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In Vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Crude Extracts of Two Traditionally Used Ethiopian Medicinal Plants against Some Bacterial and Fungal Test Pathogens

Pages: 104-114
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In Vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Crude Extracts of Two Traditionally Used Ethiopian Medicinal Plants against Some Bacterial and Fungal Test Pathogens

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2019.82.104.114

Selam Habtom , Sibhatu Gebrehiwot

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Selam Habtom , Sibhatu Gebrehiwot (2019). In Vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Crude Extracts of Two Traditionally Used Ethiopian Medicinal Plants against Some Bacterial and Fungal Test Pathogens. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 8(2): 104-114. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2019.82.104.114
The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial activities of crude extracts of Solanum incanum and Datura stramonium L. against four bacterial disease-causing species namely; Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli) and two fungal pathogenic species (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger). Crude extracts of roots of S. incanum and leaves of D. stramonium L. were prepared using absolute ethanol, methanol (99.8%) and distilled water. The potential efficacy resulting extracts were assessed by determining zone of inhibitions on cultures of six selected pathogens by applying disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the plant extracts against the same pathogens was determined using the broth dilution method. Chloroamphenicol and Tilt were used as positive controls for bacterial and fungal pathogens, respectively, while Dimethyl Sulfoxide was used as a negative control for both. The results showed that all the methanolic and ethanolic crude extracts, with the exception of the methanolic crude extract of D. stramonium, had the highest growth inhibitory effects as compared with the water crude extracts on all bacterial pathogens. The methanol crude extract of S. incanum had highest zone of inhibition (22±1.15 mm) against S. agalactiae with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 25mg/ml. Similarly, the methanol crude extract of S. incanum had shown significant antifungal activity against A. niger with inhibition zone of 25.13±0.4mm and a minimum inhibitory concentration of 125mg/ml. The results of the present study indicate the potential of these medicinal plants in treating some bacterial and fungal infection.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by providing information regarding the antimicrobial (selected bacterial and fungal pathogens) efficacy potential of Solanum incanum and Datura stramonium crude extract.

Assessment of the Nutritional Qualities of a Locally-Produced Weaning Blend of Sorghum Ogi Flour Fortified with Bambara Groundnut Flour

Pages: 115-124
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Assessment of the Nutritional Qualities of a Locally-Produced Weaning Blend of Sorghum Ogi Flour Fortified with Bambara Groundnut Flour

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2019.82.115.124

Adeyemo Stella. M. , Abimbola Olufemi. G.

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Adeyemo Stella. M. , Abimbola Olufemi. G. (2019). Assessment of the Nutritional Qualities of a Locally-Produced Weaning Blend of Sorghum Ogi Flour Fortified with Bambara Groundnut Flour. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 8(2): 115-124. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2019.82.115.124
This study investigated the nutritional quality of a locally-produced weaning blend of sorghum ogi flour fortified with Bambara groundnut (BGN) flours and the role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as starter in the reduction of anti-nutrients in the pre-treated BGN flours. LAB were isolated from fermented sorghum ogi, processed into flour. BGN were processed into flours using three pre-treatment methods and used to fortify the sorghum ogi flour in ratio 60:40. Proximate composition and the breakdown of anti-nutritional factors by LAB were monitored in the pre-treated BGN flours using standard procedures. Sensory, organoleptic attributes and shelf-life of the weaning blends were determined. Sorghum ogi flour fortified with roasted BGN flour had improved nutritional value; protein, ether extract, ascorbic acid, riboflavin, ?-carotene, calcium, and phosphate (mg/100g) 20.16, 6.43, 21.00, 0.13, 90.00, 145.00 and 280.00 respectively compared to boiled and soaked BGN flours. There was a reduction in the anti-nutritional factors of the pre-treated BGN flours when fermented with selected starter. Tannin, phytate, protease and trypsin inhibitors reduced significantly (p< 0.05) from 0.074 - 0.048; 5.901- 5.001; 0.052 - 0.043 and 0.137 -0.110 respectively. The shelf-life monitoring and organoleptic assessment showed that sorghum Ogi flour fortified with roasted BGN flour had a prolonged shelf life and was generally accepted when compared to other weaning blends. The study concluded that the weaning blend had improved nutritional composition required for a growing infant. LAB could be used as starters to reduce anti-nutritional factors and extend the shelf-life of pre-treated Bambara groundnut-sorghum ogi blends.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that adequate weaning food can be prepared locally with minimal funds. The blend is able to meet the daily nutritional requirement of a growing infant. It also advances the contribution of women especially in low economic groups in reducing malnutrition and infant mortality rate.