D. (2003). Farm and operator characteristics affecting the awareness and adoption of precision agriculture technologies in the US. Precision Agriculture, 4(2), 163-177.

DAFF. (2013). Crop and markets, fourth quarter 2013. Retrieved from http// . [Accessed June 2015]. 93(954).

Department of Rural Development and Agrarian Reform. (2014). Food production policy. Department of rural development and Agrarian reform, Province of the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Retrieved from . [Accessed June 2015].

Eastern Cape Rural Development Agency. (2013). Annual Report 2012/2013.ECRDA, 28 alexandra road. South Africa: King Williams Town.

Erenstein, O., & Laxmi, V. (2010). Assessing the impact of adaptive agricultural research on accelerating technology deployment: The case of zero tillage wheat in India. Outlook on Agricul Ture, 39(2), 121-126.Available at:

Fanadzo, M. (2012). Revitalisation of smallholder irrigation schemes for poverty alleviation and household food security in South Africa: A review. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7(13), 1956-1969.Available at:

Gepts, P., & Papa, R. (2003). Possible effects of (trans) gene flow from crops on the genetic diversity from landraces and wild relatives. Environmental Biosafety Research, 2(2), 89-103.Available at:

Giller, K. E., Corbeels, M., Nyamangara, J., Triomphe, B., Affholder, F., Scopel, E., & Tittonell, P. (2011). A research agenda to explore the role of conservation agriculture in African smallholder farming systems. Field Crops Research, 124(3), 468-472.Available at:

Gouse, M., Pray, C. E., Kirsten, J., & Schimmelpfennig, D. (2005). A GM subsistence crop in Africa: The case of Bt white maize in South Africa. International Journal of Biotechnology, 7(1-3), 84-94.Available at:

Gouse, M. (2012). GM maize as subsistence crop: The South African smallholder experience. AgBioForum, 15(2), 163-174.

Jacobsen, S.-E., Sørensen, M., Pedersen, S. M., & Weiner, J. (2013). Feeding the world: Genetically modified crops versus agricultural biodiversity. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 33(4), 651-662.Available at:

Jacobson, K., & Myhr, A. I. (2013). GM crops and smallholders: Biosafety and local practice. The Journal of Environment & Development, 22(1), 104-124.Available at:

Jacobson, K. (2013). From betterment to bt maize: Agricultural development and the introduction of genetically modified maize to South African smallholder. Department of Urban and Rural Development. Uppsala, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. PhD.  

James, C. (2012). Global status of commercialized biotech/GM crops: ISAAA brief No. 44. ISAAA, Ithaca, NY, 2012.

Khan, Z., Pickett, J., Wadhams, L., & Muyekho, F. (2001). Habitat management strategies for the control of cereal stemborers and striga in maize in Kenya. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 21(4), 375-380.Available at:

Knowler, D., & Bradshaw, B. (2007). Farmers’ adoption of conservation agriculture: A review and synthesis of recent research. Food Policy, 32(1), 25-48.Available at:

Kotey, D., Assefa, Y., Obi, A., & Van Den Berg, J. (2016). Disseminating genetically modified (GM) maize technology to smallholder farmers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa: Extension personnel’s awareness of stewardship requirements and dissemination practices. South African Journal of Agricultural Extension, 44(1), 59-74.Available at:

Kotey, D., Assefa, Y., & Van den Berg, J. (2017). Enhancing smallholder farmers’ awareness of GM maize technology, management practices and compliance to stewardship requirements in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: The role of public extension and advisory services. South African Journal of Agricultural Extension, 45(2), 49-63.Available at:

Lithourgidis, A., Dordas, C., Damalas, C., & Vlachostergios, D. (2011). Annual intercrops: An alternative pathway for sustainable agriculture. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 5(4), 396-410.

Marenya, P. P., & Barrett, C. B. (2007). Household-level determinants of adoption of improved natural resources management practices among smallholder farmers in western Kenya. Food Policy, 32(4), 515-536.

McCann, J. C., Dalton, T. J., & Mekuria, M. (2006). Breeding for Africa's new smallholder maize paradigm. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 4(2), 99-107.Available at:

Monsanto. (2012). User guide for the production of yieldgard, roundup ready corn 2 and yieldgard with roundup ready corn 2. Bryanston, 2021 South Africa: Monsanto.

