The International Journal of Biotechnology

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2306-6148
Print ISSN: 2306-9864
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In Vitro Antibacterial Effects of Chloroform, Methanol and Water Extracts of Croton Macrostachyus Stem Bark Against Escherichia Coli and Staphylococcus Aureus Standard and Clinical Strains

Pages: 1-7
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In Vitro Antibacterial Effects of Chloroform, Methanol and Water Extracts of Croton Macrostachyus Stem Bark Against Escherichia Coli and Staphylococcus Aureus Standard and Clinical Strains

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2018.71.1.7

Tigist Minyamer , Getnet Belay

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Tigist Minyamer , Getnet Belay (2018). In Vitro Antibacterial Effects of Chloroform, Methanol and Water Extracts of Croton Macrostachyus Stem Bark Against Escherichia Coli and Staphylococcus Aureus Standard and Clinical Strains. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 7(1): 1-7. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2018.71.1.7
In Ethiopia, different parts of Croton macrostachyus (C. macrostachyus) are used as a traditional medicine to take care of infectious diseases such as typhoid and measles, but there is no documented report on the antibacterial activity of stem bark of this plant in Ethiopia. C. macrostachyus stem bark was extracted using chloroform, methanol, and water extraction solvents and tested for their antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli (E. coli), clinical isolates and standard, and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), clinical isolates and standard, using agar well diffusion and broth dilution methods. The positive control was Chloramphenicol, while dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was served as negative control. The present study showed the potent antibacterial activity of the C. macrostachyus stem bark extract against all tested bacterial pathogens. The methanol extract of C. macrostachyus stem bark showed the highest zone of inhibition (17+1mm) against S. aureus (standard) and the lowest zone of inhibition (12+1) against E. coli (clinical isolate). In this study, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 500 & 500 mg/ml, 62.5 & 125 mg/ml and 250 & 500mg/ml were obtained for water, methanol, and chloroform extracts of C. macrostachyus stem bark against clinically isolated E. coli respectively. C. macrostachyus stem bark extracts have confirmed antibacterial effects, mainly on E. coli and S. aureus. Thus, C. macrostachyus stem bark could be effective for prevention of bacterial infections and may be considered as an option to antibiotic regimens. But further studies should be conducted with different extraction solvents and toxicity and phytochemical analysis must be performed on these plants to use as sources and templates for the synthesis of drugs.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by providing basic information for other researchers regarding the antibacterial potential of Ethiopian C. macrostachyus stem bark so that C. macrostachyus stem bark may be considered as an option to antibiotic regimens.

Vaccine Development Strategies, Progresses and Challenges for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A Review

Pages: 8-16
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Vaccine Development Strategies, Progresses and Challenges for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A Review

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2018.71.8.16

Tekeba Sisay , Deepak Verma , Mesfin Tsegaw , Nega Berhane

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Tekeba Sisay , Deepak Verma , Mesfin Tsegaw , Nega Berhane (2018). Vaccine Development Strategies, Progresses and Challenges for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A Review. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 7(1): 8-16. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2018.71.8.16
Human immunodeficiency virus is classified under the Retroviridae family and identified as a causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Since Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is identified as causative agent of AIDS, about 39 million people have been died and 78 million people have been infected worldwide. Despite tremendous efforts are being made to develop successful diagnosis, treatment and prevention methods, and to develop HIV vaccine the effort remains great challenge for researchers, due to extreme genetic variability of the virus. Even though vaccination of HIV is the most promising, cost effective and feasible intervention strategy to control and eradicate HIV disease route and transmission, still now we are struggling to find an elusive vaccine after thirty years and disappointing results are recorded from previous clinical trials, except the promising RV144 HIV vaccine which is phase III clinical trial with the modest vaccine efficacy. The contribution of this study is to reveal the challenges to found potent HIV vaccine during the last decades, significant lessons learnt about the basic virology, pathogenesis, immunology, HIV/AIDS treatment and HIV infection prevention and significant findings and clinical trials progresses which are currently open the way to some extent to hope that HIV vaccine development is possible.
Contribution/ Originality
The contribution of this study is to reveal the challenges to found potent HIV vaccine during the last decades, significant lessons learnt about the basic virology, pathogenesis, immunology, HIV/AIDS treatment and HIV infection prevention and significant findings and clinical trials progresses which are currently open the way to some extent to hope that HIV vaccine development is possible.

