Gwaza, D.S. , Ukwu, H.O. , Iorungwa, J.M. (2019). Assessment of Genetic Diversity at the Heamoglobin Locus in Selected West African Dwarf Goat Populations in Nigeria. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 8(1): 12-18. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2019.81.12.18
Blood samples were collected from 40 (forty) goats in Kwande Local Government Area, of Benue State, Nigeria. Blood samples collected were subjected to electrophoresis to study haemoglobin polymorphism and its distribution in West African Dwarf goat populations in Kwande. Data on Haemoglobin genotypes were subjected to sample variance (S2) population genetics simulation software for the analysis. Three heamoglobin genotypes (HbAA, HbAB and HbBB) were observed in the West African dwarf goat populations. The haemoglobin gynotypes (HbAA, HbAB and HbBB) were controlled by two co-dominant haemoglobin alleles HbA and HbB. The genotypic frequencies were 0.24, 0.57 and 0.19 for HbAA, HbAB and HbBB respectively. Genotypic frequencies at the haemoglobin locus in West African Dwarf goat were in hardy-weinberg equilibrium. The gene frequencies of HbA and HbB observed were 0.52 and 0.48 respectively with HbA being the most frequent. The low allelic variation may have occur when populations are separated but only for a short time, that the processes of genetic drift and mutation that leads to differentiations of allelic frequencies at selected loci are yet to occur. As the amount of time in which two isolated populations increases, the differences in allelic frequencies will also increase until each population is completely fixed for a number of alleles. These factors may have accounted for the low variation in the heamoglobin allelic frequencies observed in this study. There was also gene-controlled diversity at the haemoglobin locus in the WAD goat populations with heterozygosity (He) value of 0.49, which indicated a moderate level of genetic diversity at the haemoglobin locus in WAD goat populations in Kwande Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria.
The study indicated that the populations of the West African dwarf goat were separated for a short time, that the processes of genetic drift and mutation that leads to differentiation of allelic frequencies at selected loci are yet to occur and that no population of the West African dwarf goat is fixed in heamoglobin allelic frequencies.
Glucose Monitoring Technologies and Challenges: An Update
Deepali Bisht , Vedika Yadav , Rajsi . , Panchali Saha , Narendra Kumar (2019). Glucose Monitoring Technologies and Challenges: An Update. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 8(1): 1-11. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2019.81.1.11
The innovation of glucometer has set a benchmark to restrain the effects of diabetes. Diabetes is a scourging metabolic disorder, responsible for disabilities and anachronistic deaths among mass populations. The hyperglycemic condition creates physiological and psychological sufferings to the patients. These complications have led to drastic evolvement in the diabetes diagnostic technologies. The pioneer work in the field of glucose monitoring devices started with the development of blood-based sensing practices, extensively used by the patients but it is an invasive technique which induces trouble in the subjects. Thus, a non-invasive, painless method of glucose testing is a new advancement in the range of glucometers and would profoundly increase the compliance and overcome complications. Saliva-based glucometers is a non-invasive approach, has the potential to exceptionally overcome the discomfort brought up by the blood-based invasive methods. The objective of presenting this review is to provide the chronological series of events in the identification of the disease along with the technological advancements in the glucose monitoring devices.
This study contributes in the existing literature about the glucose monitoring technologies available in current use as well as the upcoming technologies which will add the comfort and painless methods for glucose testing to support patient care.