Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062

Conference List

Government Borrowing Behaviour: Implications for Private Sector Growth in Nigeria

Abubakar Ado, Ahmad


Adegoke Ibrahim, Adeleke


Augustine, Ujunwa

Abubakar Ado, Ahmad 1 ,

Adegoke Ibrahim, Adeleke 1 Augustine, Ujunwa 1 
  1. Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of Nigeria. 1

Pages: 68-82

DOI: 10.18488/journal.26.2019.82.68.82

Share :

Article History:

Received: 19 June, 2019
Revised: 25 July, 2019
Accepted: 27 August, 2019
Published: 30 October, 2019


This study seeks to examine the relationship between government borrowing behaviour and private sector growth in Nigeria. It utilises the Structural Vector Auto-regressions (SVAR) model to analyse the dynamics of government borrowing behaviour on the growth of private sector in Nigeria. The results from impulse response functions and variance decomposition appear to provide evidence that government borrowing behaviour has the tendency of impacting negatively on the effectiveness of private sector grow in Nigeria. This result can be explained, based on the fact that government has higher capacity to borrow than the private sector and this tends to crowd-out private sector in mobilising funds for investment and thus impacted negatively on their capacity to grow. The study, therefore, recommends that both fiscal and monetary authorities should improve on measures and policies that could enhance private sector growth, as higher government debt could create burden for future generations, disrupt movements in interest and exchange rates as well as hinder private investment. Doing this has the potentials of improving performance of private sector and the aggregate economy in Nigeria, since empirical literature is replete with evidence of existence of these channels.
Contribution/ Originality
This study improves on the existing literature by examining the channels and extent of the impact of government borrowing behaviour on the private sector growth in Nigeria, as previous literature has shown varying and often conflicting results due to diversity in the structure of the economy and governance. The study, therefore, confronts the existing theories with recent data and tailor-made methodology.


Government domestic debt, Private sector development, SVAR, Nigeria, Crowding out, Domestic savings.



Alesina, A. and R. Perotti, 1993. Income distribution, political instability, and investment. Unpublished Manuscript, Harvard University.

Alesina, A. and R. Perrotti, 1994. The political economy of budget deficits, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper, No. 4637, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge.

Alesina, A. and G. Tabellini, 1989. External debt, capital flight and political risk. Journal of International Economics, 27(3-4): 199-220.Available at:

Amisano, G. and G. Giannini, 1997. Topics in structural VAR econometrics. 2nd Edn., Springer Verlag.

Anand, R. and V.S. Wijnbergen, 1989. Inflation and the financing of government expenditure: An introductory analysis with an application to Turkey. The World Bank Economic Review, 3(1): 17-38.Available at:

Anyanwu, A., C. Gan and B. Hu, 2017. Government domestic debt, private sector credit, and crowding out effect in oil-dependent countries. Journal of Economic Research, 22(2): 127-151.

Anyanwu, J.C., A. Oyefeso, H. Oaikhenan and F.A. Dimowo, 1997. The structure of the Nigerian economy (1960-1997). Onitsha: Joanee Eductional Publishers Limited.

Aschauer, D.A., 1989. Is public expenditure productive? Journal of Monetary Economics, 23(2): 177-200.Available at:

Baron, R.J., 1985. Government spending, interest rates, prices and budget deficits in the United Kingdom, 1730-1918. University of Rochester Working Paper.

Baron, R.J., 1986. U.S. deficits since world war I. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 88: 193-222.

Barro, R.J., 1987. Government spending, interest rates, prices, and budget deficits in the United Kingdom, 1701–1918. Journal of Monetary Economics, 20(2): 221-247.

Blanchard, O., 1984. Debt, deficit and finite horizons, national bureau of economic research Working Paper, No. 1389, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge.

Breitung, J., R. Bruggemann and H. Lutkepohl, 2004. Structural vector autoregressive modeling and impulse responses, in H. Lutkepohl & M. Kratzig (eds), Applied Time Series Econometrics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp: 159-196.