Morris, M. G., & Venkatesh, V. (2000). Age differences in technology adoption decisions: Implications for a changing work force. Personnel Psychology, 53(2), 375-403.Available at:

National Academies of Sciences Engineering Medicine. (2016). Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and prospects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Nel, E., & Davies, J. (1999). Farming against the odds: An examination of the challenges facing farming and rural development in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Applied Geography, 19(3), 253-274.

Provincial Growth and Development Plan. (2004). Provincial growth and development plan 2004-2014: Summary of PGDP programmes for MTEF 2004-2007. South Africa: Province of the Eastern Cape.

Qaim, M., & Kouser, S. (2013). Genetically modified crops and food security. PloS one,  Sanchez PA, Shepherd KD, Soule MJ, Place FM, Buresh RJ, Izac AMN, Mokwunye AU, Kwesiga, 8(6), e64879.

Schmidt, M. R., & Wei, W. (2006). Loss of agro-biodiversity, uncertainty, and perceived control: A comparative risk perception study in Austria and China. Risk Analysis: An International Journal, 26(2), 455-470.Available at:

Slabbert, R., Spreeth, M., Krüger, G., & Bornman, C. (2004). Drought tolerance, traditional crops and biotechnology: Breeding towards sustainable development. South African Journal of Botany, 70(1), 116-123.Available at:

Sneller, C. H. (2003). Impact of transgenic genotypes and subdivision on diversity within elite North American soybean germplasm. Crop Science, 43(1), 409-414.Available at:

Songa, J., Overholt, W., Mueke, J., & Okello, R. (2002). Farmers' perceptions of aspects of maize production systems and pests in semi-arid eastern Kenya: Factors influencing occurrence and control of stemborers. International Journal of Pest Management, 48(1), 1-11.Available at:

Swaminathan, M. (1998). Genetic resources and traditional knowledge: From Chennai to Bratislava. Current Science, 74(6), 495-497.

Thierfelder, C., & Wall, P. (2012). Effects of conservation agriculture on soil quality and productivity in contrasting agro-ecological environments of Zimbabwe. Soil use and Management, 28(2), 209-220.Available at:

Van Ittersum, M. K., Cassman, K. G., Grassini, P., Wolf, J., Tittonell, P., & Hochman, Z. (2013). Yield gap analysis with local to global relevance—a review. Field Crops Research, 143, 4-17.Available at:

No any video found for this article.
Tendayi Lovemore Kadango , Yoseph Assefa , Stephano Mnkeni (2020). Effects of Genetically Modified (GM) Maize Adoption in Small Scale Farms on Cropping Systems of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 9(2): 67-80. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2020.92.67.80
Genetically modified (GM) crops are being promoted to ensure agricultural productivity and food security to keep pace with the ever-growing global population and food demand. In as much as agricultural technological advancements are crucial, there is need to strike a balance with agrobiodiversity for sustainable farming. Surveys were conducted in five municipal districts of the Eastern Cape Province to determine GM-technology adoption effects on maize cropping systems, agronomic practices and farmers’ perceptions of production constraints. Interviews of 232 farmers, independent (IF) 22.4% and government sponsored (GCP) 77.6%, revealed a wide variation in agronomic practices amongst them. Results indicate significant differences on the maize cropping systems practiced by the Eastern Cape small scale farmers. The majority (81.7%) of interviewed small scale GCP farmers produce maize as a monocrop, under dryland (91.7%) through conventional tillage practices (100%). In contrast, IF farmers practiced maize sole cropping (34.6%), under dryland (90.4%) through conventional tillage practices (86.5%). There were significant differences between the two farmers’ groups on crop mixture used (p=0.00), crop rotations (p=0.02), choice of maize varieties (p=0.00) and fertiliser use (p=0.00). Demographic and farm characteristics, type of land cultivation, production constraints, pest problems and pest management practices are discussed. The findings suggest the need to devise a system that will improve compatibility of GM-maize technology and traditional farming practices to ensure sustainable farming and food security for the resource poor farmers. The government support schemes seeking to enhance agricultural productivity need to equip farmers with the necessary versatile farming skills.
Contribution/ Originality
This study investigated the impact of the GM-technology adoption African small scale cereal based cropping systems, agronomic practices and farmers’ perceptions of production constraints. The findings suggest the need to devise a system that will improve compatibility of GM-maize technology and traditional farming practices.