The Microbial Profile and Contaminants of Bubugn, An Ethiopian House Hould Fermented Beverage

Pages: 17-24
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The Microbial Profile and Contaminants of Bubugn, An Ethiopian House Hould Fermented Beverage

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2018.71.17.24

Getnet Belay , Tigist Minyamer , Getinet Masresha

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Getnet Belay , Tigist Minyamer , Getinet Masresha (2018). The Microbial Profile and Contaminants of Bubugn, An Ethiopian House Hould Fermented Beverage. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 7(1): 17-24. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2018.71.17.24
Bubugn is a cereal based traditional fermented Ethiopian low alcoholic beverage. It is one of the traditional fermented beverages used for a drink of holidays, wedding ceremony and also used as a source of income. The aims of this study were to determine the microbiology, microbial contaminants and physicochemical characteristics of Bubugn. Nine Samples of Bubugn were collected from Gondar town in three district areas; Azezo (A), Arada (B) and Kebele 18 (C). Microbial counts and physicochemical analysis were enumerated using standard microbiological methods. The mean value of the pH of the samples was 4.20 + 0.14; and the mean value of moisture content was 45. 79 +1.35. The mean crude fat, ash and ethanol contents of Bubugn were 6.67 + 0.16, 4.47+ 0.40 and 1.79 + 0.13, respectively. The mean number of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeasts and molds and lactic acid bacteria of Bubugn were 3.74×105 cfu/ml, 5.68 ×106 cfu/ml and 7.52×105 cfu/ml respectively. Bubugn samples were contaminated by Shigella species, E. coli and S. aureus which could be due to poor hygienic conditions related to washing of preparation material, use of contaminated water and poor personal and domestic hygiene. The collected Bubugn samples were contaminated by different microorganisms and therefore, there should be the development of an advanced technique to improve quality.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by providing necessary information for other researchers regarding the microbiology, microbial contaminants and physicochemical properties of Bubugn, a traditional fermented Ethiopian beverage.

Antihyperglycemic Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Zingiber Officinale, Cinnamonum Zeylanicum and their Combination in Experimental Rats

Pages: 25-30
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Antihyperglycemic Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Zingiber Officinale, Cinnamonum Zeylanicum and their Combination in Experimental Rats

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2018.71.25.30

Muhammad Ibrahim Usman , Adamu Jibrin Alhassan , Hauwa Sa ad

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Muhammad Ibrahim Usman , Adamu Jibrin Alhassan , Hauwa Sa ad (2018). Antihyperglycemic Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Zingiber Officinale, Cinnamonum Zeylanicum and their Combination in Experimental Rats. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 5(1): 25-30. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2018.71.25.30
This research was conducted to evaluate antihyperglycemic property of aqueous extract of Cinnamon (Cinnamonum zeylanicum) bark; Ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome and a combination of the two on Alloxan induced diabetic rats. Thirty two rats were grouped into eight groups of four rats each. Group I served as normal control, group II were normal rats and administered with 200mg/kg body weight of ginger aqueous extract, group III were normal rats and administered with 150mg/kg body weight of Cinnamon aqueous extract. Group IV served as diabetic control group, group V were diabetic and administered with 200mg/kg body weight of ginger extract, group VI were diabetic and administered with 150mg/kg body weight of Cinnamon extract. Group VII were diabetic and administered with a combination of Ginger and Cinnamon extract in a ratio of 4:3 respectively. Group VIII were diabetic and administered with metformin at a dose of 500mg/kg body weight. The animals were administered with the extracts for 14 days while monitoring the fasting blood glucose at a 3-day intervals. The fasting blood glucose level was found to be significantly (p<0.05) decreased in all groups administered with the extracts, with the highest hypoglycemic activity seen in group VII administered with a combination of the two extract compared to the diabetic control group. The findings of this study suggests that Ginger rhizome, cinnamon bark and their combination may be used in the management of diabetes mellitus, although further studies need to be carried to confirm their potential benefits in diabetes management.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by providing basic information for other researchers regarding the antihyperglycemic potential of Zingiber officinale rhizome and Cinnamonum zeylanicum bark so that they may be considered as alternative medicines in management of hyperglycemia.