Friedman, B.M., 1978. Crowding out or crowding in? The economic consequence of financing government deficits, national bureau of economic research Working paper, No. 284, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge.

Hargen, J.V. and I. Harden, 1996. Budget process and commitment to fiscal discipline, International Monetary Fund, WP/96/78. Washington: International Monetary Fund.

Johansen, S., 1988. Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 12(2-3): 231-254.Available at:

Johansen, S. and K. Juselius, 1990. Maximum likelihood estimation and inference on cointegration—with applications to the demand for money. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 52(2): 169-210.Available at:

Lidiema, C., 2018. Effects of government borrowing on private investments in Kenya. Journal of Finance and Economics, 6(2): 49-59.Available at:

Lucas, J.R.E. and N.L. Stokey, 1983. Optimal fiscal and monetary policy in an economy without capital. Journal of Monetary Economics, 12(1): 55-93.Available at:

Nigerian Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (NEITI), 2013. Financial, physical and process audit: An independent report assessing and reconciling physical and financial flows within Nigeria’s oil and gas industry. Available from


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

Related Article

( 1 ) Government Borrowing Behaviour: Implications for Private Sector Growth in Nigeria
( 2 ) Rural Saving Mobilizations and Economic Development in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State - Nigeria
( 3 ) Corporate Funding and Sustainability of Non- Governmental Organizations in Africa
( 4 ) Managing Public Perception towards Local Government Administration
( 5 ) Rural Roads Infrastructure and Agricultural Products Distribution: A Focus on Akure South Local Government Area, Ondo State, Nigeria
( 6 ) A Case Study of Local Government Implementation of the Ward Based Local Economic Development (LED) Program
( 7 ) Impact of Asymmetric Government Spending on Real Balances Demand
( 8 ) Value for Money (VFM) Audit and Public Sector Performance in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria
( 9 ) Innovations Dissemination Approaches among Government Co-Operative Supporting Organisations in Tanzania
( 11 ) Does External Borrowing Affect Economic Growth? A Revisit of the Age-Long Debate for Nigeria
( 14 ) Implications of Crude Oil Price Volatility and Parallel Exchange Rate Fluctuation on the Cost of Living in Nigeria
( 15 ) Implications of Accountants Unethical Behavior and Corporate Failures
( 16 ) The Effect of Internal and External Factors of Companies on Profitability and its Implications on Stock Price Index of State-Owned Banks
( 17 ) Fraud Auditing Law Implications in the Case of Jiwasraya Insurance in Indonesia
( 18 ) Determinants of Profitability and its Implications on Corporate Values (Studies at Ceramic, Porcelain and Glass Sub Sector Listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange, 2009 - 2018)
( 19 ) Consideration the Relationship Between Information Communications Technology and Economic Growth in Top 10 Economic
( 20 ) The Development of Participated Environmental Education Model for Sustainable Mangrove Forest Management on Eastern Part of Thailand
( 21 ) The Impact of Investment Climate Reforms on the Development of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Nigeria: A Policy Brief
( 22 ) Importance of Corporate Governance Quality and Voluntary Disclosures of Corporate Governance Information in Listed Malaysian Family Controlled Businesses
( 23 ) How Telecommunication Development Aids Economic Growth: Evidence from Itu Ict Development Index (IDI) Top Five Countries for African Region
( 24 ) Development of Logarithmic Equations for Statistical Sample Determination
( 25 ) A Review on Criteria for Green Infrastructure to be Adopted by Local Authorities
( 26 ) Cross-Cultural Leadership Intelligence: Recommendations for Kenya
( 27 ) Improved Performance Through Empowerment of Small Industry
( 28 ) Challenges of Human Rights Abuses in Nigerian Democratic Governance – Which Way Forward ?
