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Phytochemicals of Senna auriculata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae) Flowers as Potent Antibacterial and Antidiabetic Agents

Pages: 50-66
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Phytochemicals of Senna auriculata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae) Flowers as Potent Antibacterial and Antidiabetic Agents

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2020.92.50.66

Murugesan Sakthivadivel , Dhivya Bharathi , Ganesan Rithika , Jeyabharathi Sakthivadivel , Samuel Tennyson

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Murugesan Sakthivadivel , Dhivya Bharathi , Ganesan Rithika , Jeyabharathi Sakthivadivel , Samuel Tennyson (2020). Phytochemicals of Senna auriculata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae) Flowers as Potent Antibacterial and Antidiabetic Agents. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 9(2): 50-66. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2020.92.50.66
Contrary to the synthetic drugs, phytochemical constituents of plant origin possess an enormous therapeutic potential as antibacterial and antidiabetic agents. The phytochemicals of Senna auriculata floral extracts and avaram tea were screened and tested for antibacterial and antidiabetic properties respectively. Antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion method at 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00% concentrations against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Overall results indicated maximum antibacterial activity at the lowest concentration (0.25%) by the petroleum ether, acetone, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and their respective zone of inhibition values were 32, 28, 22 and 15mm; at the highest concentration (1.00%) it was exhibited against Staphylococcus aureus for all extracts except for methanol against Klebsiella pneumonia and the values were 36, 34, 30 and 19mm respectively. Experiments were carried with male albino wistar mice treated with streptozotocin to study the antidiabetic property for a period of 21 days. The body weight of mice after treatment decreased on Day 7 when compared to Day 3 and then increased on Day 14 and 21. The blood glucose level decreased right from Day 3 to 21. Further, it is suggested that the molecular basis for the modes of action of plant-based antibiotics and antidiabetics be ascertained and determined.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents and highlights Avaram tea as a potential antidiabetic agent as the flowers of Senna auriculata is prescribed for diabetes in traditional practices in Siddha, besides its phytochemical compounds with proven antibacterial action.

Effects of Genetically Modified (GM) Maize Adoption in Small Scale Farms on Cropping Systems of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Pages: 67-80
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Effects of Genetically Modified (GM) Maize Adoption in Small Scale Farms on Cropping Systems of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2020.92.67.80

Tendayi Lovemore Kadango , Yoseph Assefa , Stephano Mnkeni

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Tendayi Lovemore Kadango , Yoseph Assefa , Stephano Mnkeni (2020). Effects of Genetically Modified (GM) Maize Adoption in Small Scale Farms on Cropping Systems of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 9(2): 67-80. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2020.92.67.80
Genetically modified (GM) crops are being promoted to ensure agricultural productivity and food security to keep pace with the ever-growing global population and food demand. In as much as agricultural technological advancements are crucial, there is need to strike a balance with agrobiodiversity for sustainable farming. Surveys were conducted in five municipal districts of the Eastern Cape Province to determine GM-technology adoption effects on maize cropping systems, agronomic practices and farmers’ perceptions of production constraints. Interviews of 232 farmers, independent (IF) 22.4% and government sponsored (GCP) 77.6%, revealed a wide variation in agronomic practices amongst them. Results indicate significant differences on the maize cropping systems practiced by the Eastern Cape small scale farmers. The majority (81.7%) of interviewed small scale GCP farmers produce maize as a monocrop, under dryland (91.7%) through conventional tillage practices (100%). In contrast, IF farmers practiced maize sole cropping (34.6%), under dryland (90.4%) through conventional tillage practices (86.5%). There were significant differences between the two farmers’ groups on crop mixture used (p=0.00), crop rotations (p=0.02), choice of maize varieties (p=0.00) and fertiliser use (p=0.00). Demographic and farm characteristics, type of land cultivation, production constraints, pest problems and pest management practices are discussed. The findings suggest the need to devise a system that will improve compatibility of GM-maize technology and traditional farming practices to ensure sustainable farming and food security for the resource poor farmers. The government support schemes seeking to enhance agricultural productivity need to equip farmers with the necessary versatile farming skills.
Contribution/ Originality
This study investigated the impact of the GM-technology adoption African small scale cereal based cropping systems, agronomic practices and farmers’ perceptions of production constraints. The findings suggest the need to devise a system that will improve compatibility of GM-maize technology and traditional farming practices.