Patterns of Plant Community Formation and Vegetation Structure in the Afro-Alpine Vegetation of Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia

Pages: 31-43
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Patterns of Plant Community Formation and Vegetation Structure in the Afro-Alpine Vegetation of Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2018.71.31.43

Getahun Tassew Melese , Berhanu Abraha Tsegay , Getinet Masresha Kassa , Getnet Belay Kuratie

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Getahun Tassew Melese , Berhanu Abraha Tsegay , Getinet Masresha Kassa , Getnet Belay Kuratie (2018). Patterns of Plant Community Formation and Vegetation Structure in the Afro-Alpine Vegetation of Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 7(1): 31-43. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2018.71.31.43
This study was conducted in Simien Mountains National Park, Northwest Ethiopia with the objective of evaluating the patterns of plant community formation and vegetation structure in the afro- alpine vegetation. The data were collected from stratified mountains by using systematic sampling in each stratum from October to November 2015. A total 62 (20 m x20 m) main plots were sampled. In each main plot five (1m x1m) subplots, one at each corner and one at the center, were used to collect data for herbaceous species. In each plot, data on plant species identity, abundance, height and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) were recorded. Collected specimens were identified at field and also at National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University. Plant community analysis was performed using R version 3.1.3. Sorensen’s similarity coefficient was used to detect dissimilarities among communities. Shannon - Wiener diversity index was computed to describe species diversity of the plant community types. Results showed that a total of 86 plant species representing 34 families and 63 genera were recorded from which90.7 % were herbs, 7% shrubs and 2.3 % trees. Asteraceae is the species richest family whereas Poaceae is the dominant. Three plant community types were recognized from cluster analysis. Species richness, diversity and evenness varied among the plant communities. Analysis of population structure of the dominant species revealed various patterns. Because this afro-alpine area has varied habitat heteroginity, separate plant community regimes need separate planning and implementing (management) measures for sustainability of the vegetation.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by providing basic information for other researchers regarding the patterns of plant community formation and vegetation structure in the afro-alpine vegetation of Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. Moreover this study documents the patterns of plant community formation and population structures of the Simien Mountains National Park within the study period.

Fermentation Conditions and Process Optimization of Citric Acid Production by Yeasts

Pages: 51-63
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Fermentation Conditions and Process Optimization of Citric Acid Production by Yeasts

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2018.71.51.63

Folake Titilayo Afolabi , Stella Mojisola Adeyemo , Halimat Osheiza Balogun

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Folake Titilayo Afolabi , Stella Mojisola Adeyemo , Halimat Osheiza Balogun (2018). Fermentation Conditions and Process Optimization of Citric Acid Production by Yeasts. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 7(1): 51-63. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2018.71.51.63
The aim of this study was to isolate and screen citric acid producing yeasts using low cost substrates. Thirty three yeast isolates were obtained from pineapple, plantain and sugar cane waste and identified as; Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Candida tropicalis, Pichia guilliiermondii, Debaromyces sp., Candida parapsilosis, Candida rugosa, and Candida krusei. Candida tropicalis had zone of clearance of 49±2.1 mm in diameter, Pichia guilliermondii had 40±1.2mm. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced citric acid with glucose with 105.0 mg/l. C. tropicalis yielded 132.2 mg/l with sodium nitrate. S. cerevisiae and C. tropicalis produced citric acid at pH 6 with 23.70mg/l and 23.80mg/l. P. gulliermondii at pH 4 produced 23.00mg/l. The temperature of 30°C favoured S. cerevisiae and C. tropicalis yielding 40.80mg/l and 39.80 mg/l. After extraction, the yield of the citric acid was 4.231g, 3g of which was recrystallized to yield 2.16g of pure citric acid resulting into 72% recovery. The result indicated that pineapple wastes, plantain wastes and sugarcane cane are potential sources of yeasts that can be used for the production of citric acid.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by providing basic information for other researchers regarding the isolation and the screening of yeasts for the production of citric acid using low cost substrates, as well as to study the effect of various fermentation parameters on citric acid production.

