Iseghohi F , Galadima M , Kuta FA (2021). Escherichia Coli Encoding Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Isolated from Diarrheic Patients in Minna, Nigeria. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 10(2): 52-68. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2021.102.52.68
Escherichia coli remains one of the most isolated etiological agents of diarrhea, accounting for more than 1 million deaths and about 4% of the total global disability-adjusted life-years (DALYS) per year across all age groups according to the global disease burden. This study evaluated multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli encoding extended spectrum beta-lactamases isolated from diarrheic patients in Minna, Nigeria using standard microbiological methods. A prevalence of 37.7% of Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) was obtained from the stool samples evaluated. Within the environment sampled, age group 21 – 30 years had the highest E. coli isolation rate (27.8%) while age group ?71years had the least E. coli isolation rate (2.6%). Females (64.9%) were the most affected compared to males (35.1%). The isolates were significantly resistant to most of the beta-lactams tested especially to 3rd generation cephalosporins [Cefotaxime (98.2%), cefuroxime (93%), ceftazidime (84.2%), Augmentin (70.2%), Amoxicillin (59.6%)]. Resistance to other classes of antibiotics was also observed in varying percentages. A high percentage (98.2% and 87.7%) of the diarrheagenic E. coli had a multiple resistant index (MARI) ? of 0.3. The isolates had varying patterns of resistance with 47.6% resistant to more than 5 classes of antibiotics tested and produced ESBL characteristics phenotypically. Molecular evaluation showed that 40%, 50%, and 90% of the isolates harbored the OXA, CTX-M and TEM genes respectively while 50% harbored VEB and PER genes. This study isolated E. coli from diarrheic patients with multidrug resistance profiles and encodes more than one type of ESBL gene within Minna, Nigeria.
This study established the prevalence and multidrug resistance profile patterns of Escherichia coli encoding ESBL genes from diarrheic patients in Minna, Nigeria. The findings also revealed a genetic diversity of ESBL genes responsible for significant resistance of Diarrheagenic E. coli to most of the beta-lactams and other classes of antibiotics.
Extraction and Characterization of Chitin and Chitosan Biopolymer as Wound Healing Material Using Shrimp Shells
Mavis Ampah , Margaret Akyea Brago , Mercy Adusei Boatemaa , Paul Arthur , Maxwell Mamfe Sakyiamah (2021). Extraction and Characterization of Chitin and Chitosan Biopolymer as Wound Healing Material Using Shrimp Shells. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 10(2): 69-75. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2021.102.69.75
Wound refers to any damage or disruption to the normal anatomical structure. In our everyday pathology, wounds remains one of the demanding clinical problems with it related complications which increases mortality and morbidity rate yearly. In this study, chitin and chitosan were extracted from shrimp shells waste by chemical method, treated with an acid and an alkali which gave a yield of 12 % and 66.57 % respectively. The chemical extraction method included demineralization where the sample was treated with hydrochloric acid (HCL) under a specific temperature. The sample was then treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to remove all the protein in the material at a specific temperature. To obtain the chitosan, the chitin was treated with 50% NaOH at a temperature of 1000C. E.coli proved to be more susceptible in antimicrobial studies with a value of 11.67± 0.47. The FTIR spectra gave a characteristic bands of –NH at 3430.09 cm-1, OH at 3256.32 cm-1.At 2960.75 cm-1, NH was attached to a single bond. The characteristics of produced chitosan were in accordance with the commercial standard that showed a higher percentile yield posing many properties of commercial value and greater scope of industrial applications. This study revealed that shrimp shell waste could be effectively utilized for the extraction of chitin, chitosan, and chitooligomer for industrial applications. The zone of inhibition study of E.coli shows that chitosan and COS may have a high antimicrobial property hence it usefulness in the wound healing management.
This study aimed to seek out the biomaterial present in shrimp shells waste known as chitin and chitosan biopolymers that are naturally abundant, their characterization and antimicrobial study for use in wound healing management.