( 29 ) Teachers Characteristics and Students’ Performance Level in Senior Secondary School Financial Accounting
( 30 ) Survey of Students’ Academic Achievement and Mathematics Identity-Formation
( 31 ) Ensuring Quality Provision of Education for All: Discovering Challenges Faced by Teachers of Students with Learning Disabilities in Regular Primary Schools in Masvingo District
( 32 ) A Study of Transnational and Transformation Leadership Styles and Factors Affect The Leadership Style
( 33 ) The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Rural Socio-Economic Development in Africa
( 34 ) Conceptual Framework of Green Infrastructure Performance Evaluation for Local Authority
( 35 ) Social Security; A Public Policy for Good Governance in Nigeria: The Role of Nigerian Legislature
( 36 ) Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Employment: A Case of Province of Punjab, Pakistan
( 38 ) The Association Between Corporate Risk Disclosure and Firm Performance in Emerging Country – The Case of Egypt
( 39 ) Moderating Effect of Demographics on Monetary Motivation and Employees Job Performance Relationship: Evidence from Malaysia
( 40 ) Is Brics a Viable Solution for Russia in the Context of the Present Eu’s Economic Sanctions?
( 41 ) Structural Breaks and the Long-Run Stability of Demand for Real Broad Money Function in Nigeria: A Gregory-Hansen Approach
( 42 ) The Impact of Dividend Policy on Shareholders’ Wealth before and After Financial Melt down: Evidence from FMCG Sector in India
( 43 ) Stock Market Performance and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria Employing Vector Error Correction Model Framework
( 44 ) The Biodiesel Market in Brazil and the Prospects for the Sector
( 45 ) Challenges and Survival Strategies for Women in Small Scale Catering Business: A Case Study of Siyaso Magaba, Mbare
( 46 ) The Influence of Information Technology and Communication Supply Chain Management Performance for Greater SME Manufacturing in Aguascalientes
( 47 ) Emergent Behavior of “Rational” Agents in Some Forgotten N-Person Games
( 48 ) Leveraging Telematics for Optimal Fleet Performance
( 49 ) Income Elasticity of Poverty: Estimates for South Asian Countries
( 50 ) Profit And Loss Sharing As an Offshoot for Bank Stability: A Comparative Analysis
( 51 ) The Potential of Rural–Urban Linkages for Sustainable Development and Trade
( 52 ) Workplace Bullying: Modelling Construct Validity in an Australian Public Sector Workforce
( 53 ) Role of Foreign Investment and External Debt in Determination of Exchange Rate
( 54 ) An Assessment of the Impact of Information Communication Technology (ICT) On the Administration of Public Records: A Case Study of the Bolgatanga Municipal Assembly in the Upper East Region of Ghana-West Africa
( 55 ) The Effects of Changes in Accounting Standards on Value Relevance of Financial Statement Information of Malaysia and Nigeria Banks
( 56 ) Estimating Value at Risk for Sukuk Market Using Generalized Auto Regressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity Models
( 57 ) Share Options, Share Award and Firm’s Performance: Evidence from Malaysian Public Listed Companies
( 58 ) The Effect of Outsourcing on Anglogold Ashanti Obuasi Mines Performance
( 59 ) Insecurity and Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria
( 60 ) The Mediating Effect of Market Orientation on the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation Dimensions and Organizational Performance: A Study on Banks in Libya
( 61 ) Various International Experiences in Waste Management - Useful Lessons for Algeria
( 62 ) The Investment Performance of Socially Responsible Investment in Japan
( 63 ) Investigating the Demand of Small Hotel and Restaurant Businesses for Bank Financing: The Case of Turkey
( 64 ) A Review on EU Transportation Projects within the Case of Turkey for European Union Regional Development Policy
( 65 ) Land Use/Land Cover Change and its Effects on Bamboo Forest in Benishangul Gumuz Region, Ethiopia
( 66 ) Appointment of Directors and Performance of Deposit Money Banks in Sub Saharan Africa: Do We Need More Executive or Non-Executive Directors?