Genetic and Molecular Relationship among Cucumeropsis Mannii Naudin using RAPD Marker

Pages: 81-98
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Genetic and Molecular Relationship among Cucumeropsis Mannii Naudin using RAPD Marker

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2020.92.81.98

Olawuyi Odunayo Joseph , Adedeji Iyanu

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Olawuyi Odunayo Joseph , Adedeji Iyanu (2020). Genetic and Molecular Relationship among Cucumeropsis Mannii Naudin using RAPD Marker. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 9(2): 81-98. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2020.92.81.98
Twenty-four accessions of Cucumeropsis mannii obtained from National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology and some markets from Seven Local Governments in Ibadan were evaluated for genetic relationship using RAPD marker. The field experiment was conducted at the research farm of the Department of Botany, University of Ibadan and arranged in a Completely Randomized Design with four replicates. The molecular experiment was done at International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan. The mean square interaction of accessions and their Local governments were significantly (P<0.01) higher for growth, agronomic and yield characters. Accession C3 from Mokola performed best in morphological and yield characters while NGB/01611, NG/TOLO2/11/150 and NG/AA/03/11/040 had the least. Plant height is positively associated with number of leaves (r=0.73), leaf width(r=0.72), number of fruits (r=0.52) and leaf length (0.51). The number of leaves is positively related with leaf width, dry shoot weight, dry leaf weight and dry root weight at r= 0.94, 0.74, 0.73, 0.63 respectively, while dry root weight and fruit weight (r=0.73) are positively related. Two cluster groups were delineated from twenty-four accessions of C. mannii in the dendogram. Cluster 1 constitutes the largest 17 cluster groups and different sub-groups. Accession C12 from Lalupon had highest genomic DNA concentration of 1.89 ug, while highest total volume of 827.9 ul was recorded for C15 from Olodo. Primer OPHO9 had highest allele diversity and polymorphic information content at 0.93 and 92.23% respectively. Therefore, variability among accessions of C. mannii could promote the conservation of C. mannii for genetic improvement program.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies which investigated diversity of Cucumeropsis, and has contributed to the existing literature. However, this study revealed that there is existence of variability among the accessions of Cucumeropsis mannnii at the morphological level and molecular level using RAPD marker.

Green Synthesis and Nanotoxicity Assay of Copper-Cobalt Bimetallic Nanoparticles as a Novel Nanolarvicide for Mosquito Larvae Management

Pages: 99-104
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DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2020.92.99.104

Zaccheus Shehu , Wilson Lamayi Danbature , Buhari Magaji , Muhammad Mustapha Adam , Musa Aminu Bunu , Abigail John Mai , Yoro Mela

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Zaccheus Shehu , Wilson Lamayi Danbature , Buhari Magaji , Muhammad Mustapha Adam , Musa Aminu Bunu , Abigail John Mai , Yoro Mela (2020). Green Synthesis and Nanotoxicity Assay of Copper-Cobalt Bimetallic Nanoparticles as a Novel Nanolarvicide for Mosquito Larvae Management. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 9(2): 99-104. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2020.92.99.104
Plant mediated nanoparticles have been investigated to possess many applications in many fields such as pharmaceuticals, therapeutics and other commercial products. In this study, Copper/Cobalt bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized by an eco-friendly and cost effective method using Palmyra palm fruit extract and characterized using various techniques such as UV-visible spectrophotometry and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Green synthesis method was used in obtaining the nanoparticles and the agar well diffusion method was used in evaluating the larvicidal activity. The resulting nanoparticles were evaluated to find possible application as nanolarvicide against first, second and third instar of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in terms of percentage mortality. The lethal concentration values were LC50=12.036, LC90=143.316; LC50=14.774, LC90=263,456; LC50=16.076, LC90=296.758 ppm for the first, second, and third instars respectively implying moderate activity of this copper/cobalt nanoparticles. It could be concluded that copper-cobalt bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized using fruit extract of palmyra palm could be a potential nanolarvicide for mosquito larvae management.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on Copper/Cobalt biological activity for control of mosquitoes in our environment.