In-Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Plantago Lanceolata Against Some Selected Standard Pathogenic Bacterial

Pages: 44-50
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In-Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Plantago Lanceolata Against Some Selected Standard Pathogenic Bacterial

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2018.71.44.50

Eshetie Kassaw , Tilahun Yohannes , Endalkachew Bizualem

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Eshetie Kassaw , Tilahun Yohannes , Endalkachew Bizualem (2018). In-Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Plantago Lanceolata Against Some Selected Standard Pathogenic Bacterial. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 7(1): 44-50. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2018.71.44.50
The leaves of Plantago lanceolata have been used for centuries to treat diseases. Currently there is an increasing incidence of multiple antibiotic resistances in microorganisms which is a major threat. Widespread overuse of antibiotics is one led to increasing clinical resistance of previously sensitive microorganisms and the emergence of previously uncommon infections. Thus all these calls for an urgent need to search new, effective and safe anti-bacterial agents. The objective of this study was to determine antibacterial potentials of extracts of P. lanceolata against standard pathogens bacteria. Active antibacterial compounds were extracted using three solvents. The antibacterial sensitivity activities of crude extracts were determined using agar well diffusion assay. MIC and MBC of each crude extracts were also determined using broth dilution method. The test showed various degrees of antibacterial activity towards each standard pathogenic microorganism with mean zone of inhibition ranges up to 18±2mm against S. typhi. The plant extract was showed as low 3±1mm to high 18±2mm diameter inhibition zone. Chloroform extract have the least inhibition zone while the ethanol have highest inhibition zone. The extract value of MIC was showed at the ranges of 12.5mg to 50mg while the MBC were showed at the range of 25mg to 50mg. The result of this study showed that leaves of P. lanceolata have considerable antibacterial potential. The claimed efficacy could be attributable to antibacterial activity of its components but its mode of action is unclear.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by providing basic information for other researchers regarding the antibacterial efficacy potential of P. lanceolata leaves crude extract. Therefore, even though it needs further studies, leaves of P. lanceolata may be considered as a potential option to antibiotic regimens.

Insecticidal Activities of Five Medicinal Plant Materials against Callosobruchus Maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Infesting Cowpea Seeds in Storage

Pages: 64-69
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Insecticidal Activities of Five Medicinal Plant Materials against Callosobruchus Maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Infesting Cowpea Seeds in Storage

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2018.71.64.69

Luke C. Nwosu , Okechukwu A. Obi , Daniel D. Adanyi , Victor C. Okereke , Vivian A. Azoro , Kalu U. Ukpai , Gospel U. Nzewuihe , Isiaka A. Lawal , Onyekachi A. Uwalaka , Gerald M. Ugagu , Akubuike N. Eluwa , Temitope E. Arotolu

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Luke C. Nwosu , Okechukwu A. Obi , Daniel D. Adanyi , Victor C. Okereke , Vivian A. Azoro , Kalu U. Ukpai , Gospel U. Nzewuihe , Isiaka A. Lawal , Onyekachi A. Uwalaka , Gerald M. Ugagu , Akubuike N. Eluwa , Temitope E. Arotolu (2018). Insecticidal Activities of Five Medicinal Plant Materials against Callosobruchus Maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Infesting Cowpea Seeds in Storage. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 7(1): 64-69. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2018.71.64.69
Powders from five elite plant materials (nutmeg, Myristica fragrans; red hot chilli pepper, Capsicum annuum; ginger rhizome, Zingiber officinale; black pepper, Piper nigrum and alligator pepper, Aframomum melegueta) at 1.5 % w/w concentration were assessed against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus infestations on stored cowpea seeds under laboratory environmental conditions in three agro-ecological zones in Nigeria by members of the Research Group. The conventional synthetic insecticide, permethrin was included as standard check, while untreated seeds served as the control. Adult mortality, oviposition rate and adult emergence were the indices considered in the experiments. For the first three days of exposure, black pepper (P. nigrum) powder caused the highest percentage mortality (68.8, 78.0 and 83.8 % respectively) of the bruchid adults and differed significantly (P < 0.01) from the rest of other treatments with the exception of permethrin that caused 78.8, 85.0 and 91.3 % mortality respectively. Similarly, black pepper powder and permethrin treatments differed significantly (P < 0.01) from the rest on number of eggs laid and emerged adults with the exception of Z. officinale rhizome, which did not differ significantly from P. nigrum on number of eggs laid. The results therefore suggest that black pepper powder has higher insecticidal potential over other plant materials and could serve as a biotechnological substitute to the synthetic insecticides in the control of C. maculatus infestations and damage in stored products.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that some bioinsecticides derived from medicinal plant materials could serve as substitute to the hazardous synthetic insecticides at economically justified concentration in the control of C. maculatus infestation and damage in stored cowpea seeds.