( 67 ) Development of the National Economies and the Foreign Trade Relations between Ukraine and Bulgaria (In the Period 2005-2014)
( 68 ) Emotional Workgroup Performance and Group Effectiveness Egyptian Context
( 69 ) Forecasting-Based Carry Trade Using Pegged Currency: A Case of Omani Rial
( 70 ) The Indirect Impact of Overconfidence on the Performance of Tunisian Firms Through their Financing Structure
( 71 ) A Theoretical Analysis Upon the Environmental Health and Justice Issue: A Case Study for a Comparison Between G20s Unitary and Federal Members
( 72 ) Academic Mobility for Engineering and Technology Graduates in Africa: Lessons and Experiences from the Implementation
( 73 ) Rice Farmer and Capital Formation: A Case Study of Rice Farmer's Credit Cooperative in Itoikin, Ikosi-Ejirin LCDA, Lagos State
( 74 ) How the Principles of the Sharing Economy Can Improve Organizational Performance of the US Public School System
( 75 ) Effect of Budget Defict on Private Investment in East African Community for the Period 1981-2015: A Panel Data Analysis
( 76 ) An Econometric Planning Model of Urban Forestry as a Measure of Sustainability: A Matrix of Action and Change
( 77 ) Relevance of Stakeholders Theory, Organizational Identity Theory and Social Exchange Theory to Corporate Social Responsibility and Employees Performance in the Commercial Banks in Nigeria
( 78 ) Analyzing Factors Affecting the Success of Social Media Posts for B2b Networks: A Fractional-Factorial Design Approach
( 79 ) The Influence of Communication, Work Motivation and Career Development on Elementary School Teacher’s Job Performance in Medan, Indonesia
( 80 ) Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on Banks Financial Performance in Nigeria: A Study of United Bank of Africa
( 81 ) Construction and Application of Water Resource Accounting Information System in Taiwan
( 82 ) Is Alumni Salary an Appropriate Metric for University Marketers?
( 83 ) Participatory Processes in Planning for Self-Help Housing Provision in South Africa: Policies and Challenges
( 84 ) The Moderating Effect of Governance Mechanisms on the Relationship Between Innovation Strategy and the Performance
( 85 ) Public-Private Partnership as a Strategy for E-Governance Funding in Africa: The Gains and the Pains
( 86 ) Employee Loyalty and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour in the Port Harcourt Area Command of the Nigeria Police Force
( 87 ) Effect of Institutional Factors on Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria
( 88 ) Macroeconomic Indicators and Capital Formation Growth in Nigeria: A New Evidence
( 89 ) Foreign Capital Inflows and Unemployment in Nigeria: A New Evidence from ARDL-Bounds Testing Approach
( 90 ) Electronic Banking Innovations and Selected Banks Performance in Nigeria
( 91 ) An Empirical Investigation into the Key Drivers of Economic Performance in the CEMAC Zone: A Panel Corrected Standard Errors Approach
( 92 ) Forecasting Equity Index Volatility: Empirical Evidence from Japan, UK and USA Data
( 93 ) Disaggregated Foreign Capital Inflows and Economic Growth in a Developing Economy: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria
( 94 ) The Importance of Public Administration Towards Achieving Good Governance for Positive National Development by Using SmartPLS 3
( 95 ) Assessment of Dual Carriageway for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
( 96 ) Industrialization and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Human Capital in Structural Transformation
( 97 ) Trade Policy and Democracy for Development in Central African Countries
( 98 ) Exchange Rate and Foreign Reserves Interface: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria
( 99 ) Forecasting Prices of Three Important Agricultural Crops in Bangladesh
( 100 ) External Debt and Economic Growth: Two-Step System GMM Evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa Countries
( 101 ) The Impact of Organisational Culture on Public Sector Performance: A Case Study of Local Authorities in Zimbabwe