Genetic and Molecular Relationship among Cucumeropsis Mannii Naudin using RAPD Marker

Pages: 81-98
Find References

Finding References

Genetic and Molecular Relationship among Cucumeropsis Mannii Naudin using RAPD Marker

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search

DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2020.92.81.98

Olawuyi Odunayo Joseph , Adedeji Iyanu

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

No any video found for this article.
Olawuyi Odunayo Joseph , Adedeji Iyanu (2020). Genetic and Molecular Relationship among Cucumeropsis Mannii Naudin using RAPD Marker. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 9(2): 81-98. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2020.92.81.98
Twenty-four accessions of Cucumeropsis mannii obtained from National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology and some markets from Seven Local Governments in Ibadan were evaluated for genetic relationship using RAPD marker. The field experiment was conducted at the research farm of the Department of Botany, University of Ibadan and arranged in a Completely Randomized Design with four replicates. The molecular experiment was done at International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan. The mean square interaction of accessions and their Local governments were significantly (P<0.01) higher for growth, agronomic and yield characters. Accession C3 from Mokola performed best in morphological and yield characters while NGB/01611, NG/TOLO2/11/150 and NG/AA/03/11/040 had the least. Plant height is positively associated with number of leaves (r=0.73), leaf width(r=0.72), number of fruits (r=0.52) and leaf length (0.51). The number of leaves is positively related with leaf width, dry shoot weight, dry leaf weight and dry root weight at r= 0.94, 0.74, 0.73, 0.63 respectively, while dry root weight and fruit weight (r=0.73) are positively related. Two cluster groups were delineated from twenty-four accessions of C. mannii in the dendogram. Cluster 1 constitutes the largest 17 cluster groups and different sub-groups. Accession C12 from Lalupon had highest genomic DNA concentration of 1.89 ug, while highest total volume of 827.9 ul was recorded for C15 from Olodo. Primer OPHO9 had highest allele diversity and polymorphic information content at 0.93 and 92.23% respectively. Therefore, variability among accessions of C. mannii could promote the conservation of C. mannii for genetic improvement program.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies which investigated diversity of Cucumeropsis, and has contributed to the existing literature. However, this study revealed that there is existence of variability among the accessions of Cucumeropsis mannnii at the morphological level and molecular level using RAPD marker.

Green Synthesis and Nanotoxicity Assay of Copper-Cobalt Bimetallic Nanoparticles as a Novel Nanolarvicide for Mosquito Larvae Management

Pages: 99-104
Find References

Finding References

Green Synthesis and Nanotoxicity Assay of Copper-Cobalt Bimetallic Nanoparticles as a Novel Nanolarvicide for Mosquito Larvae Management

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search

DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2020.92.99.104

Zaccheus Shehu , Wilson Lamayi Danbature , Buhari Magaji , Muhammad Mustapha Adam , Musa Aminu Bunu , Abigail John Mai , Yoro Mela

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

No any video found for this article.
Zaccheus Shehu , Wilson Lamayi Danbature , Buhari Magaji , Muhammad Mustapha Adam , Musa Aminu Bunu , Abigail John Mai , Yoro Mela (2020). Green Synthesis and Nanotoxicity Assay of Copper-Cobalt Bimetallic Nanoparticles as a Novel Nanolarvicide for Mosquito Larvae Management. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 9(2): 99-104. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2020.92.99.104
Plant mediated nanoparticles have been investigated to possess many applications in many fields such as pharmaceuticals, therapeutics and other commercial products. In this study, Copper/Cobalt bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized by an eco-friendly and cost effective method using Palmyra palm fruit extract and characterized using various techniques such as UV-visible spectrophotometry and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Green synthesis method was used in obtaining the nanoparticles and the agar well diffusion method was used in evaluating the larvicidal activity. The resulting nanoparticles were evaluated to find possible application as nanolarvicide against first, second and third instar of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in terms of percentage mortality. The lethal concentration values were LC50=12.036, LC90=143.316; LC50=14.774, LC90=263,456; LC50=16.076, LC90=296.758 ppm for the first, second, and third instars respectively implying moderate activity of this copper/cobalt nanoparticles. It could be concluded that copper-cobalt bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized using fruit extract of palmyra palm could be a potential nanolarvicide for mosquito larvae management.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on Copper/Cobalt biological activity for control of mosquitoes in our environment.