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Political Economy and Stakeholder Perspectives on Inclusive Low-Carbon Energy Transition: Case of Kenyan Rangelands

Angela Mungai


Richard Mulwa


Stephen Anyango

Angela Mungai 1 ,

Richard Mulwa 1 Stephen Anyango 1 Stephen Anyango 1 
  1. Center for Advanced Studies in Environmental Law and Policy University of Nairobi, Nairobi Kenya 1

Pages: 35-43

DOI: 10.18488/journal.13.2018.71.35.43

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Article History:

Received: 19 June, 2018
Revised: 24 July, 2018
Accepted: 27 July, 2018
Published: 01 August, 2018


Kenya, among other developing countries, is challenged by low access to clean power, particularly among households located in remote rangelands of the country. This study sought to evaluate the role and perspectives of energy sector actors in the transition of low-carbon off-grid technologies to households in Kenya as an alternative to the national grid for powering isolated low-income communities. To this end a key informant survey was conducted, involving State and non-state energy sector actors to assess the level of capacity, policy inclusiveness, constraints and delivery of clean off-grid energy technologies to rural households. Key findings revealed that County Government and non-state actors are largely excluded from clean energy planning for off-grid communities. In addition, women, within the framework of women’s groups are strong players in this sector and have a high potential to expand clean energy access to off-grid areas. It was also found that despite the Kenyan Government commitment towards a green economy, a change in policy direction would be necessary to ensure a multi-stakeholder planning approach for increased private investment and inclusive access to clean energy.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies investigating stakeholder perspectives and policy gaps constraining clean energy transitions into remote Kenyan rangelands, indicating that key constraints are economic, cultural and under-inclusion of local government and indigenous communities, particularly women, in national off-grid clean energy planning and implementation.


Off-grid, Low-carbon, Energy, Actors, Household, Political economy, Policy, Kenya.



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This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

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