( 102 ) Foreign Direct Investment in Zimbabwe: The Role of Uncertainty, Exports, Cost of Capital, Corruption and Market Size
( 103 ) Gamification on Sales Force Performance in Nigeria Bottling Company
( 104 ) Foreign Direct Investment - Growth Linkage in Sub-Saharan Africa: Is Governance a Mediating Factor?
( 105 ) An Investigation of the Impact of Organisational Structure on Organisational Performance
( 106 ) Study on the Effect of Foreign Investment on Anhuis Industrial Structure Optimization
( 107 ) Exploring the Asymmetric Linkage between Commodity Prices and Fiscal Performance in Nigeria
( 108 ) Assessing the Perceived Value of Customers for being Satisfied towards the Sustainability of Hypermarket in Malaysia
( 109 ) Effects of Socio-Cultural Diversity on the Performance of Private Health Care Organizations in Kogi State
( 110 ) Organizational Memory and Employee Performance in Federal Parastatals in Enugu State of Nigeria
( 111 ) The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure on Corporate Financial Performance
( 112 ) Exchange Rate Pass-through to Prices: VAR Evidence for Albania
( 113 ) Can Small-Cap Active Funds Substantially Outperform the Market Over Time?
( 114 ) Exchange Rate Volatility, Foreign Exchange Market Intervention and Asymmetric Preferences
( 116 ) German Exports, Economic Growth and Foreign Demand: An Analysis of the Period 2000–2017
( 117 ) Multivariate Analysis in Formulation of the Benefit-Cost Index Related to the Sugarcane Production System in the Quirinopolis Municipality Productive Center, Goias, Brazil
( 119 ) Determinant of MSMEs Performance and its Impact on Province GRDP in Indonesia
( 120 ) Perceived Poverty and Alleviation Efforts of Kogi State Community and Social Development Agencies in Kogi State: An Empirical Investigation
( 121 ) Determinants of Financial Performance and its Impact on the Growth of Islamic Bank Assets on Indonesia
( 122 ) The Role of Social Security Program for Enhancing Seniors Longevity
( 123 ) Trade Union Performance and Industrial Relations Climate in the Nigerian Petroleum Sector
( 124 ) An Empirical Investigation of Real Exchange Rate Responses to Foreign Currency Inflows: Revisiting the Dutch Disease Phenomenon in South Asia
( 125 ) Evaluating the Model of Demand for Money in Nigeria
( 126 ) Entrepreneurship Training for Mitigating Unemployment in Nigeria: How have the Tertiary Institutions Fared?
( 127 ) Evaluating the Effectiveness of CAPM and APT for Risk Measuring and Assets Pricing
( 128 ) Do Derivative Instruments Increase Firm Risk for Indonesia Non-Financial Companies?
( 129 ) Determinant of Tax Revenue Effort in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis
( 130 ) Developing a Conceptual Model for Antecedents of Resistance to Change towards Sustainable Construction Practices
( 131 ) Export- Led Growth Hypothesis for Ghana: A TVAR & TVECM Analysis
( 132 ) A Process Model for Conformance of Health Information Systems: Towards National Interoperability
( 133 ) Likely Effect of Gender and Education on Information Adoption and Utilization among Sugarcane Farmers in the Nyanza Region, Kenya
( 134 ) Change Management and Firm Performance of Selected Deposit Money Banks in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
( 135 ) The Effect of Disruptive Factors on Inventory Control as a Mediator and Organizational Performance in Health Department of Punjab, Pakistan
( 136 ) The Contingent Fit between Management Control System and Capabilities on Sustainability Performance
( 137 ) The Impact of Merger and Acquisition on the Financial Performance of the Nasdaq Listed Small Size Technology Companies
( 138 ) Exchange Rate Fluctuations and the Performance of Nairobi Securities Exchange Market in Kenya During the Coronavirus Pandemic
( 139 ) A Qualitative Analysis of the Impediments to Business Innovation and Information Management in Nigeria: A Policy Stance
( 140 ) Analysis of Demographic Factors on Perceptions of Inventory Managers towards Healthcare Performance
( 141 ) Contribution of Domestic Direct Investment and Direct Foreign Investment to Economic Growth in Indonesia Era Joko Widodo
( 142 ) The Euribor and EONIA Reform: Achieving Regulatory Compliance while Protecting Financial Stability
( 143 ) The Financial Decentralization Policy for Local Development in Cameroon: An Econometric Analysis
( 144 ) Innovation Efforts in the Face of Institutional Obstacles in Latin America
( 145 ) Assessing Access to Comprehensive HIV Treatment Services for Men Who Have Sex with Men and Female Sex Workers in the Bamenda Health District
( 146 ) The Promise and Reality of Public Sector Reform – A Case Study of the Implementation of Trinidad and Tobagos Health Sector Reform
( 147 ) Sustainability Performance and Sustainable Development Goals
( 148 ) Impacts of Domestic Savings and Domestic Investment on Economic Growth: An Empirical Study for Pakistan
( 149 ) A Study on Financial Performance of Transport & Warehouses Firms Listed on the Hanoi Stock Exchange
( 151 ) A Factor Analysis Approach Towards a Study of the Factors Affecting Students’ Choice of Higher Education Institution: A Case Study of a Private Institution (Twintech International University College of Technology)
( 154 ) Firm-Level Investment Decisions Under Uncertainty and Irreversibility in Zimbabwes Private Firms
( 156 ) Incidence of Short Term Private Capital Outflow: Empirical Analysis in Nigeria
( 157 ) State and Evolution of Public and Private Research and Development in Bulgarian Agriculture
( 158 ) The Reasons Behind the Shift of Patients from Public to Private Hospitals: Evidence from Public Hospitals in Cumilla City Corporation
( 159 ) NGO Programming and Policy Advocacy in the Land Sector in Zimbabwe
( 161 ) Consideration the Effects of Water Sector Investment on Economic Growth in Iran
( 162 ) Influence Internship Learning Effect in Business Service Sector: Using Internship Self-Efficacy as the Mediator Variable
( 165 ) Attributes Influencing Strategic Alignment in the Service Sector: An Indonesian Banking Sector Case Study
( 167 ) The Effect of Selected Financial Ratios on Profitability: An Empirical Analysis of Listed Firms of Cement Sector in Saudi Arabia
( 168 ) Exploration of Suitability of Situational Leadership in the Oil and Gas Sector
( 169 ) Market Share and Profitability Relationship: A Study of the Banking Sector in Nigeria
( 170 ) Auditing Procedures and Process in the Public Sector
( 171 ) Internationalization of State Multilatinas: A Multi-Case Study in The Oil Sector
( 172 ) Public Sector Size and GDP Growth Nexus: Panel Data Estimation
( 173 ) Leading Indicators and Financial Crisis: A Multi-Sectoral Approach Using Signal Extraction
( 174 ) Depositors Confidence and Mergers and Acquisitions: The Nigerian Banking Sector Experience
( 175 ) Does Agricultural Sector Contribute to the Economic Growth in Case of Republic of Benin?
( 176 ) Determinants of Public Sector Corruption in Nigeria
( 178 ) Sectoral Credit Allocation of Deposit Money Banks and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria
( 179 ) Impact of Exchange Rate Fluctuation on Selected Economic Sectors of the Nigerian Economy
( 180 ) Determinants of Banks Profitability & Liquidity and the Role of BASEL III in Islamic & Conventional Banking Sector of Pakistan: A Case Study of NBP
( 183 ) Nexus between Non-Oil Sectoral Contribution and Economic Growth in Nigeria 1981-2018
( 184 ) Factors Affecting the Individual Stock Price Index (IHSI) Industrial Manufacturing Sector in Indonesia, Automotive Sub Sectors, and Components in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX)
( 186 ) Interest Rate Ceilings and Financial Exclusion in Kenya: Evidence from Commercial Banks’ Sectoral Credit Distribution
( 190 ) Labor and Economic Growth in Zimbabwe
( 191 ) The Impact of Human Capital on Economic Growth: Evidence from Tunisia Using Star and Stecm Models
( 192 ) Exchange Rate Movements, Import And Economic Growth in Nigeria (1986-2010)
( 193 ) Impact of Food Beverage Price Index and Exchange Rate Volatility on Economic Growth
( 194 ) Long-Run Relationships and Causality Tests Between Military Expenditure and Economic Growth in India
( 195 ) Public Infrastructure Spending and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) Approach
( 196 ) Study of the Relationship between Economic Growth and Inflation: Application to the Countries of the South Side of the Mediterranean: A Panel Data Approach
( 197 ) The Entrepreneurship, Knowledge Spillover and Economic Growth
( 198 ) Corruption’s and Democracy’s Effects on Economic Growth
( 199 ) Relationships between Financial Development and Economic Growth: A New Approach by Inputs
( 200 ) Impact of Microfinance Lending On Economic Growth of Third world Nations: Study of Nigeria
( 204 ) Bancassurance - Growth Guaranteed in India
( 205 ) Development, Preference Change, and Inequality in an Integrated Walrasian-General-Equilibrium and Neoclassical-Growth Theory
( 206 ) The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the Debt, Liquidity, Growth, and Volume of Companies in Palestine Stock Exchange
( 207 ) Causal Relationship between Imports and Economic Growth in Zimbabwe: An Empirical Analysis 1975 – 2013
( 208 ) Empirical Evidence on Municipal Tax Policy and Firm Growth
( 209 ) Dynamics of Inflation, Economic Growth, Money Supply and Exchange Rate in India: Evidence from Multivariate Analysis
( 210 ) Structural Breaks, Electricity Generation and Economic Growth in Nigeria
( 211 ) Comparative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Coub-Douglas, Real Business Cycle, and Keynsian Growth Models in Determining Economic Growth in Nigeria
( 212 ) The Link Between Agricultural Budgetary Allocation and Economic Growth in Nigeria
( 213 ) Financial Deepening, Interest Rate Spread and Economic Growth: New Evidence from Sub-Sahara Africa
( 215 ) An Investigation of the Relationship between Manufacturing Output and Economic Growth : Evidence from Nigerias Data Set
( 218 ) Urban Population Growth and Environmental Sustainability in Nigeria
( 221 ) Satisfaction with Applications Fuels the Growth of Mobile Wallet Use in Thailand
( 222 ) Public Health Expenditure, Economic Growth and Health Outcomes in Nigeria
( 225 ) The Transitional Relationship between Economic Growth and Exchange Rate in Ghana: An Empirical Approach
( 226 ) The Relationship between Financial Development, Economic Growth, and Inflation: Evidence from Southeast Asia
( 231 ) Investigating the Environmental Effects of Economic Growth in African Economies
( 232 ) Analysis of Causal Nexus between Defense Spending and Economic Growth in Nigeria: A Toda-Yamamoto Approach
( 233 ) The Impact of Social Media on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence of Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and Pinterest
( 234 ) The Impact of Economic Growth, Oil Price, and Financial Globalization Uncertainty on Financial Development: Evidence from Selected Leading African Countries
( 236 ) Deficit Financing Asymmetry and Nigerias Economic Growth: A Nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach
( 237 ) Impact of Savings on Economic Growth in Africa
( 238 ) Does Corruption Grease or Sand the Wheels of Economic Growth in Ghana? An ARDL Bounds Test
( 239 ) Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Growth: Assessing Public Policy in Ukraine
( 240 ) Human Capital and Economic Growth in Latin America: A Cointegration and Causality Analysis
( 241 ) An Empirical Investigation of the Impact of FDI, Export and Gross Domestic Savings on the Economic Growth in Bangladesh
( 242 ) Exploring the Linkages between Remittances, Economic Growth and Poverty: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan
( 243 ) Human Capital Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Approach
( 245 ) The Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on the Global Economy: Emphasis on Poverty Alleviation and Economic Growth
( 247 ) Contemporary Approach to Enhanced Road Transport System in Nigeria Through the Application of It-Based (Online) Bus Ticketing and Payment System
( 248 ) Impact of Labour, Capital and Human Resources in Productivity of Transport Firms in Nigeria
( 250 ) Gaining Trust After the Financial Crisis in the Nigerian Economy: A Conceptual Framework
( 251 ) An Enquiry into the Contributions of Microfinance Institutions Towards the Development of Small Scale Business in Nigeria